3The AlleleAny of the alternative versions of a gene that may produce distinguishable phenotypic effects.Phenotype: The observable physical and physiological traits of an organism, which are determined by it’s genetic makeup.Genotype: The genetic makeup, or set of alleles, of an organism.Alleles are found on chromosomesOne per chromosomeSeparated in meiosisMaternal vs. Paternal chromosomesDominant vs. RecessiveCodominance vs. incomplete dominance
4H-words Homozygous: Having two identical alleles for a given trait Dominant vs. RecessiveHeterozygous: Having two different alleles for a given trait
5Mendell (He’s the pea dude) Independent Assortment: Each pair of alleles assort independently of each other during gamete formationLaw of Segregation: Two allele pairs segregate into different gametes
6Biology’s favorite shape The Punnett Square: A diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the predicted genotypic results of random fertilization in genetic crosses between individuals of a known genotypeShows genotypes of possible offspring of two parents
7Monohybrid Crosses A cross where only one trait is being explored Based on when a single set of chromosomes is separatedDiagramed by a 2 x 2 Punnett SquareDefine allelesSet up squareCrossSample: A heterozygous green pea plant is crossedwith a yellow pea plant. Show the cross.A aA = greena = yellowaAa aa
8Sample ProblemsTwo pea plants heterozygous for pod color are crossed. Define allele notation and diagram a Punnett Square for this cross.A homozygous dominant red flower is crossed with a homozygous recessive white flower. They produce all pink flowers, what is the reason for this? What would be produced if a pink offspring was crossed with another pink offspring? Diagram a Punnett Square.A blue eyed man and brown eyed women have four children, none of which have blue eyes. Does blue eyes appear to be dominant or recessive?
9Dihybrid Crosses A cross where two genes are explored simultaneously Physically based on alleles located on two sets of chromosomes, which then segregate into gametes.Genes must be unlinked (not on the same chromosome)9:3:3:1Requires a 4 x 4 Punnett SquareDetermine possible gamete formationsSet up squareCross!Remember this? It’s a dihybrid cross!
109:3:3:1, the magic numberRefers to the phenotypic ratio expected from a normal dihybrid cross of two heterozygous parents. This was devised by Mendell.9: the expected number of offspring with all dominant traits3: the expected number of offspring with one dominant and one recessive trait3: the reciprocal of the first ‘3’1: expected number of offspring with all recessive traits
11Sample Problem Cross: AaBb x AaBb Possible gametes (Parent 1): AB, Ab, aB, abPossible gametes (Parent 2): AB, Ab, aB, abAB Ab aB abABAbaBab
12Practice ProblemsTwo dogs heterozygous for brown fur and blue eyes are crossed. Diagram this cross. What is the probability of the dogs having a white fur-green eyed dog?A dog true-breeding for brown fur and blue eyes is crossed with a dog true-breeding for white fur and green eyes. Diagram the cross. What is the probability that these parents will have a white fur-green eyed offspring?
13Sex-Linkage The miracle of the Y chromosome Does not include alleles found on it’s homologous X chromosomeMales have increased susceptibility to these types of allelesTwo X chromosomes makes a femaleone X and one Y makes a male!
14Crosses for traits that are sex-linked Also known as x-linked traitsNotation: XA Xa and Y for malesX and Y represent the sex chromosomeWhen crossing, X X will always represent female and the X Y will always represent male.Carrier: An individual who is heterozygous for a specific trait, thusly it affects their offspring, but not their phenotype.
151/2 Chance of hemophilic daughter D: Sample Problem!Hemophilia, a sex linked disorder, causes difficulty in blood clotting, it is a recessive disorder. A hemophiliac man marries a woman whose father was also a hemophiliac, but she is healthy. What is the probability that this couple will have a hemophiliac daughter?Determine genotypes of parentsRemember, this is a monohybrid cross, set up a squarePreform the cross (do not forget correct notation)XH XhFather: XhYMother: XHXh1/2 Chance of hemophilic daughter D:XhYXHXh XhXhXHY XhYXH= healthyXh= hemophiliac
16A Last Problem...A healthy man and a healthy women have a hemophilic child. The man believes this is evidence that his wife has had an affair. What is the genotype of the man and his wife? Is this evidence of an affair?