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Big Data and Genography Syed Ali Data Scientist Federal Big Data Working Group.

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Presentation on theme: "Big Data and Genography Syed Ali Data Scientist Federal Big Data Working Group."— Presentation transcript:

1 Big Data and Genography Syed Ali Data Scientist Federal Big Data Working Group

2 Age of the DNA molecule Over 3 Billion Base pairs 22 pairs of chromosomes, and 2 X chromosomes in Women, and 1 smaller Y and 1 X chromosome in Men

3 Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA. The building blocks of nucleic acids

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5 Mitocondra has its own DNA

6 What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA. This genetic material is known as mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA.mitochondrial DNA Mitochondria (illustration) are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Each cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondria, which are located in the fluid that surrounds the nucleus (the cytoplasm).illustration Mitochondria produce energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. This process uses oxygen and simple sugars to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell’s main energy source. A set of enzyme complexes, designated as complexes I-V, carry out oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria.

7 Chromosome Data Examples

8 Bioinformatics Data deluge

9 Maternal Haplogroup Mitocondrial DNA MtDNA Haplogroup R MtDNA Region Range MtDNA Mutation Replacement A MtDNA Mutation Replacement A MtDNA Mutation Replacement C MtDNA Mutation Replacement C

10 Paternal Haplogroup Y Haplogroup R2a Terminal Y SNP M124 Y SNPs ysnp M124 + Y STRs ystr DYS ystr DYS ystr DYS ystr DYS ystr DYS ystr DYS ystr DYS389II 16 ystr DYS389I 14 ystr DYS ystr DYS385b 19 ystr DYS385a 19 ystr DYS19 14

11 Deep Ancestry (1000 years to 100,000 years)

12 Deep Ancestry Branch M168

13 Deep Ancestry Branch P143

14 Deep Ancestry Branch M578

15 Deep Ancestry Branch M526

16 Deep Ancestry Branch M207

17 Deep Paternal Ancestry Branch M124

18 Deep Maternal Ancestry Branch L3

19 Deep Maternal Ancestry Branch N

20 Deep Maternal Ancestry Branch R

21 Deep Maternal Ancestry of R

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