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Where have we been?. PHOTOSYNTHESIS TYPE II WRITE the BALANCED equation for photosynthesis LABEL the inputs (reactants) and outputs (products) EXPLAIN.

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Presentation on theme: "Where have we been?. PHOTOSYNTHESIS TYPE II WRITE the BALANCED equation for photosynthesis LABEL the inputs (reactants) and outputs (products) EXPLAIN."— Presentation transcript:

1 Where have we been?

2 PHOTOSYNTHESIS TYPE II WRITE the BALANCED equation for photosynthesis LABEL the inputs (reactants) and outputs (products) EXPLAIN what will happen to each of the products and reactants

3 Cellular Respiration Cells and Energy Release

4 MORE FUN WITH TIM & MOBY eandgenetics/cellularrespiration/preview.w emlhttp://www.brainpop.com/science/cellularlif eandgenetics/cellularrespiration/preview.w eml

5 Question… Why do we breathe? –4 th grade answer: “so we don’t die” –7 th grade answer: “to take in oxygen, and breathe out carbon dioxide” –10 th grade answer: TO FUEL CELL RESPIRATION!

6 Basic ideas Breaking down high energy, large molecules into lower energy, smaller molecules. If this process stops, cells DIE!!!! Requires oxygen to fully occur. Three step process; –Step 1 occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell –Steps 2 & 3 occur in the mitochondria of the cell

7 Here’s where it Happens!

8 This is the equation! C 6 H 12 O 6 +6O 2 -> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy (ATP& heat) How does this look familiar? Where do the “ingredients” (reactants) come from? What happens to each of the “leftovers” (products)

9 WHAT’S ATP GOT TO DO WITH IT? Adenosine Triphosphate –Chemical energy source for the cell –Think of it as cellular “money”

10 Three Stages of Cellular Respiration STEP 1: Glycolysis (“GLUCOSE SPLITTING”) –1 st stage of ALL energy releasing pathways. –Occurs in cytoplasm –A couple of ATP “coins” made –If you’re fermenting, stop here! STEP 2: Krebs Cycle ( citric acid cycle ) –Occurs in the mitochondria –A few more ATP “coins” made STEP 3: Electron Transport Chain ( phosphorylation ) –Occurs in the mitochondria (membranes) –ATP JACKPOT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

11 CELL RESPIRATION OVERVIEW Convert glucose to ATP Accomplished in 3 steps: –Glycolysis  in cytoplasm –Krebs Cycle  in mitochondria –Electron Transport Chain  in mitochondria Remember: this requires Oxygen

12 Glycolysis –Food must have been transported to cells via the bloodstream –digested food gets into the bloodstream by diffusing through the intestinal walls into the capillaries. –1 st stage in energy release from food –Input = glucose, –Outputs = small amount of ATP and pyruvates –These outputs are the inputs for the next stage

13 Krebs Cycle –Series of chemical reactions –ATP (energy) released –CO2 (waste) released

14 Electron Transport Chain –Series of reactions –Releases LOTS more ATP

15 CASHING IN… Total energy released from 1 GLUCOSE MOLECULE DURING CELL RESPIRATION: 38 ATP

16 CELL RESPIRATION OVERVIEW Convert glucose to ATP Accomplished in 3 steps: –Glycolysis  in cytoplasm –Krebs Cycle  in mitochondria –Electron Transport Chain  in mitochondria Remember: this requires Oxygen

17 UH, OH…PROBLEM 1.) What if you don’t have mitochondria? 2.) What if there isn’t much oxygen around?

18 FERMENTATION TO THE RESCUE! 2 KINDS: –Alcoholic –Lactic Acid These are ANAEROBIC processes –Little to no oxygen required

19 BIG PICTURE: When are these used? CELL RESPIRATION –Eukaryotes with mitochondria –Adequate oxygen –Ex. Animals Plants –PRODUCES LOTS OF ATP! FERMENTATION –Prokaryotes (no mitochondria) AND/OR –Inadequate or no oxygen available –Ex. Yeast Bacteria Overworked Human muscles (no, your brain is not a muscle!) –Produces very little ATP, but hey, some is better than none!

20 Where ARE we GOING?


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