2Problem discovery Selection of exploratory research technique and DefinitionSamplingSelection ofexploratory researchtechniqueProbabilityNonprobabilitySecondary(historical)dataExperiencesurveyPilotstudyCasestudyCollection ofdata(fieldwork)DataGatheringDataProcessingandAnalysisEditing andcodingdataProblem definition(statement ofresearch objectives)DataprocessingSelection ofbasic researchmethodResearch DesignConclusionsand ReportInterpretationoffindingsExperimentSurveyObservationSecondaryData StudyReportLaboratoryFieldInterviewQuestionnaire
3Problem DefinitionThe indication of a specific business decision area that will be clarified by answering some research questions.
4Defining Problem Results in Clear Cut Research Objectives Symptom DetectionAnalysis ofthe SituationExploratoryResearch(Optional)Problem DefinitionStatement ofResearch Objectives
5The Process of Problem Definition Ascertain the decision maker’s objectivesDetermine unit of analysisUnderstand background of the problemDetermine relevant variablesIsolate/identify the problem, not the symptomsState research questions and objectives
6Ascertain the Decision Maker’s Objectives Managerial goals expressed in measurable terms.
7The Iceberg PrincipleThe principle indicating that the dangerous part of many business problems is neither visible to nor understood by managers.
8Understand the Background of the Problem Exercising judgmentSituation analysis - The informal gathering of background information to familiarize researchers or managers with the decision area.
9Isolate and Identify the Problems, Not the Symptoms Symptoms can be confusing
10Symptoms Can Be Confusing Twenty-year-old neighborhood swimming association:Membership has been declining for years.New water park -residents prefer the expensive water park????Demographic changes: Children have grown up
11Problem DefinitionOrganization Symptoms Based on Symptom True ProblemTwenty-year-old neighborhood swimming association in a major city.Membership has been declining for years. New water park with wave pool and water slides moved into town a few years ago.Neighborhood residents prefer the expensive water park and have negative image of swimming pool.Demographic changes: Children in this 20-year-old neighborhood have grown up. Older residents no longer swim anywhere.
12Determine the Unit of Analysis Individuals, households, organizations, etc.In many studies, the family rather than the individual is the appropriate unit of analysis.
13Determine the Relevant Variable Anything that may assume different numerical values
14Types of VariablesCategoricalContinuousDependentIndependent
15Hypothesis An unproven proposition A possible solution to a problem Guess
16State the research questions and research objectives
17If you do not know where you are going, any road will take you there.
18Broad research objectives Statement of business problem Exploratory research (optional)Specific Objective 1Specific Objective 2Specific Objective 3Research DesignResults
19Influences of definition FeedbackSpecificObjective IStatementof ProblemBroadResearchObjectivesSpecificObjective IIResearchDesignResultsExploratoryResearch(Optional)SpecificObjective III
20The Process of Problem Definition Ascertain the decision maker’s objectivesDetermine unit of analysisUnderstand background of the problemDetermine relevant variablesIsolate/identify the problem, not the symptomsState research questions and objectives
21Basic Questions - Problem Definition What is the purpose of the study?How much is already known?Is additional background information necessary?What is to be measured? How?Can the data be made available?Should research be conducted?Can a hypothesis be formulated?
22Basic Questions - Basic Research Design What types of questions need to be answered?Are descriptive or causal findings required?What is the source of the data?
23Basic Questions - Basic Research Design Can objective answers be obtained by asking people?How quickly is the information needed?How should survey questions be worded?How should experimental manipulations be made?