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VMP 920 Infection & Immunity II Veterinary Parasitology Protozoa.

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Presentation on theme: "VMP 920 Infection & Immunity II Veterinary Parasitology Protozoa."— Presentation transcript:

1 VMP 920 Infection & Immunity II Veterinary Parasitology Protozoa

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3 Giardia sp. Cyst Infectious form Trophozoite Active form

4 Replication leads to Pathology Replication (binary fission) Giardia sp.

5 Life Cycle Cysts are immediately infectious when passed in feces.

6 Pathology Giardia causes irritation / death of epithelial cells, elicits immune reaction Giardia & Host Immune factors contribute to pathology Mal-digestion, mal-absorption, hypersecretion, increased transit => enteritis & diarrhea

7 Clinical Signs & Diagnosis Trophs in diarrhea  direct fecal Cysts in formed stool  fecal float (zinc sulfate) ELISA tests for Giardia antigen in stool

8 Diagnostics Direct fecal --- Positive: Trophozoite (Active form) ELISA Test --- Positive

9 Diagnostics Fecal Float --- Positive: Cyst (Infectious form) ELISA Test --- Positive

10 Treatment & Control Fenbendazole, Albendazole, Metronidazole, Quinacrine Sanitation - remove cysts from environment

11 Challenge to Control  Sanitation (especially since cysts are infectious as soon as they are passed in feces)

12 Eimeria sp. Sporulation Non-infectious Un-sporulated oocyst Infectious Sporulated oocyst hours to days

13 Eimeria sp. Sporozoite, Merozoite (Meront) Active Pathogenic form

14 Life Cycle Life cycle image

15 Pathology Coccidea pathology slide

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17 Pathology Destruction of host cells Hemorrhagic diarrhea Concomitant infections (bacterial, viral) may play a role.

18 Pathology & Immunity Interplay of acquired immunity & initial dose of infection affects the severity of pathology. Which is more likely to show disease? A. Confinement poultry B. Free-range poultry

19 Clinical Signs & Diagnosis Asymptomatic to fatal hemorrhagic diarrhea Initial Pathology may occur prior to oocyst shedding Oocysts  fecal float Prior stress may cause onset of coccidial diarrhea

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21 Treatment & Control Treat symptoms (supportive therapy) Sanitation = clean oocysts from environment Coccidiostats in production animals Acquired or incomplete immunity for some coccidial species (vaccine research)

22 Challenge to Control Sanitation (Assume infection => coccidiostats)

23 Babesia sp. Troph in RBC Intracellular form

24 Life Cycle Life cycle image Other routes of Transmission: Transplacental & Transfusion Transmission in Tick population: Transovarian & Transstadial

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26 Pathology Destruction of host RBC’s  anemia Acute DZ  death Or Chronic illness

27 Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, icterus, fever, splenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy

28 Clinical Signs & Diagnosis Hemolytic anemia, fever, jaundice, listlessness, anorexia, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, etc. Intra-erythrocytic parasites on blood smear Serology; PCR

29 Treatment & Control Imidocarb, Berenil Pest Control --- Ticks

30 Challenges to Control Pest control (tick vectors) – Transstadial & Transovarian “Sanitation” - Transfusion Assume infection - Transplacental


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