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What Are They Thinking? Addressing Risk Factors with Offenders.

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Presentation on theme: "What Are They Thinking? Addressing Risk Factors with Offenders."— Presentation transcript:

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2 What Are They Thinking? Addressing Risk Factors with Offenders

3 OVERVIEW AND EXPECTATIONS

4 Training Objectives Present and discuss components of Thinking for a Change (T4C) Provide research that supports T4C Explain how techniques can be used in daily interactions with offenders Demonstrate techniques Participants practice techniques

5 Officer’s role in Offender Supervision Protect society Provide an atmosphere and opportunities to bring about or support positive changes in the offender.

6 One Voice One Message Offender Choice to Change Accountability Rules Meaningful Opportunity to Change Treatment Security

7 The Principles of Cognitive Interventions Self-awareness and Self-responsibility motivates self-change The development of internal control Risk Management Relapse prevention

8 The Principles of Cognitive Interventions Objectivity/non judgmental Choice Non-coercive use of authority Thinking drives behavior “Their Eyes”/ “Their Speed”

9 Theoretical Foundations

10 Behavior Thoughts and Feelings Physical Sensations Cognitive Structure (Thinking Patterns Beliefs and Attitudes)

11 COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING 1960’s –Cognitive Behavioral Theory 1970’s –Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) 1970’s –Criminal Thinking Errors 1980’s –Cognitive Self Change and “Thinking Reports” 1980’s – “Reasoning and Rehabilitation”

12 COGNITIVE SKILLS 1960’s –Social Learning Theory 1970’s –Anger Management 1980’s –Aggression Replacement Training 1990’s –Problem Solving

13 Major Set of Risk/Need Factors 1.Anti-social/Pro-criminal attitudes, values, beliefs and cognitive- emotional states 2.Pro-criminal associates and isolation from anti-criminal others 3.Temperamental and personality factors conducive to criminal activity including: – Psychopathy – Weak Socialization – Impulsivity – Restless/aggressive energy – Egocentrism – Below average verbal intelligence – A taste for risk – Weak problem-solving/self-regulation skills

14 Major Set of Risk/Need Factors 4.A history of antisocial behavior - Evident from a young age - In a variety of settings - Involving a number and variety of different acts 5.Familial factors that include criminality and a variety of psychological problems in the family of origin including: - Low levels of affection,caring and cohesiveness - Poor parental supervision and discipline practices - Outright neglect and abuse 6.Low levels of personal education, vocational or financial achievement

15 Dynamic Criminogenic Risk * Conning/Manipulation *Poor Use of Leisure Time * Impulsivity *Affiliation w/Criminals * Low frustration Tolerance *Boredom/Dissatisfaction * Danger/Thrill Seeking *Drug Abuse History *Poor Consequential Thinking *Poor Family Relations *Poor Option Generation *Conflicted Spousal Relation *Alienation from Mainstream *Conflicts with Authority Socialization *Conflicts with Peers *Egocentrism *Instability/Excitability *Neutralization/Non Empathy *Poverty of Social Skills *Externalization/Blaming *Poor Recognition of Patterned *Hostility/Resistance Toward Work Responses *Attachment to Criminal Activities

16 CRIMINAL CONTINUUM CRIME - Anything that infringes on the rights, dignity, or property of another. No Errors No Crime Total Errors Total Crime Petty Crime MinimalOccasionalHabitualContinuous ResponsibleSelf-adjustingIrresponsibleMaladjusting Unarrestable Serious Crime Lying, Cheating Broken Promises Traffic Tickets DUI Petit Theft Rape Murder Robbery BoundaryLoss of Control Legal Consequences Social Mores Moral/Ethical Principles Self Centered Values Looking Good Feeling Good Power Control Other-Centered Values Family Friends Service to Others Community Job

17 Learning the Rewards of Criminal Thinking Look Good Feel GoodPower Self- Centered Thinking Control Be Right Power Struggle LOSE Belittle, Threaten Victim Stance Righteous Anger License (Entitlement) Crime, Irresponsibility, Violence Detection, Punishment WIN Reinforcement

18 Thinking for a Change

19 National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Small agency under the Department of Justice Founded in mid-seventies following the Attica Prison riots GOAL: to develop corrections knowledge, coordinate research, formulate policy and provide training Includes jail, prisons, and community corrections

20 Thinking For A Change (T4C) Cognitive-behavioral program developed by experts for NIC in the 1990’s Addresses criminal behavior via three components: – Cognitive Restructuring – Problem Solving – Social Skills Based on the “What Works” literature

21 “What Works” Background Martinson, a criminologist, performed a meta- analysis of over 800 published corrections programs from the 1970’s. Martinson concluded that “Nothing Works” – programs provided to offenders in the correctional system were not found to be effective in reducing criminal behavior or recidivism. Ted Palmer, another criminologist, replicated Martinson’s study.

22 “What Works” Background Palmer concluded that some interventions do work with specific populations when a targeted outcome was identified. NIC created the “What Works” project based on the reanalysis.

23 Effectiveness of Thinking for a Change (Golden, Gatchel, & Cahill 2002) Group Completers: 33% fewer offenders committed new offenses Significantly improved problem solving skills Group Dropouts: Significantly higher # of technical violations Technical Violations: Predicted by problem solving skills

24 Technique A: Thinking Check-In

25 Cognitive Self Change 1. Pay attention to our thoughts and feelings. 2. Recognize when there is risk of our thoughts and feelings leading us into trouble. 3. Use new thinking that reduces that risk.

26 Thinking Reports 1. A brief, objective description of the situation. 2. A list of all the thoughts you had in that situation. 3. A list of all the feelings you had in that situation. 4. Beliefs behind your thoughts and feelings.

27 Thinking Report Situation:__________________________ Thoughts: ___________________________ 1. _______________________________ 2. ________________________________ 3. _________________________________ 4. ________________________________ Feelings: ___________________________ Beliefs: _____________________________

28 SAMPLE THINKING REPORT Situation: I was in trouble for being out of the area. Thoughts: 1. I know if I do these things I will be going back to jail. 2. It’s really starting to get to me. 3. I feel locked up in my own apartment 4. I really resent this. 5. I shouldn’t have to follow these rules. 6. Maybe it would be better to just go back to jail and get my sentence over with. 7. I feel like I am not in charge of my life anymore. 8. I can’t stand it. Feelings: Uncomfortable, angry, controlled, threatened Beliefs:Nobody has the right to control my life If I let them do this to me I am a nobody.

29 DIRECTIONS FOR OBSERVING VIDEO 1. Observe the main character’s actions. 2. Write a “thinking report” based upon the main character’s situation. Include the following: Situation Thoughts Feelings Beliefs

30 Technique A: Thinking Check-In Step 1: State the violation or rule-breaking behavior to the offender. Step 2: Have the offender describe circumstances leading to the violation or rule-breaking behavior Step 3: Have the offender identify the thoughts and feelings leading to the behavior Step 4: Have the offender identify one specific risk or trigger thought Step 5: Have the offender identify one specific replacement thought Step 6: Contract with the offender to use the replacement thought in future situations

31 ROLEPLAY / DEBRIEFING 1. State the violation. 2. Describe circumstances. 3. Identify thoughts and feelings. 4. Identify one specific risk thought. 5. Identify one specific replacement thought. 6. Offender agrees to use replacement thought.

32 Conflict Cycle

33 Stress + Belief s Problem Feelings Thoughts Actions Consequences

34 Mock Supervision Plan 1. Problem A.Negative behavior pattern B.Significant contributing factors C.Negative consequences 2.Behavior objectives A. Positive behavior B.Time frame C.Positive payoff for client 3.Action plan A.Task or activity B.Time frame C.Officer participation/revisions

35 PROBLEM SOLVING

36 Conflict Cycle Stress + Belief s Problem Feelings Thoughts Actions Consequences

37 Thinking for a Change: Problem Solving Steps Stop and Think Problem Description Getting information to set a Goal Choices and Consequences Choose-Plan-Do Evaluate

38 Technique B: Problem Solving Framework: Step 1: Have the offender describe the problem and analyze the situation including: Facts about the problem/situation Others’ Thoughts and Feelings (those who might be involved and or affected by the problem) Offender’s Opinions and Beliefs about the problem/situation Step 2: Have the offender identify a goal regarding the problem/situation using one of the following formulas: I want __________________________________. OR I want ______________ but I don’t want ____________.

39 Step 3: Brainstorm possible choices to solve the problem. Consider the consequence for each choice. Step 4: Have the offender examine the choices and select the option that will increase the likelihood of achieving the identified goal. Step 5: Develop an action plan with the offender that will allow the offender to implement the chosen choice. Who will be involved? When will the plan be implemented? Where will the plan be implemented? What will be done? Step 6: Contract with the offender to implement the action plan Step 7: Evaluate the action plan at the next report

40 ROLE PLAY / DEBRIEFING 1. Describe and analyze the problem. 2. Identify a goal. 3. BRAINSTORM choices and consequences. 4. Choose the best option. 5. Develop an action plan. 6. Contract with the offender to implement the plan.

41 Choosing a Technique 1. A failure to perform a particular behavior. 2. A failure to stop performing a particular behavior. 3. Why is it occurring? Cognitive error/rationalization Logistical problem

42 Choosing a Technique 1. Choose a scenario from the handout. 2. Discuss with your partner which technique you would use and why. 3. Once you agree on the technique, choose another scenario and repeat the exercise.

43 CONCLUSION

44 These Techniques Address risk factors. 2. Avoid power struggles. 3. Assists in effective documentation. 4. Allow a meaningful opportunity to change.

45 Training Objectives Present and discuss components of Thinking for a Change (T4C) Provide research that supports T4C Explain how techniques can be used in daily interactions with offenders Demonstrate techniques Participants practice techniques


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