Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Thessaloniki ’97 European Capital of Culture as an establishing mechanism of elite partnerships & coalitions of development: Towards a regime approach.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Thessaloniki ’97 European Capital of Culture as an establishing mechanism of elite partnerships & coalitions of development: Towards a regime approach."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thessaloniki ’97 European Capital of Culture as an establishing mechanism of elite partnerships & coalitions of development: Towards a regime approach ? Anestis D. Mantatzis Regional & Urban Planning MSc London School of Economics

2 ECOC 3-pillar intervention logic Source: ECOTEC (2009)

3 Respond to rather broad objectives Respond to rather broad objectives From… From… Promotion of “Idea of Europe” via cultural activities Promotion of “Idea of Europe” via cultural activities …to …to Economic benefits for cities Economic benefits for cities Put Culture under the service of non-cultural initiatives Put Culture under the service of non-cultural initiatives 1. Tourism flows as evaluation criteria 2. Financial support depending on the economic benefits legitimated 3. Candidate rhetoric “Common European cultural policies” or “European cooperation around policies for culture” “Common European cultural policies” or “European cooperation around policies for culture” ECOC 3-pillar intervention logic

4 “ large-scale cultural events which have a dramatic character, mass popular appeal and international significance” “ large-scale cultural events which have a dramatic character, mass popular appeal and international significance” (Roche 1999) (Roche 1999) “ contribute to short-term revenues, national/international significance, putting the city in world stage investment competition” “ contribute to short-term revenues, national/international significance, putting the city in world stage investment competition” (Burbank et al 2001) (Burbank et al 2001) ECOC as cultural

5 ECOC as cultural ECOC as cultural 3 rd dimension Cultural tourism benefits Image Promotion & city marketing Urban regeneration “common Spirit ” 1 time assignment Media coverage

6 Why to boost such a mega-event strategy ? Source: Palmer Associates I (2004)

7 Is strategic planning really important ? “Planning is an essential ingredient not only for the short term success for the event itself but also in realizing the longer term benefits for the community in the holding of such events” “Planning is an essential ingredient not only for the short term success for the event itself but also in realizing the longer term benefits for the community in the holding of such events” (Hall 1989) “Provides a sense of ownership among stakeholders in the selected objectives, increase commitment & cooperation (Bromwell 1997) “Provides a sense of ownership among stakeholders in the selected objectives, increase commitment & cooperation” (Bromwell 1997)However… political processes + involved actors value things differently constant struggle of power political processes + involved actors value things differently constant struggle of power How urban leadership & local interests influence ECOC mega-event production

8 Urban Power : Concepts & Debates Pluralism Government holds power Conflicting group & individual interests Elitism Powerful individuals hold power Share commitment Urban Regime Approach

9 Urban Power : Concepts & Debates  Informal but stable networks  Influence on setting the urban policy agenda …but why are so appealing ?  Setting alliances for high “priority problems”  “Build bridges” with other interests towards common objectives  Match concerns about the importance of long term vision and strategic planning

10 "3rd dimension" Economic Development "3rd dimension" Economic Development Strategi c Plannin g Vision Did Thessaloniki '97 European Capital of Culture mega-event acted as a formulation mechanism of "elite" coalitions for economic development between powerful political and economical local players ? 1st Researc h Ques tio n Urban Regime Approach Urban Regime Approach Political Pluralism Political Elitism Can these "elite" coalitions be explained within the urban regime conceptual framework ? 2nd Researc h Ques tio n

11 The research process Tested regime criteria according to Davies (2003)  In-depth interviews  Contacts on personal basis  Recorded material extracted & analyzed : different questions synthesized respond to each attribute

12 The story of Thessaloniki ‘97 Source: European Communities. (2009)

13 Thessaloniki as a mechanism of ‘elite’ coalitions Diffused but blurred vision for the economic, international role of the city Diffused but blurred vision for the economic, international role of the city 1997 ECOC as a unique opportunity to tackle long-standing problems for the city infrastructures 1997 ECOC as a unique opportunity to tackle long-standing problems for the city infrastructures “Formalistic” consultation process “Formalistic” consultation process Numerous proposals from all different Numerous proposals from all different institutions & lobbies, wide participation institutions & lobbies, wide participationBut…. Not a clear orientation of the hosted ECOC mega event Not a clear orientation of the hosted ECOC mega event Also, lack of strategic development plan for the city minimized economic benefits on 3 rd dimension deliverables after 1997 Also, lack of strategic development plan for the city minimized economic benefits on 3 rd dimension deliverables after 1997 A tie for “elite” interests was absent

14 Towards an Urban Regime ? Lack of clear orientation & objectives left space for pressures & personal interests  Lack of clear orientation & objectives left space for pressures & personal interests …and conflicts !  Low motivation for private investors  Huge state financial support Source: Palmer R. et al. (2004) How independent was decision making ?

15 One-sided interdependence towards formal government…. One-sided interdependence towards formal government…. ….& not distributed between all local, private actors ….& not distributed between all local, private actorsBut State influence on decisions is not clear, depends on the perspective… State influence on decisions is not clear, depends on the perspective… "What was really dominated was the element of central programming far from the people and the local vehicles involved. (...) "In terms of capital infrastructure, minister's influence was caltalytical, whereas in the artistic programme power distribution was more balanced. My personal feeling now and then is that politicians did not share the same long-term commitment for economic development but served rather short-term political interests". "What was really dominated was the element of central programming far from the people and the local vehicles involved. (...) "In terms of capital infrastructure, minister's influence was caltalytical, whereas in the artistic programme power distribution was more balanced. My personal feeling now and then is that politicians did not share the same long-term commitment for economic development but served rather short-term political interests". [Interview material] “Central government tried to upgrade the whole attempt internationally beyond local range only. Political responsibility from government authorities was beneficial from the whole programming and the ministers presence and support bring money in this effort.” “Central government tried to upgrade the whole attempt internationally beyond local range only. Political responsibility from government authorities was beneficial from the whole programming and the ministers presence and support bring money in this effort.” [Interview material] Towards an Urban Regime ?

16 City was benefited narrowly on infrastructure and renewal projects City was benefited narrowly on infrastructure and renewal projectsBut… Lack of strategic development planning after 1997 Lack of strategic development planning after 1997 Networks & coalitions did not sustain themselves Networks & coalitions did not sustain themselves Towards an Urban Regime ?

17 Source: National Tourism Organization data Source: Palmer R. et al (2004)

18 A vision is necessary to motivate & collaborate local “elites” for a common objective… A vision is necessary to motivate & collaborate local “elites” for a common objective…... but need something more Fundamental strategic development plan to preserve “elite” networks in the long-run & boost the local economy Fundamental strategic development plan to preserve “elite” networks in the long-run & boost the local economy No regime networks No regime networks

19 Does it really serve European culture or local interests under the veil of the EU ?

20 For your comments….


Download ppt "Thessaloniki ’97 European Capital of Culture as an establishing mechanism of elite partnerships & coalitions of development: Towards a regime approach."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google