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Multiple Causes of Food Insecurity: Multiple Regression Analysis Reference: Gujarati (2004)

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THE THREE-VARIABLE MODEL

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Maternal education and community characteristics as indicators of nutritional status of children – application of multivariate regression 5Nutritional Status of Children

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Main results Step 1: Estimating the coefficients of the model(Table 10.2,10.3). Step 2: Examining how good the model predicts(Table 10.4,10.5). Step 3: Hypotheses testing. Tests about the equation(Table 10.6,10.7). Tests about individual coefficients(Table 10.8,10.9). Part and partial correlation coefficients. Step 4: Checking for violations of regression assumptions. Checking normality of the errors(Table 10.10,Figure 10.1,10.2). Checking for homogeneity of variance of the residuals(Figure 10.3,10.4). 6Nutritional Status of Children

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Empirical analysis 7Nutritional Status of Children

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Empirical analysis Data description and methodology 8Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.1 Means and standard deviations of variables: Malawi sample Variables MeanStandard deviation BFEEDNEW 1.570.49 DIARRHEA 0.160.37 CALREQ 0.320.47 ATTCLINI 1.320.59 AGEMNTH 27.2916.28 CLINFEED 2.294.57 DRINKDST 1.981.39 EDUCSPOUS 2.231.30 LATERINE 0.400.49 PXFD 9.009.85 9Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.2 Determinants of weight for age Z-scores VariablesModel 1Model 2 CoefficientsStd. errorCoefficientsStd. error Constant-3.030.504-2.930.492 EDUCSPOUS0.1730.0580.1560.057 ATTCLINI0.4390.1440.4390.142 DRINKDST-0.1430.051-0.1470.05 LATERINE0.1340.152 0.148 PXFD0.0090.008 AGEMNTH-0.0840.021-0.0880.021 AGESQ0.0010.00030.0010.0003 CLINFEED0.7170.1810.6990.179 DIARRHEA-0.6080.201-0.6200.198 BFEEDNEW0.6640.2260.6250.224 CALREQ0.5660.212 HEALTDST-0.0940.071-0.060.072 10Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.3 Determinants of height for age Z-scores VariablesModel 1Model 2 CoefficientsStd. errorCoefficientsStd. error Constant-2.1590.677-2.5640.685 EDUCSPOUS0.0480.0720.1060.074 ATTCLINI0.5140.180.4020.177 DRINKDST-0.0240.064-0.0180.062 LATERINE0.0720.1920.1140.185 PXFD0.0140.01 AGEMNTH-0.0910.034-0.0940.034 AGESQ0.0010.00040.00090.0004 CLINFEED0.6860.2270.7610.224 DIARRHEA-0.8290.261-0.9320.260 BFEEDNEW0.1490.3050.1740.299 INSECURE0.2520.085 HEALTDST-0.1060.092-0.1270.091 11Nutritional Status of Children

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Equations to predict the weight for age Z-scores for model 1 12Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.4 Summary of the model for determinants of weight for age Z-scores ModelsRR2R2 Adjusted R 2 Std. error of the estimate 10.4880.2380.2031.09 20.5060.2560.2221.079 13Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.5 Summary of the model for determinants of height for age Z-scores ModelsRR2R2 Adjusted R 2 Std. error of the estimate 1 0.4180.1740.131.285 20.4480.2010.1571.265 14Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.6 Analysis of variance table for weight for age Z-scores Models Sum of Squares dfMean SquareFSig IRegression89.139118.1046.7970 Residual284.9362391.192 Total374.075250 IIRegression95.757118.7057.4750 Residual278.3182391.165 Total374.075250 15Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.7 Analysis of variance table for height for age Z-scores Models Sum of Squares dfMean SquareFSig IRegression70.948116.453.9010.00 Residual335.6492031.653 Total406.597214 IIRegression81.525117.4114.6280.00 Residual325.0722031.601 Total406.597214 16Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.8 Tests of individual coefficients for determinants of weight for age Z-scores VariablesModel 1Model 2 t-statP valuet-statP value Constant-6.0160.000-5.9560.000 EDUCSPOUS2.987*0.0032.70*0.007 ATTCLINI3.047*0.0033.102*0.002 DRINKDST-2.817*0.005-2.938*0.004 LATERINE0.8820.3781.030.304 PXFD1.1850.237 AGEMNTH-4.041*0.000-4.282*0.00 AGESQ3.096*0.0023.386*0.001 CLINFEED3.966*0.0003.911*0.00 DIARRHEA-3.018*0.003-3.126*0.002 BFEEDNEW 2.935*0.0042.791*0.006 CALREQ2.668*0.008 HEALTDST-1.320.188-0.8510.396 Note: * denotes at 1 per cent level of significance. 17Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.9 Tests of individual coefficients for determinants of height for age Z-scores VariablesModel 1Model 2 t-statP valuet-statP value Constant-3.1870.002-3.7450.000 EDUCSPOUS0.6610.5091.4370.152 ATTCLINI2.863*0.0052.273**0.024 DRINKDST-0.370.712-0.2860.775 LATERINE0.3750.7080.6150.539 PXFD1.4790.141 AGEMNTH-2.642*0.009-2.78*0.006 AGESQ1.949**0.0532.022**0.044 CLINFEED3.018*0.0033.394*0.001 DIARRHEA-3.171*0.002-3.584*0.00 BFEEDNEW0.4890.6250.5800.563 INSECURE 2.977*0.003 HEALTDST-1.150.252-1.3950.164 Note: * denotes at 1 per cent level of significance, ** denotes at 5 per cent level of significance. 18Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.10 Part and partial correlation coefficients for weight for age and height for age VariablesWeight for ageHeight for age Part correlationPartial correlationPart correlationPartial correlation EDUCSPOUS0.1690.190.0420.046 ATTCLINI0.1720.1930.1830.197 DRINKDST-0.159-0.179-0.024-0.026 LATERINE0.050.0570.0240.026 PXFD0.0670.0760.0940.103 AGEMNTH-0.228-0.253-0.168-0.182 AGESQ0.1750.1960.1240.136 CLINFEED0.2240.2480.1920.207 DIARRHEA-0.17-0.192-0.202-0.217 BFEEDNEW0.1660.1870.0310.034 HEALTDST-0.075-0.085-0.073-0.08 19Nutritional Status of Children

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Figure 10.1 Histogram of standardized residuals of weight for age 20Nutritional Status of Children

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Figure 10.2 Normal P-P plot of regression standardized residuals 21Nutritional Status of Children

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Figure 10.3 Residuals plotted against predicted values for weight for age 22Nutritional Status of Children

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Figure 10.4 Residuals plotted against predicted values for height for age 23Nutritional Status of Children

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