Presentation on theme: "The transferring (harvesting) of energy in organic compounds to produce ATP. Take place in the Mitochondria and the cytoplasm. There are three main stages."— Presentation transcript:
The transferring (harvesting) of energy in organic compounds to produce ATP. Take place in the Mitochondria and the cytoplasm. There are three main stages of cellular respiration, Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and ETC/ATP synthase. Stage 1: Glycolysis (takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell) The basics: Starts with glucose 2 ATP used, 4 ATP generated 2 NADH’s created 2 pyruvates created 2 H+ ions created
Important vocab: 1.Aerobic: oxygen is present (metabolic process where oxygen is required) 2.Anerobic: oxygen is not present (metabolic process where O2 is not required) 3.NAD+: an electron acceptor, becomes NADH. 4.Glycolysis: breaks down glucose 5.Pyruvate: high energy 3 carbon compound
The Steps in Glycolysis: 1.In the investment stage, 2 ATPS are used to change glucose into a 6 carbon compound, which is then split into 2- 3 carbon compounds. 2.Pay off stage, 2 NAD+’s are reduced to NADH and 2 H+ ions, changing the shape of the compounds. 4 ADP strip the phosphate's away creating 4 ATP’s, leaving 2-3 carbon molecules called pyruvates. The numbers: ATP: 2 used, 4 created; net profit of 2 NADH: 2 created Pyruvates: 2 H+’s= 2 water
The story continues with Stage II Only if oxygen is present (called aerobic respiration)!!! Pyruvates enter a mitochondria and are changed. This gives us 1-carbon dioxide, 1-NADH, and 2 acetyl- CoA Acetyl-CoA joins a 4 C compound (entering the Krebs Cycle) forming a 6 C compound and releases CoA. THE KREBS CYCLE!! Carbon compounds are changed (their shape) several times at several steps. You just need to know what goes in and what comes out for each turn.
The end products of the Krebs cycle; for every two molecules of pyruvic acid, 2 ATP molecules, 10 NADH molecules and two FADH2 molecules as well as six CO2 molecules are, created, in the form of waste gas (CO2 is the only wasted gas).
ETC AGAIN!!!!!!! Same basic principal as last time… e- are donated to the ETC by FADH2 and NADH this time. Same stair case idea, small amounts of energy are released, moving H+ ions against their gradient. But this time they are moving out of the inner mitochondria into the outer mitochondria, NOT OUT OF THE MITOCHONDRIA!! A new product at the end of this ETC is water!!
ATP SYNTHASE AGAIN!!!!!! H+ ions diffuse back across the membrane via ATP synthase Turns the rotors generating ATP. Total production of ATP by Cellular Respiration (when oxygen is present) per every molecule of glucose =
WHAT IF NO (or very little) OXYGEN IS AVAILABLE!!! Anaerobic respiration: the process of respiration with out the availability of oxygen We must keep glycolysis going no matter what, or our bodies shut down There are TWO types, Lactic Acid fermentation and Alcoholic fermentation Lactic Acid fermentation The pyruvate is converted to lactate (also called lactic acid) Lactate is a waste product, and is removed in the blood stream Causes soreness in muscles and tissues
Fermentation continued Alcoholic fermentation: In other organisms (example yeast) Step 1: Pyruvate is broken down into a two carbon compound releasing carbon dioxide (the bubbling in brewing, and cheese making etc… Step 2: e-’s are transferred from NADH producing ethanol (ethyl alcohol) Used in the production of many foods and beverages
IN Review: Formula for Cellular Respiration is: Sugar + oxygen = Carbon dioxide + water (please know the compounds, not able to type on this blasted lap top) This is the basically opposite of photosynthesis (same basic compounds) Glucose is broken down in glycolysis If oxygen is present it moves through the Krebs Cycle, ETC and ATP synthase making ATP per glucose molecule. If oxygen is not present it moves through fermentation Lactic acid in animals Alcoholic on other organisms.