Presentation on theme: "Research Problem Definition"— Presentation transcript:
1Research Problem Definition Assistant Professor Dr. Chanin Yoopetch
2Problem discovery Selection of exploratory research technique and DefinitionSamplingSelection ofexploratory researchtechniqueProbabilityNonprobabilitySecondary(historical)dataExperiencesurveyPilotstudyCasestudyCollection ofdata(fieldwork)DataGatheringDataProcessingandAnalysisEditing andcodingdataProblem definition(statement ofresearch objectives)DataprocessingSelection ofbasic researchmethodResearch DesignConclusionsand ReportInterpretationoffindingsExperimentSurveyObservationSecondaryData StudyReportLaboratoryFieldInterviewQuestionnaire
3Uncertainty Influences the Type of Research CAUSAL ORDESCRIPTIVECOMPLETELYCERTAINABSOLUTEAMBIGUITYEXPLORATORY
4Problem Discovery and Definition First stepProblem, opportunity, or monitor operationsDiscovery before definitionProblem means management problem
5“The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution.” Albert Einstein
6Problem DefinitionThe indication of a specific business decision area that will be clarified by answering some research questions.
7Defining Problem Results in Clear Cut Research Objectives Symptom DetectionAnalysis ofthe SituationExploratoryResearch(Optional)Problem DefinitionStatement ofResearch Objectives
8The Process of Problem Definition Ascertain the decision maker’s objectivesDetermine unit of analysisUnderstand background of the problemDetermine relevant variablesIsolate/identify the problem, not the symptomsState research questions and objectives
9Ascertain the Decision Maker’s Objectives Managerial goals expressed in measurable terms.
10The Iceberg PrincipleThe principle indicating that the dangerous part of many business problems is neither visible to nor understood by managers.
11Understand the Background of the Problem Exercising judgmentSituation analysis - The informal gathering of background information to familiarize researchers or managers with the decision area.
12Isolate and Identify the Problems, Not the Symptoms Symptoms can be confusing
13Symptoms Can Be Confusing Twenty-year-old neighborhood swimming association:Membership has been declining for years.New water park -residents prefer the expensive water park????Demographic changes: Children have grown up
14Problem DefinitionOrganization Symptoms Based on Symptom True ProblemTwenty-year-old neighborhood swimming association in a major city.Membership has been declining for years. New water park with wave pool and water slides moved into town a few years ago.Neighborhood residents prefer the expensive water park and have negative image of swimming pool.Demographic changes: Children in this 20-year-old neighborhood have grown up. Older residents no longer swim anywhere.
15Determine the Unit of Analysis Individuals, households, organizations, etc.In many studies, the family rather than the individual is the appropriate unit of analysis.
16Determine the Relevant Variable Anything that may assume different numerical values
17Types of VariablesCategoricalContinuousDependentIndependent
18Hypothesis An unproven proposition A possible solution to a problem Guess
19State the research questions and research objectives
20If you do not know where you are going, any road will take you there.
21Broad research objectives Statement of business problem Exploratory research (optional)Specific Objective 1Specific Objective 2Specific Objective 3Research DesignResults
22The Process of Problem Definition Ascertain the decision maker’s objectivesDetermine unit of analysisUnderstand background of the problemDetermine relevant variablesIsolate/identify the problem, not the symptomsState research questions and objectives
26TheoryA coherent set of general propositions used as principles of explanation of the apparent relationships of certain observed phenomena.
27Concept (or Construct) A generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes that has been given a nameBuilding blocks that abstract reality“leadership,” “productivity,” and “morale”“gross national product,” “asset,” and “inflation”
28A Ladder Of Abstraction For Concepts VegetationFruitIncreasingly more abstractBananaReality
29Scientific Business Researchers Operate at Two Levels Abstract levelconceptspropositionsEmpirical levelvariableshypotheses
30DefinitionsAbstract level -In theory development, the level of knowledge expressing a concept that exists only as an idea or a quality apart from an object.Empirical level -Level of knowledge reflecting that which is verifiable by experience or observation.
31Theory Building A Process Of Increasing Abstraction TheoriesPropositionsIncreasingly more abstractConceptsObservation of objectsand events (reality )
32Concepts are Abstractions of Reality LevelEmpiricalLevelOBSERVATION OF OBJECTSAND EVENTS (REALITY)
33Scientific MethodThe use of a set of prescribed procedures for establishing and connecting theoretical statements about events and for predicting events yet unknown.
34Abstract Level Concepts abstract reality. Propositions are statements concerned with the relationships among concepts.
35Proposition at Abstract Level Concept A(Reinforcement)Concept B(Habits)Hypothesis at Empirical LevelDollar bonus forsales volumeover quotaAlways makesfour sales callsa day
36A hypothesis is a proposition that is empirically testable A hypothesis is a proposition that is empirically testable. It is an empirical statement concerned with the relationship among variables.A variable is anything that may assume different numerical values.
37Deductive ReasoningThe logical process of deriving a conclusion from a known premise or something known to be true.We know that all managers are human beings.If we also know that John Smith is a manager,then we can deduce that John Smith is a human being.
38Inductive ReasoningThe logical process of establishing a general proposition on the basis of observation of particular facts.All managers that have ever been seen are human beings;therefore all managers are human beings.
39FalsificationistYou cannot prove the theory that it is correct, but you can disprove it.
40The Scientific Method: An Overview AssessrelevantexistingknowledgeFormulateconcepts &PropositionsStatementofHypothesesDesignresearchAcquireempiricaldataAnalyze &evaluatedataProvideexplanation-state newproblem
41Scientific Observation Is Systematic “YOU SEE, BUT YOUDO NOT OBSERVE.”Sherlock Holmes
42What Can Be Observed? Physical actions Verbal behavior Expressive behaviorSpatial relations and locationsTemporal patternsVerbal and pictorial records
43What Can Be Observed Phenomena Example Human behavior or physical Shoppers movementaction pattern in a storeVerbal behavior Statements made byairline travelers who waitin lineExpressive behavior Facial expressions, tone ofvoice, and other form ofbody language
44What Can Be Observed Phenomena Example Spatial relations How close visitors at anand locations art museum stand to paintingsTemporal patterns How long fast-food customerswait for their order to be servedPhysical objects What brand name items arestored in consumers’ pantriesVerbal and Pictorial Bar codes on product packagesRecords
45Categories of Observation Human versus mechanicalVisible versus hiddenDirectContrived (artificial environment)
46Observation of Human Behavior Benefits Communication with respondent is not necessaryData without distortions due to self-report (e.g.: without social desirability) BiasNo need to rely on respondents memoryNonverbal behavior data may be obtained
47Observation of Human Behavior Benefits Certain data may be obtained more quicklyEnvironmental conditions may be recordedMay be combined with survey to provide supplemental evidence
48Observation of Human Behavior Limitations Cognitive phenomena cannot be observedInterpretation of data may be a problemNot all activity can be recordedOnly short periods can be observedObserver bias possiblePossible invasion of privacy
49Observation of Physical Objects Physical-trace evidenceWear and tear of a book indicates how often it has been read
50Scientifically Contrived Observation The creation of an artificial environment to test a hypothesis
51Content AnalysisObtains data by observing and analyzing the content of advertisements, letters, articles, etc.Deals with the study of the message itselfMeasures the extent of emphasis or omission