Presentation on theme: "From Pregnancy to Parturition"— Presentation transcript:
1From Pregnancy to Parturition The Path to PuppiesFrom Pregnancy to ParturitionMelissa Hoernis
2TermsPregnancy: The state of carrying developing embryos or fetuses in the female bodyParturition: The process of giving birth to offspring
3Female Reproductive Tract of Dogs Ovary: Place where the ova is made and released fromOviduct: Connects the ovary to the uterusUterus: Place that holds the growing fetusesCervix: Acts as a barrier to keep bacteria from getting to the growing fetusesPelvic canal: The birth canal (the way the fetuses get to the outside world)Suspensory ligamentOvaryOviductUterine hornUterine bodyCervixPelvic Canal
5Conception: formation of an embryo An embryo is formed when the egg becomes fertilized and starts growing from one single cell into thousands then millions.
6What about the GENES!Genes hold the information to build and maintain an organism's cells and pass traits to offspring
7DNAThis is what is in the nucleus of a cell and is the blueprints for the entire bodyChromosomeGeneDNA
8Number of Chromosomes 39 pairs = 78 total Each cell in a dog has 39 PAIRS of chromosomes for a total of 78!39 pairs = 78 total
9Each gamete (egg/ sperm) has HALF the genetic information needed 39 chromosomes from the mother39 chromosomes from the father78 chromosomes totalSo when they combine the genetic information is made complete!
10A quick course in EMBRYOLOGY The egg is fertilized and then starts dividing and multiplying EXPONENTIALLY
11Then this clump of cells starts to change and form different types of tissues that then form organs then organ systems. This is called differentiation.Cell- smallest unitTissue- groups of cells with same general function and texture (example: Muscle)Organ- two or more types of tissues that combine to serve a specific function (example: Stomach)Organ system- several organs that work together to serve a specific function (example: Digestive system)
12Development of the embryo What is an embryo?An embryo is what we call the puppy from the point when the egg is fertilized until the body is fully developed (just miniature).
13Growth of the fetus What is a fetus? Once the embryo is fully developed it still needs time to grow while it is in the mother’s womb. The fetus is what we call the puppy once it is fully developed but still growing.
16OKAY… How about now?Fish Salamander Tortoise Chicken Pig Cow Rabbit Human
17The PlacentaThe Placenta is a temporary organ formed in the uterine wall of the mother that is connected to the fetus via the umbilical cord.
18The Placenta Purpose: Nutrients Gas exchange Waste elimination The fetus needs food to growGas exchangeThe fetus cannot breath but it’s body still needs oxygen to work so the mother provides oxygenWaste elimination
19Gestation LengthThe length of time from conception until birth
20Let’s COMPARE63 Days335 Days63 Days625 Days270 Days
21PregnancyWhat are some signs that the female is pregnant? (can you guess any)Weight gain (doesn’t start until week 4)Increased appetite (again not until week 4 and some have decreased appetite at times)Nesting behaviorDrop in temperature
22Tools veterinarians use to diagnose pregnancy RadiographsFetal skeletons seen by day 42Best way to find out how many there areUltrasoundBeating hearts by day 25Measurement of certain hormones
23Parturition- the birthing process There is a hormone cascade and feedback system!It all starts with FETAL STRESS!
24Positive feedback loop: Mother’s brainPositive feedback loop:The hypothalamus (a part of the brain) sends a signal by way of the hormone oxytocin to the uterus causing contractions. The pressure of the fetus on the cervix sends a signal back to the brain which then stimulates the release of more oxytocin.Uterus
25ComplicationsWhat happens if the mother cannot give birth (puppies are too big, mother is too tired)The veterinarian must perform a c-section
26NursingIt is extremely important for newborn puppies to drink milk from their motherNot only does it provide a source of food that is easy to digest but it also gives the newborns immunity! (basically they are protected from certain diseases)
27Key things to monitor in a newborn puppy Weight gain: you want to know they are EATING (1 gram per pound of adult weight per day)Temperature: puppies can become cold very easily and cannot shiver until 6 days old (keep environment at 86°F)Mother has to help them urinate and defecateLook for body defects(cleft palate)
28Fun facts and owner education Open eyes from days 10-15Open ears from days 15-17Wean puppies at 3-4 weeksSocialization period is 4-12 weeks of age
29Let’s put it all together! Day 78Day 84Day 1Day 73Day 91Day 63Gestation lengthEmbryoFetusConceptionEyes openWeanBirthEars openBody fully developedStart Socialization
30In Summary…The puppy is conceived and gets half the genetic information from the mother and half from the fatherThe embryo develops into a fetus that grows in the womb.During the birthing process there are many hormones that are part a positive feedback loop that ultimately cause contractions.Newborn puppies must be monitored closely to ensure they are eating, gaining weight and maintaining a proper body temperature.