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Multiple Causes of Food Insecurity: Multiple Regression Analysis Reference: Gujarati (2004)

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THE THREE-VARIABLE MODEL

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Maternal education and community characteristics as indicators of nutritional status of children – application of multivariate regression 5Nutritional Status of Children

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Main results Step 1: Estimating the coefficients of the model(Table 10.2,10.3). Step 2: Examining how good the model predicts(Table 10.4,10.5). Step 3: Hypotheses testing. Tests about the equation(Table 10.6,10.7). Tests about individual coefficients(Table 10.8,10.9). Part and partial correlation coefficients. Step 4: Checking for violations of regression assumptions. Checking normality of the errors(Table 10.10,Figure 10.1,10.2). Checking for homogeneity of variance of the residuals(Figure 10.3,10.4). 6Nutritional Status of Children

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Empirical analysis 7Nutritional Status of Children

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Empirical analysis Data description and methodology 8Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.1 Means and standard deviations of variables: Malawi sample Variables MeanStandard deviation BFEEDNEW DIARRHEA CALREQ ATTCLINI AGEMNTH CLINFEED DRINKDST EDUCSPOUS LATERINE PXFD Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.2 Determinants of weight for age Z-scores VariablesModel 1Model 2 CoefficientsStd. errorCoefficientsStd. error Constant EDUCSPOUS ATTCLINI DRINKDST LATERINE PXFD AGEMNTH AGESQ CLINFEED DIARRHEA BFEEDNEW CALREQ HEALTDST Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.3 Determinants of height for age Z-scores VariablesModel 1Model 2 CoefficientsStd. errorCoefficientsStd. error Constant EDUCSPOUS ATTCLINI DRINKDST LATERINE PXFD AGEMNTH AGESQ CLINFEED DIARRHEA BFEEDNEW INSECURE HEALTDST Nutritional Status of Children

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Equations to predict the weight for age Z-scores for model 1 12Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.4 Summary of the model for determinants of weight for age Z-scores ModelsRR2R2 Adjusted R 2 Std. error of the estimate Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.5 Summary of the model for determinants of height for age Z-scores ModelsRR2R2 Adjusted R 2 Std. error of the estimate Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.6 Analysis of variance table for weight for age Z-scores Models Sum of Squares dfMean SquareFSig IRegression Residual Total IIRegression Residual Total Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.7 Analysis of variance table for height for age Z-scores Models Sum of Squares dfMean SquareFSig IRegression Residual Total IIRegression Residual Total Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.8 Tests of individual coefficients for determinants of weight for age Z-scores VariablesModel 1Model 2 t-statP valuet-statP value Constant EDUCSPOUS2.987* *0.007 ATTCLINI3.047* *0.002 DRINKDST-2.817* *0.004 LATERINE PXFD AGEMNTH-4.041* *0.00 AGESQ3.096* *0.001 CLINFEED3.966* *0.00 DIARRHEA-3.018* *0.002 BFEEDNEW 2.935* *0.006 CALREQ2.668*0.008 HEALTDST Note: * denotes at 1 per cent level of significance. 17Nutritional Status of Children

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Table 10.9 Tests of individual coefficients for determinants of height for age Z-scores VariablesModel 1Model 2 t-statP valuet-statP value Constant EDUCSPOUS ATTCLINI2.863* **0.024 DRINKDST LATERINE PXFD AGEMNTH-2.642* *0.006 AGESQ1.949** **0.044 CLINFEED3.018* *0.001 DIARRHEA-3.171* *0.00 BFEEDNEW INSECURE 2.977*0.003 HEALTDST Note: * denotes at 1 per cent level of significance, ** denotes at 5 per cent level of significance. 18Nutritional Status of Children

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Table Part and partial correlation coefficients for weight for age and height for age VariablesWeight for ageHeight for age Part correlationPartial correlationPart correlationPartial correlation EDUCSPOUS ATTCLINI DRINKDST LATERINE PXFD AGEMNTH AGESQ CLINFEED DIARRHEA BFEEDNEW HEALTDST Nutritional Status of Children

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Figure 10.1 Histogram of standardized residuals of weight for age 20Nutritional Status of Children

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Figure 10.2 Normal P-P plot of regression standardized residuals 21Nutritional Status of Children

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Figure 10.3 Residuals plotted against predicted values for weight for age 22Nutritional Status of Children

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Figure 10.4 Residuals plotted against predicted values for height for age 23Nutritional Status of Children

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