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Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Updated Dec 2005 Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Pages 220 - 236.

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Presentation on theme: "Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Updated Dec 2005 Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Pages 220 - 236."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Updated Dec 2005 Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Pages

3 Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Updated Dec 2005 Chapter 9 Section 1 Chemical Pathways Pages What is cellular respiration? What happens during the process of glycolysis? What are the two main types of fermentation?

4 Updated Dec 2005Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Chemical Energy and Food Food Food Building blocks to grow and reproduce Building blocks to grow and reproduce Energy Energy calorie calorie Energy measurement Energy measurement Energy needed to raise 1 gram of water 1°C Energy needed to raise 1 gram of water 1°C Calorie Calorie Measurement on food products Measurement on food products 1,000 calories or a kilocalorie 1,000 calories or a kilocalorie Sugar Sugar 1 gram has 3811 calories or 3.8 Calories 1 gram has 3811 calories or 3.8 Calories

5 Updated Dec 2005Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Cellular Respiration Pathway used to release energy from sugar Pathway used to release energy from sugar Can occur without oxygen (O 2 ) – ANAEROBIC Can occur without oxygen (O 2 ) – ANAEROBIC Can occur with oxygen (O 2 ) – AEROBIC Can occur with oxygen (O 2 ) – AEROBIC Always begins with GLYCOLYSIS Always begins with GLYCOLYSIS Glycolysis – glucose splitting Glycolysis – glucose splitting Breaks one 6 carbon glucose in half Breaks one 6 carbon glucose in half Forms two 3 carbon pyruvic acid molecules Forms two 3 carbon pyruvic acid molecules

6 Updated Dec 2005Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Overview of Cellular Respiration Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose in the presence of oxygen. Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose in the presence of oxygen. Symbol Equation Symbol Equation 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 -> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ENERGY 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 -> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ENERGY Word Equation Word Equation oxygen + glucose -> carbon dioxide + water + ENERGY oxygen + glucose -> carbon dioxide + water + ENERGY

7 Updated Dec 2005Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Glycolysis Glycolysis – glucose splitting Glycolysis – glucose splitting Breaks one 6 carbon glucose in half Breaks one 6 carbon glucose in half Forms two 3 carbon pyruvic acid molecules Forms two 3 carbon pyruvic acid molecules 2 ATP used to start process 2 ATP used to start process Releases HIGH ENERGY molecules Releases HIGH ENERGY molecules 4 ATP so “net gain” is only 2 ATP 4 ATP so “net gain” is only 2 ATP 2 NADH (a “cousin” of NADPH) 2 NADH (a “cousin” of NADPH)

8 Updated Dec 2005Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Fermentation Releases energy from food in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic respiration) Releases energy from food in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic respiration) TWO TYPES TWO TYPES Alcoholic Fermentation Alcoholic Fermentation forms alcohol and carbon dioxide forms alcohol and carbon dioxide Lactic Acid Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation forms lactic acid forms lactic acid

9 Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Updated Dec 2005 Homework Section Assessment 9-1 Complete questions 1 through 6 on looseleaf

10 Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Updated Dec 2005 Chapter 9 Section 2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Pages What happens during Krebs Cycle? How are high-energy electrons used by the electron transport chain?

11 Updated Dec 2005Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis only releases 10% of the energy in a molecule of glucose Respiration – “breathing” is necessary to release the remaining energy Cellular Respiration – uses oxygen by adding two pathways to glycolysis Krebs Cycle – occurs in matrix of mitochondria Electron Transport – occurs in cristae (inner membrane) of mitochondria

12 Updated Dec 2005Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Krebs Cycle Nobel Prize 1953 – Hans Krebs a.k.a Citric Acid Cycle breaks down pyruvic acid releasing carbon dioxide forming 2 ATP releasing high-energy electrons carried by NADH and FADH2 occurs in matrix of mitochondria

13 Updated Dec 2005Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Electron Transport uses energy from high energy electrons to make ATP H+ carried by NAD+ and FAD+ forced from matrix to intermembrane space H+ escapes through ATP synthase forming ATP H+ rejoins electrons and O2 to form water

14 Updated Dec 2005Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Energy Totals 2 ATP to start glycolysis Glycolysis 6 ATP Pyruvic Acid 6 ATP Krebs Cycle 2 ATP Electron Transport 22 ATP Total: 36 ATP

15 Updated Dec 2005Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Energy and Exercise Quick Energy – “Fight or Flight” 90 second supply of ATP to muscle cells needs no O2 – fermentation produces lactic acid – oxygen debt if not removed causes cramps Long Term Energy more than 90 seconds supply of ATP uses O2 – aerobic respiration after 20 minutes stored glycogen from liver used up start to metabolize fats for energy

16 Created by C. Ippolito December 2005 Updated Dec 2005 Homework Section Assessment 9-2 page 232 Complete questions 1 through 5 on loose leaf


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