Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Cells Inside and Out. Cell Theory English scientist Robert Hooke used a crude microscope to look at a slice of cork. English scientist Robert Hooke used.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Cells Inside and Out. Cell Theory English scientist Robert Hooke used a crude microscope to look at a slice of cork. English scientist Robert Hooke used."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells Inside and Out

2 Cell Theory English scientist Robert Hooke used a crude microscope to look at a slice of cork. English scientist Robert Hooke used a crude microscope to look at a slice of cork. He saw little boxes that reminded him of the small rooms that monks lived in – Cells He saw little boxes that reminded him of the small rooms that monks lived in – Cells

3 Cell Theory Later the observations of scientists Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow led to what we call the Cell Theory: Later the observations of scientists Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow led to what we call the Cell Theory: All living things are composed of one or more cells All living things are composed of one or more cells Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms All cells arise from existing cells All cells arise from existing cells

4 Size Chart Atom Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism Population Community Ecosystem

5 Cell Size Having many small cells is more efficient than having a few large cells Having many small cells is more efficient than having a few large cells Small cells have larger surface to volume ratios than large ones Small cells have larger surface to volume ratios than large ones So, substance exchange is faster in small cells than in large. So, substance exchange is faster in small cells than in large.

6 Surface to Volume Ratio Example Surface area Equation on a cube Surface area Equation on a cube L 2 X 6 L 2 X 6 Volume Equation of a cube Volume Equation of a cube L 2 X H L 2 X H

7 Magnification Light microscope Light microscope Visible light passes through object Visible light passes through object A Lens magnifies the image A Lens magnifies the image Magnification Magnification Making an image seem larger than what it is Making an image seem larger than what it is Resolution Resolution What measures the clarity of an object What measures the clarity of an object What limits a particular type of scope What limits a particular type of scope

8 Magnification Electron Microscope Electron Microscope 100,000 X magnification power 100,000 X magnification power Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)‏ Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)‏ Allows for better resolutions on the surface of an object Allows for better resolutions on the surface of an object Shows object in 3D Shows object in 3D Good for observing living organisms Good for observing living organisms

9 Magnification Electron Microscopes Electron Microscopes Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)‏ Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)‏ Observer to sees through cells Observer to sees through cells allows the observer to see specimen's internal structure allows the observer to see specimen's internal structure

10 Features Common to All Cells Cell Membrane Cell Membrane All cells share this outer boundary All cells share this outer boundary This membrane encloses and separates the interior of the cell – the cytoplasm This membrane encloses and separates the interior of the cell – the cytoplasm The cell membrane also regulates what enters and leaves the cell The cell membrane also regulates what enters and leaves the cell

11 Features Common to All Cells Cytoplasm (Cyto= cell, -plasm= formative material)‏ Cytoplasm (Cyto= cell, -plasm= formative material)‏ Everything between plasma membrane and nucleus or nucleoid region. Everything between plasma membrane and nucleus or nucleoid region. Cytoskeleton (Cyto= cell, -skeleton= structural framework)‏ Cytoskeleton (Cyto= cell, -skeleton= structural framework)‏ Structure made of microfibers & microtubules within the cytoplasm that suspends the cells structures Structure made of microfibers & microtubules within the cytoplasm that suspends the cells structures Most cells have ribosomes Most cells have ribosomes Cellular Structures on which proteins are made Cellular Structures on which proteins are made

12 Prokaryotes Bacteria Cells Bacteria Cells Have no nucleus Have no nucleus Evolved before eukaryotic cells Evolved before eukaryotic cells Structures Common to Prokaryotes Structures Common to Prokaryotes Nucleoid region- where the chromosome is Nucleoid region- where the chromosome is ribosomes- protein synthesis ribosomes- protein synthesis Cell membrane- “gate keeper” Cell membrane- “gate keeper” Cell wall (different than plants)‏- support Cell wall (different than plants)‏- support Some have capsules outside wall- resistance to antibiotics Some have capsules outside wall- resistance to antibiotics Pili- exchange of genetic info Pili- exchange of genetic info Flagella- movement Flagella- movement

13 Prokaryotes

14 Eukaryotes Plant and Animal Cells Plant and Animal Cells Cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells Cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells Much like Prokaryotes Eukaryotic Cells Much like Prokaryotes Eukaryotic Cells have a cell wall (plants/protists/fungi)‏ have a cell wall (plants/protists/fungi)‏ have a plasma membrane have a plasma membrane have Cytoplasm have Cytoplasm have ribosomes have ribosomes But within their cytoplasm eukaryotes have But within their cytoplasm eukaryotes have Organelles Organelles Cytosol - fluid in cytoplasm Cytosol - fluid in cytoplasm

15 Major Organelles to know Cytoskeleton- support & protection Cytoskeleton- support & protection Cell membrane- “gate keeper” controls what enters or leaves the cell Cell membrane- “gate keeper” controls what enters or leaves the cell Nucleus- holds the chromosomes, directs cell Nucleus- holds the chromosomes, directs cell Endoplasmic Reticulum- transport & protein formation Endoplasmic Reticulum- transport & protein formation Golgi Apparatus- packages things Golgi Apparatus- packages things Lysosomes- hold digestive enzymes, “suicide sac” Lysosomes- hold digestive enzymes, “suicide sac” Vesicles- storage Vesicles- storage Mitochondria- “Power house” respiration, ATP energy Mitochondria- “Power house” respiration, ATP energy Cell Wall- support, protection Cell Wall- support, protection Chloroplasts- photosynthesis, make glucose Chloroplasts- photosynthesis, make glucose Central Vacuole- storage, especially of water Central Vacuole- storage, especially of water Ribosomes- protein making Ribosomes- protein making

16 Cytoskeleton Provides interior framework to support cell Provides interior framework to support cell Made of network of protein fibers tied to the plasma membrane. Made of network of protein fibers tied to the plasma membrane.

17 Cytoskeleton There are three kinds of cytoskeleton fibers There are three kinds of cytoskeleton fibers Microfilaments (or Actin Fibers)‏ Microfilaments (or Actin Fibers)‏ Made of protein actin Made of protein actin Works in the shape and movement of a cell Works in the shape and movement of a cell Microtubules Microtubules Tiny tubules made up tubulin protein Tiny tubules made up tubulin protein Highway for transportation of info. from nucleus to parts of the cell Highway for transportation of info. from nucleus to parts of the cell Intermediate Fibers Intermediate Fibers Rope-like fibers where enzymes and ribosomes anchor in the cell Rope-like fibers where enzymes and ribosomes anchor in the cell

18 Cell Membrane Phospholipid bilayer - barrier separating inside of cell (cytoplasm) from outside Phospholipid bilayer - barrier separating inside of cell (cytoplasm) from outside Selectively permeable (penetrable) - controls what enters & leaves cell Selectively permeable (penetrable) - controls what enters & leaves cell

19 Proteins Embedded in the Plasma Membrane ** Proteins are macromolecules made of amino acids ** Proteins are macromolecules made of amino acids Some proteins embed in the plasma membrane Some proteins embed in the plasma membrane Enzymes Enzymes Transport Proteins Transport Proteins Receptor Proteins Receptor Proteins Must have both polar & non polar ends to embed in the membrane Must have both polar & non polar ends to embed in the membrane

20 Nucleus Nucleus and mitochondria contain genes Nucleus and mitochondria contain genes Nucleus consists of: Nucleus consists of: Envelope Envelope Double membrane Double membrane Pores let messages in and out Pores let messages in and out Chromatin Chromatin DNA DNA Protein Protein Nucleolus Nucleolus Produces rRNA Produces rRNA rRNA with proteins makes up ribosomes rRNA with proteins makes up ribosomes

21 Nucleus

22 Endoplasmic Reticulum (endo = Inside, plasm = formed material)‏ Major system of internal membranes- move proteins and other stuff through cell Major system of internal membranes- move proteins and other stuff through cell Is a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins Is a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins Makes steroids, lipids Makes steroids, lipids Detoxifies chemicals Detoxifies chemicals

23 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)‏ Rough ER Rough ER Has ribosomes embedded so looks “rough” Has ribosomes embedded so looks “rough” Processes proteins Processes proteins Smooth ER Smooth ER No ribosomes embedded so looks “smooth” No ribosomes embedded so looks “smooth” Makes lipids and breaks down toxic chemicals Makes lipids and breaks down toxic chemicals

24 Golgi Apparatus/Lysosomes Golgi Apparatus Golgi Apparatus Flattened pancake like membrane-bound sacs- the packaging distribution center of the cell Flattened pancake like membrane-bound sacs- the packaging distribution center of the cell

25 Lysosomes/Vesicles Lysosomes (lyso-breaking, -some=body)‏ Small spherical organelles- hold digestive enzymes Work with Golgi to produce, package and distribute protiens Vesicles Small bubble-like membrane bound sacs carry material from ER to Golgi and out of cell Some will become lysosomes

26 Here’s the Protein Flow

27 Mitochondria Harvests energy from organic compound (sugars) to make ATP Harvests energy from organic compound (sugars) to make ATP ATP: energy “Money” in the cells ATP: energy “Money” in the cells Cellular respiration Cellular respiration Most eukaryote cells contain mitochondria Most eukaryote cells contain mitochondria Double membrane Double membrane Big bag stuffed in smaller bag Big bag stuffed in smaller bag Folds of inner bag = cristae Folds of inner bag = cristae Space inside inner bag called matrix Space inside inner bag called matrix Holds enzymes and DNA Holds enzymes and DNA This DNA ONLY inherited from mom This DNA ONLY inherited from mom

28 Mitochondria

29 Organelles Common to Plants Plants contain all of the organelles now mentioned plus more Plants contain all of the organelles now mentioned plus more Organelles Only in Plants (not animals) Organelles Only in Plants (not animals) Cell Wall Cell Wall Chloroplast Chloroplast Central Vacuole Central Vacuole

30 Cell Wall Surrounds the cell membrane Surrounds the cell membrane Made of proteins and carbohydrates Made of proteins and carbohydrates Cellulose - polysaccharide(poly=many, saccharide=sugars) cellulose can NOT be digested by all us, but some can. Cellulose - polysaccharide(poly=many, saccharide=sugars) cellulose can NOT be digested by all us, but some can. Supports and Maintains the shape of a cell Supports and Maintains the shape of a cell Protects from damage Protects from damage

31 Chloroplasts Plant cells contain mitochondria to produce the energy “bucks” (ATP), AND they contain chloroplasts to make the glucose the mitochondria “burns” to make the ATP Plant cells contain mitochondria to produce the energy “bucks” (ATP), AND they contain chloroplasts to make the glucose the mitochondria “burns” to make the ATP Chloroplasts use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar, oxygen and energy (ATP)‏ Chloroplasts use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar, oxygen and energy (ATP)‏ Also found in algae and some protozoans. Also found in algae and some protozoans. Chloroplasts Chloroplasts have two membranes have two membranes have enzymes & DNA have enzymes & DNA

32 Chloroplasts

33 Central Vacuole Largest organelle in a plant cell Largest organelle in a plant cell Contains ions (charged atoms), nutrients (macromolecules), and wastes Contains ions (charged atoms), nutrients (macromolecules), and wastes When full, makes cell rigid which enables the plant to stand upright. When full, makes cell rigid which enables the plant to stand upright.

34 Plant Cell

35 The Endosymbiotic Hypothesis Evolution of the Eukaryotic cell – (with mitochondria and chloroplasts) Evolution of the Eukaryotic cell – (with mitochondria and chloroplasts) Theory: one large prokaryotic cell ingested another which became mitochondria and/or chloroplast in the now eukaryotic cell. Theory: one large prokaryotic cell ingested another which became mitochondria and/or chloroplast in the now eukaryotic cell.

36 Evidence Evidence Both are similar to bacteria in size and shape Both are similar to bacteria in size and shape Both have a double membrane Both have a double membrane Outer from being taken into cell Outer from being taken into cell Inner from original bacterial cell Inner from original bacterial cell Contain DNA in loop like bacteria Contain DNA in loop like bacteria Contain ribosomes - make proteins Contain ribosomes - make proteins RNA in ribosomes like bacterial cells RNA in ribosomes like bacterial cells

37 The Endosymbiotic Theory


Download ppt "Cells Inside and Out. Cell Theory English scientist Robert Hooke used a crude microscope to look at a slice of cork. English scientist Robert Hooke used."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google