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GENETIC PROBLEMS. Question #1 gametesHow many different kinds of gametes could the following individuals produce? 1.aaBb 2.CCDdee 3.AABbCcDD 4.MmNnOoPpQq.

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Presentation on theme: "GENETIC PROBLEMS. Question #1 gametesHow many different kinds of gametes could the following individuals produce? 1.aaBb 2.CCDdee 3.AABbCcDD 4.MmNnOoPpQq."— Presentation transcript:

1 GENETIC PROBLEMS

2 Question #1 gametesHow many different kinds of gametes could the following individuals produce? 1.aaBb 2.CCDdee 3.AABbCcDD 4.MmNnOoPpQq 5.UUVVWWXXYYZz

3 Question #1 Remember the formula 2 nRemember the formula 2 n Where n = # of heterozygousWhere n = # of heterozygous 1.aaBb= 2 2.CCDdee= 2 3.AABbCcDD= 4 4.MmNnOoPpQq= 32 5.UUVVWWXXYYZz= 2

4 Question #2 In dogs, wire-haired is due to a dominant gene (W), smooth-haired is due to its recessive allele (w).In dogs, wire-haired is due to a dominant gene (W), smooth-haired is due to its recessive allele (w). WW, Ww = wire hairedWW, Ww = wire haired ww= smooth hairedww= smooth haired

5 Question #2A If a homozygous wire-haired dog is mated with a smooth-haired dog, what type of offspring could be produced.If a homozygous wire-haired dog is mated with a smooth-haired dog, what type of offspring could be produced. W W ww

6 Question #2A W W W W w Ww Ww w Ww Ww fg F 1 generation w Ww Ww all heterozygous w Ww Ww all heterozygous

7 Question #2B What type(s) of offspring could be produced in the F 2 generation?What type(s) of offspring could be produced in the F 2 generation? Must breed the F 1 generation to get the F 2.Must breed the F 1 generation to get the F 2. Results of F1 Cross: Ww x WwResults of F1 Cross: Ww x Ww

8 Question #2B W w W w W WW Ww F 2 generation W WW Ww F 2 generation w Ww ww w Ww ww genotype: 1:2:1 ratio phenotype: 3:1 ratio

9 Question #2C Two wire-haired dogs are mated. Among the offspring of their first litter is a smooth- haired pup.Two wire-haired dogs are mated. Among the offspring of their first litter is a smooth- haired pup. If these, two wire-haired dogs mate again, what are the chances that they will produce another smooth-haired pup?If these, two wire-haired dogs mate again, what are the chances that they will produce another smooth-haired pup? What are the chances that the pup will wire- haired pup?What are the chances that the pup will wire- haired pup?

10 Question #2C W w W w W WW Ww F 2 generation W WW Ww F 2 generation w Ww ww w Ww ww - 1/4 or 25% chance for smooth-haired - 3/4 or 75% chance for wire-haired

11 Question #2D A wire-haired male is mated with a smooth-haired female. The mother of the wire-haired male was smooth-haired.A wire-haired male is mated with a smooth-haired female. The mother of the wire-haired male was smooth-haired. What are the phenotypes and genotypes of the pups they could produce?What are the phenotypes and genotypes of the pups they could produce? Show the results of crossing: Ww x wwShow the results of crossing: Ww x ww

12 Question #2D W w W w w Ww ww w Ww ww phenotypes:1:1 ratio genotypes:1:1 ratio

13 Question #3 In snapdragons, red flower (R) color is incompletely dominant over white flower (r) color.In snapdragons, red flower (R) color is incompletely dominant over white flower (r) color. The heterozygous (Rr) plants have pink flowers.The heterozygous (Rr) plants have pink flowers. RR - red flowers Rr - pink flowers rr - white flowers

14 Question #3A If a red-flowered plant is crossed with a white-flowered plant, what are the genotypes and phenotypes of the plants F 1 generation?If a red-flowered plant is crossed with a white-flowered plant, what are the genotypes and phenotypes of the plants F 1 generation? RR x rrRR x rr

15 Question #3A R R R R r Rr RrF 1 generation r Rr RrF 1 generation r Rr Rr r Rr Rr phenotypes:100% pink genotypes:100% heterozygous

16 Question #3B What genotypes and phenotypes will be produced in the F 2 generation?What genotypes and phenotypes will be produced in the F 2 generation? Rr x RrRr x Rr

17 Question #3B R r R r R RR RrF 2 generation R RR RrF 2 generation r Rr rr r Rr rr phenotypes: 1:2:1 ratio genotypes: 1:2:1 ratio

18 Question #3C What kinds of offspring can be produced if a red-flowered plant is crossed with a pink-flowered plant?What kinds of offspring can be produced if a red-flowered plant is crossed with a pink-flowered plant? RR x RrRR x Rr

19 Question #3C R R R RR RR r Rr Rr 50%: red flowered 50%: pink flowered

20 Question #3D What kind of offspring is/are produced if a pink-flowered plant is crossed with a white-flowered plant?What kind of offspring is/are produced if a pink-flowered plant is crossed with a white-flowered plant? Rr x rrRr x rr

21 Question #3D R r r Rr rr 50%: white flowered 50%: pink flowered

22 Question #4 In humans, colorblindness (cc) is a recessive sex-linked trait.In humans, colorblindness (cc) is a recessive sex-linked trait. Remember:XX - femaleRemember:XX - female XY - male

23 Question #4A Two normal people have a colorblind son.Two normal people have a colorblind son. What are the genotypes of the parents?What are the genotypes of the parents? X C X _? x X C YX C X _? x X C Y What are the genotypes and phenotypes possible among their other children?What are the genotypes and phenotypes possible among their other children?

24 Question #4A X C Y  parents X C Y  parents X C X C X C X C Y X C X C X C X C Y X c X C X c X c Y X c X C X c X c Y 50%: female (one normal, one a carrier) 50%: male (one normal, one colorblind)

25 Question #4B A couple has a colorblind daughter.A couple has a colorblind daughter. What are the possible genotypes and phenotypes of the parents and the daughter?What are the possible genotypes and phenotypes of the parents and the daughter?

26 Question #4B X c Y X c Y X C X C X c X C Y X C X C X c X C Y X c X c X c X c Y X c X c X c X c Y parents: X c Y and X C X c or X c X c father colorblind father colorblind mother carrier or colorblind mother carrier or colorblind daughter: X c X c - colorblind

27 Question #5 In humans, the presence of freckles is due to a dominant gene (F) and the non-freckled condition is due to its recessive allele (f).In humans, the presence of freckles is due to a dominant gene (F) and the non-freckled condition is due to its recessive allele (f). Dimpled cheeks (D) are dominant to non-dimpled cheeks (d).Dimpled cheeks (D) are dominant to non-dimpled cheeks (d).

28 Question #5A Two persons with freckles and dimpled cheeks have two children: one has freckles but no dimples and one has dimples but no freckles.Two persons with freckles and dimpled cheeks have two children: one has freckles but no dimples and one has dimples but no freckles. What are the genotypes of the parents? Parents:F__D__ x F__D__What are the genotypes of the parents? Parents:F__D__ x F__D__ Children: F__dd x ffD__

29 Question #5B What are the possible phenotypes and genotypes of the children that they could produce?What are the possible phenotypes and genotypes of the children that they could produce? Cross: FfDd x FfDdCross: FfDd x FfDd This is a dihybrid crossThis is a dihybrid cross

30 Question #5B Possible gametes for both: FD Fd fD fdPossible gametes for both: FD Fd fD fd FD Fd fD fd FD FFDD FFDd FfDD FfDd Fd FFDd FFdd FfDd Ffdd fD FfDD FfDd ffDD ffDd fd FfDd Ffdd ffDd ffdd

31 Question #5B Phenotype:Freckles/Dimples:9 Freckles/no dimples:3 no freckles/Dimples:3 no freckles/no dimples:1 Phenotypic ratio will always been 9:3:3:1 for all F1 dihybrid crosses.

32 Question #5B Genotypic ratio:FFDD- 1 FFDd- 2 FFdd- 1 FfDD- 2 FfDd- 4 Ffdd- 2 ffDD- 1 ffDd- 2 ffdd- 1

33 Question #5C What are the chances that they would have a child whom lacks both freckles and dimples?What are the chances that they would have a child whom lacks both freckles and dimples? This child will have a genotype of ffddThis child will have a genotype of ffdd Answer:1/16Answer:1/16

34 Question #5D A person with freckles and dimples whose mother lacked both freckles and dimples marries a person with freckles but not dimples whose father did not have freckles or dimples.A person with freckles and dimples whose mother lacked both freckles and dimples marries a person with freckles but not dimples whose father did not have freckles or dimples. Cross: FfDd x FfddCross: FfDd x Ffdd Possible gametes:Possible gametes: FD Fd fD fd x Fd fd FD Fd fD fd x Fd fd

35 Question #5D What are the chances that they would have a child whom lacks both freckles and dimples?What are the chances that they would have a child whom lacks both freckles and dimples? FD Fd fD fd FD Fd fD fd Fd FFDd FFdd FfDd Ffdd fd FfDd Ffdd ffDd ffdd Answer:1/8

36 Question #6 Sixteen percent of the human population is known to be able to wiggle their ears.Sixteen percent of the human population is known to be able to wiggle their ears. This trait is determined to be a recessive gene.This trait is determined to be a recessive gene. These is a population genetics question.These is a population genetics question. Use the following equation: 1 = p 2 + 2pq + q 2Use the following equation: 1 = p 2 + 2pq + q 2

37 Question #6A What of the population is homozygous dominant for this trait?What of the population is homozygous dominant for this trait? q 2 = 16% or.16:  q2 = .16q 2 = 16% or.16:  q2 = .16 q =.4 then use:1 = p + qthen use:1 = p + q 1 = p = p p =.6 Now use p 2 for answer:.6 2 =.36 or 36%Now use p 2 for answer:.6 2 =.36 or 36%

38 Question #6B What of the population is heterozygous for this trait?What of the population is heterozygous for this trait? We know that q =.4 and p =.6We know that q =.4 and p =.6 Now use 2pq for answer: 2(.6)(.4) =.48 or 48%Now use 2pq for answer: 2(.6)(.4) =.48 or 48%

39 Question #7 In dogs, the inheritance of hair color involves a gene B for black hair and gene b for brown hair b.In dogs, the inheritance of hair color involves a gene B for black hair and gene b for brown hair b. A dominant C is also involved. It must be present for the color to be synthesized.A dominant C is also involved. It must be present for the color to be synthesized. If this gene is not present, a blond condition results.If this gene is not present, a blond condition results. BB, Bb- black hairCC, Cc- color bb- brown haircc- blond

40 Question #7A A brown haired male, whose father was a blond, is mated with a black haired female, whose mother was brown haired and her father was blond.A brown haired male, whose father was a blond, is mated with a black haired female, whose mother was brown haired and her father was blond. Male: bbCc (gametes: bC bc) Female: BbCc (gametes: BC Bc bC bc) What is the expected ratios of their offspring?What is the expected ratios of their offspring?

41 Question #7A BC Bc bCbc bC BbCC BbCc bbCC bbCc bc BbCc Bbcc bbCc bbcc Offspring ratios: Black:3/8 Brown:3/8 Blond:2/8 or 1/4

42 Question #8 Henry Anonymous, a film star, was involved in a paternity case. The woman bringing suit had two children, on whose blood type was A and the other whose blood type was B.Henry Anonymous, a film star, was involved in a paternity case. The woman bringing suit had two children, on whose blood type was A and the other whose blood type was B. Her blood type was O, the same as Henry’s!Her blood type was O, the same as Henry’s! The judge in the case awarded damages to the woman damages to the woman, saying that Henry had to be the father of at least one of the children.The judge in the case awarded damages to the woman damages to the woman, saying that Henry had to be the father of at least one of the children.

43 Question #8A Obviously, the judge should be sentenced to Biology. For Henry to have been the father of both children, his blood type would have had to be what?Obviously, the judge should be sentenced to Biology. For Henry to have been the father of both children, his blood type would have had to be what? I A I B  Answer iI A i I B i

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