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©2002 Learning Zone Express 1 Louanne Kaupa, RD, LN.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 2 Food Safety Terms Bacteria Tiny one-celled micro-organisms found everywhere in the environment, also referred to as microbes. Some microbes are safe and can be eaten in the form of food (examples are cheese and yogurt), but others are harmful and need to be avoided because they can lead to food-borne illness. Food-borne Illness Illness caused by eating contaminated food, the source of which is bacteria, viruses or parasites. Cross-Contamination The transfer of harmful bacteria from one food source to another, or transferred to food from another source such as hands.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 3 Food-borne Illness According to the CDC (Center for Disease Control): It is estimated that 76 million cases of food-borne illness occur each year in the United States. 1 out of 4 Americans become infected with some form of food-borne illness each year. About 5,000 people die each year from food-borne illness. Some common types of food-borne illness include: Campylobacteriosis Salmonella E. Coli Norwalk & Norwalk like virus Listeriosis Clostridium Botulinum (poisoning) Symptoms generally appear within 2-72 hours and usually include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 4 Most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in the U.S. — occurring more frequently in the summer months than in the winter. Campylobacteriosis Found in: Undercooked poultry, unpasteurized (raw) milk, surface water and mountain streams. Symptoms: Diarrhea (could be bloody), cramping, abdominal pain, and sometimes nausea, vomiting and/or fever within 2-5 days after exposure.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 5 Most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in the U.S. — occurring more frequently in the summer months than in the winter. Campylobacteriosis Prevention: Drink pasteurized milk. Cook meats thoroughly. –Poultry breasts to 170° F., 180° F. for thigh meat. Chicken should not be pink. Wash hands before and after handling raw meats. Carefully clean all cutting boards, countertops, and utensils with soap & water. Wash hands after handling pets.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 6 Salmonella Found in: Raw meats, poultry, eggs, unpasteurized milk, fish, and products made from them. Symptoms: Diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps hours after infection.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 7 Salmonella Prevention: Cook foods thoroughly and serve them while they are still hot (>140° F.). Keep cooking utensils and surfaces clean while preparing foods. Promptly cool or freeze foods after cooking or preparing them. Fully reheat stored foods. Wash your hands before and after handling and eating food. Avoid cross-contamination. –For example, never cut up raw vegetables on a cutting board previously used to cut chicken, unless the board AND cutting utensils have been washed thoroughly in hot, soapy water.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 8 E. Coli 0158:H7 Found in: Undercooked ground beef, and unpasteurized (raw) milk or milk products. Symptoms: Painful stomach cramps, and severe & bloody diarrhea. May cause serious urinary tract and kidney infections. Prevention: Thoroughly cook meats. Drink pasteurized milk. Always keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold. Always wash your hands before and after handling food.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 9 Norwalk & Norwalk-like Virus Found in: Human fecal matter, and contaminated shellfish. Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and sometimes headache and low-grade fever. Prevention: Practice hand washing before/during working with foods. –After touching a pet/animal. –After using the bathroom. Do not prepare foods for others when ill with diarrhea.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 10 Listeriosis Found in: Soft cheeses, deli salads, cold smoked fish, hot dogs, deli meats, and unpasteurized (raw) milk. Symptoms: Fever, muscle aches, occasionally nausea or diarrhea. Can lead to headache, stiff neck, confusion and loss of balance. Prevention: Thoroughly cook raw food from animal sources. Wash raw vegetables thoroughly before eating. Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or foods made from raw milk. Wash hands, knives, and cutting boards after handling uncooked foods. Keep uncooked meats separate from other foods.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 11 Poisoning Clostridium Botulinum Found in: Contaminated home-canned foods. Improperly canned foods like meat, poultry, fish, and most vegetables. Chopped garlic in oil, chili peppers, tomatoes improperly handled, baked potatoes wrapped in foil, home-canned or fermented fish. Symptoms: Overall muscle weakness, dry mouth, headache, double vision, slurred speech, and difficulty swallowing ranging from 6 hrs. to 10 days after consumption of food with the toxin. Can be fatal.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 12 Poisoning Clostridium Botulinum Prevention: Do not eat food that is in a leaking, bulging, or damaged can. Do not eat food that is in a cracked jar or in a jar with a bulging lid. Follow strict procedures when home-canning foods. When eating home-canned foods consider boiling food for 10 minutes before eating. Refrigerate oils which are infused with garlic or herbs. Keep potatoes baked in foil hot until served or refrigerated.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 13 Conditions for Bacterial Growth Food Bacteria need food to grow and multiply rapidly. They prefer high-protein foods like meat, eggs, dairy products, cooked vegetables, such as beans, and cooked grains, such as rice. Water We can control bacterial growth by controlling water available. Some foods are dehydrated like cereal. Temperature Bacteria rapidly multiply when between 40 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit. This is known as the DANGER ZONE. Freezing and refrigerating will stop or slow growth, but it will not kill bacteria. Time With favorable conditions, bacteria can double every 20 minutes. Risky foods left at room temperature for 2 hours or more are unsafe to eat and should be discarded.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 14 5 Steps to Food Safety To fight bacteria that cause food-borne illness, follow these five steps to food safety. 1.Cook –Cook meat, poultry & eggs thoroughly. 2.Separate –Don’t cross-contaminate. 3.Chill –Cook to proper temperatures. 4.Clean –Wash produce, hands & surfaces. 5.Avoid –Avoid foods from unsafe sources.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 15 Cook Ground Beef Cook to a safe internal temperature of 160° F. Meat should no longer be pink. Meat & Poultry Cook until juices run clear. –Roasts & steaks at least 145° F. –Poultry 170° to 180° F. Eggs Cook until the yolk and whites are firm. Use only pasteurized eggs in recipes in which eggs remain raw or partially cooked. Seafood Cook fish until it is opaque and flakes easily with a fork. Leftovers Reheat to an internal temperature of 165° F. Bring sauces, soups and gravies to a boil. Cooking food safely is a matter of degrees! Foods are properly cooked when they’re heated for a long enough time and at a high enough temperature to kill harmful bacteria.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 16 Separate Combat Cross-Contamination! Safely separate raw meat and seafood from other foods in your shopping cart and your refrigerator. Always wash hands, cutting boards, dishes and utensils after they come in contact with raw meat, poultry, eggs and unwashed produce. Place cooked food on a clean plate. Place raw foods in a sealed container or plastic bags to prevent meat juices from dripping on other food. Wipe up promptly meat juice spills from all surfaces.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 17 Chill Follow these COOL rules: Refrigerate prepared foods within 2 hours. Cold temperatures keep most harmful bacteria from multiplying. Set your refrigerator at 40° F. (or less) and the freezer at 0° F. Divide large amounts of leftovers into small shallow containers for quick cooling. Marinate foods in the refrigerator. Don’t pack the refrigerator too full. Cold air must circulate to keep food safe. Use a cooler or ice pack to keep perishable food cold, especially on hot summer days. Thaw foods in the refrigerator, never at room temperature.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 18 Clean Wash Up! Wash hands with hot, soapy water for at least 20 seconds before and after handling food and after using the bathroom, handling pets or changing diapers. Thoroughly scrub hands, wrists, and fingernails. Rinse and dry. Fruit & Veggies: Wash raw produce under running water. Use a small vegetable brush to remove surface dirt. Cut away any damaged or bruised area on product. Bacteria thrive in these places. Surface Cleaning: Use paper towels to clean kitchen surfaces so germs can be thrown away. Wash cutting boards, counters and all utensils with hot, soapy water after preparing each food item to avoid cross-contamination. Wipe up spills in the refrigerator immediately. Wash hands and surfaces often.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 19 Avoid Risky Foods Risky foods are those that are most likely to produce a food-borne illness. Risky foods include: Foods from an animal source (both raw and cooked). Raw meat, poultry, eggs, milk (unpasteurized) and shellfish. Raw fruits & vegetables which have been processed in unsanitary conditions (especially sprouts and unpasteurized fruit juices). Cut melons. Unpasteurized dairy products (soft cheeses).
©2002 Learning Zone Express 20 Product Dates & Recommendations “Sell-by” Date Tells the retailer how long to keep a product out for sale. It is recommended that the product be used within a few days of this date for maximum freshness (flavor, aroma & appearance). “Use-by” Date Tells the consumer the final date by which to use the product. A recommended date for the product to be used for quality flavor, aroma & appearance. Product dates and recommendations are only reliable if food has been kept at a proper temperature during storing and handling.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 21 You’re the Expert You have been hired as a restaurant critic for a local newspaper. You visit a restaurant and although you have no complaints on the taste of the food, you notice some disturbing food preparation methods. You find that food is left out on the counter for several hours, employees rarely wash their hands between handling different types of food, and utensils are not always properly washed between uses. Discuss with classmates what you would write in your article. Include suggestions you would give to the restaurant on ways to prevent food-borne illness, as well as the dangers of their bad habits.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 22 Applying What You Know 1. Create a Food Safety poster to be placed in a restaurant kitchen. Include pictures and descriptions of ways to ensure food safety using the “4 Steps to Food Safety”. 2. Research a food-borne illness and write a 1-2 page report on your findings. Be sure to include causes of the illness, health effects, and prevention tips. 3. Write a song or poem that describes one part of food safety. Your song or poem can be about washing your hands, cleaning foods, food storage, etc. Share your song or poem with the class. Pick one of the following assignments to be completed outside of class.
©2002 Learning Zone Express 23 Food Safety Quiz 1. When should hands be washed? a. Before eating or cooking. b. After using the bathroom. c. After playing with a pet. d. All of the above. 2. This bacteria is found in moist meat dishes and starchy foods and may cause severe cramps within 3-8 hours. a. Salmonella b. E. Coli c. Listeriosis d. Strep 3. Bacteria multiplies quickly when it is kept between ___ and ___ degrees Fahrenheit. a. 30 and 60 b. 130 and 150 c. 40 and 140 d. 200 and 240 Choose the best answer for the following questions:
©2002 Learning Zone Express 24 Food Safety Quiz 4. Contaminated food ALWAYS looks, smells ad tastes bad. 5. It is safe to cut raw greens on a cutting board previously used for raw chicken if the board is rinsed off first. 6. It is safe to eat a perishable food, like pizza, that has set out for over 2 hours if it is thoroughly reheated. True or False?
©2002 Learning Zone Express 25 Exploring the Web Here are some suggested sites you and your class may want to investigate for more information on food safety. –Information from the US Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service. –Information from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. –Tips on how to prevent Foodborne illnesses in your own home. –Information on common Foodborne diseases and prevention. –Information at the Center for Disease Control. Teachers: Please note that these addresses are constantly changing and being updated. You may need to revise this list.
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