Presentation on theme: "The San Pedro Riparian Area A Microbiological Overview."— Presentation transcript:
The San Pedro Riparian Area A Microbiological Overview
The San Pedro Riparian area is located in the Southeastern quadrant of the state. Encompassing more than 250 square miles, and four major communities. The San Pedro River runs South to North, across the state line into Arizona, from Mexico. Water is present high in the water table, above ground throughout the year in many places. Plants along the river provide numerous benefits to the river and environment for a great diversity of life.
Issues in the Area: Erosion Sedimentation Loss of native vegetation and denitrifying plants.
Several native species are Endangered and rely on the San Pedro for survival. Excess use of fertilizers affect: Long Fin Dace Desert Pup Fish Colorado River Toad- definitely not Endangered but fun to watch.
Bacteria are ubiquitous in the environment. They are the most numerous organism on Earth. Bacteria occur on all surfaces and in water. Bacteria are also found in soil. Mesquite bosques are very beneficial, harboring denitrifying microbes in their root systems. They are not alone. Cottonwoods and grasses are beneficial as well.
Denitrification in bacteria: This slide shows how nitrate penetrates cell membranes in microbes and is Reduced ultimately to nitrogen gas.
Riparian Filter Riparian Buffer Use of buffer systems and strips can greatly benefit water systems by filtering and denitrifying soil and water careful planting of native species and denitrifying species are helpful. Change to use of new fertilizers Carbomate based and organo- phosphates. Use of biological controls land use management- grazing changes and crop rotation.
Very little microbiological testing of the water in the San Pedro has been done to date. Hydro Lab are used for collecting data about water such as: Conductivity Turbidity pH Temperature Dissolved Oxygen Collilert testing is used to determine and quantify the number of coliform Bacteria present in water samples. Yellow indicates a positive cell.
Viruses are present in water and can be detrimental to humans and animals. Polio-paralysis Hepatitis A- liver dysfunction Calici virus-cats Echo virus -heart Norwalk virus-flu-like Dengue Adenovirus-respiratory Yellow Fever Coxsackie virus-Conjunctivitis West Nile Rota virus –Diarrhea (children)
Many illnesses in humans and animals are caused by viruses and by vectors associated with water such as; mosquitoes.
Escherichia coli also known as E.Coli is often found in water. It is used as an indicator for water quality and safety. Most often it is from human Or animal feces either directly deposited into the water system or from run off. infections from E.coli cause severe diarrhea, high fever, and some strains can cause renal failure. Esherichia coli
Salmonella typhi A close relative to E.coli. Salmonella also causes severe gastric upset. Other symptoms include explosive Diarrhea and vomiting. Dehydration is often a result. In some Cases death can occur in old and very young victims. Symptoms last 1-3 days. Salmonella is associated with food poisoning and is carried in feces by cattle and fowl. It is also carried by wild birds, and amphibians; snakes, lizards, turtles and frogs.
Legionella Legionella is found in water treated and untreated. It is commonly found in hospitals and in areas That are aeorsolized such as showers, sprinkler And misting systems. When inhaled it causes severe respiratory Infections and can be fatal to those with immune Deficiencies. Legionella was found in the UMC shower system Several years ago and caused a great deal of Illness within the hospital.
Shigella dysentariae Shigella is associated with water and food born outbreaks Most often it is a problem in third world countries. It causes life threatening diarrhea and dehydration by disrupting intestinal fluid balance. Often results in hospitalization and is treated with antibiotics. Infectious dose is very low and takes only eight organisms to promote a very nasty result.
Clostridia Clostridium botulinum and tetani Are found in both soil and water. Both produce an endotoxin which Are very powerful and cause life Threatening disease. C. botulinum causes botulism. Often found in canned vegetables due to soil particles introduced during the canning process. C. tetani causes Tetanus, resulting in Rigid paralysis and Death once advanced. Both are spore producers.
Leptospira Found in streams and pond and water systems where large mammals such as deer are present. Transmitted via urine, when ingested it produces a febrile condition and hides and becomes undetectable to the immune system. If not treated with antibiotics it can resurface and cause kidney failure. Can be fatal. Leptospira is a spirokete and is very motile, able to work it’s way through the digestive system tissues and into the circulatory system on it’s way to the kidneys. Keep your mouth closed if you fall in a river!
C OWS!! Cattle present a problem in more ways than grazing down foliage in a riparian area. They can carry Cryptosporidium Spp. in their feces and transmit it to humans and other mammals,and birds.
Cryptosporidium causes gastric distress, diarrhea, and cramping. It is self limiting and usually last approximately 2 weeks. It can be fatal to immune compromised individuals and to at risk groups. Dehydration is the major cause of death. There is no antibiotic treatment for this organism.
Giardia Lamblia Carried by beavers, dogs, and other small mammals, This parasite is difficult to Treat and may require 2 to 3 rounds of antibiotics. Infection symptoms include Diarrhea, bloody stool, Often lasting for months. The parasite lives in the intestine and attaches its self via a sucker-like structure mn its underside. It is Motile and can migrate throughout the gut.
Naegleria fowleri Found in hot springs and warm bodies of water, Naegleria lives at the surface air/water interface and is motile in its flagellate stage. It can be contracted by humans via the nasal cavity following immersion in an infected body of water. The parasite becomes a motile amoeba In the nose and travels through the sinuses to the brain to cause meningitis and ultimately death within 3-5 days if untreated. Young children and older individuals are most susceptible.
Acanthamoeba: Present in tap water and natural bodies of water. This critter causes some very alarming disturbance to eyes and mucus membranes. Usually contracted by swimming in lakes and other bodies of water that are infected. The amoeba works its way into the mucoid tissue and travels as it multiplies thru the cornea of the eye. The cornea is scleritized forming a false Cataract. Contact wearers are most susceptible.
Precautions: Don’t drink untreated water while camping. Wash fruits and vegetables in chlorine treated water before eating. Wash your hands frequently. Wear insect repellent. Don’t wash contacts in tap water. Be sure that your vaccines for childhood diseases are up to date. Don’t swim or dive into warm pools of water that are untreated. Never put your head under in a natural warm spring or hot pool. If you do feel ill following activities in natural waters or after camping Seek medical attention as soon as possible. The life you save may be your own.