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Tissues  Tissues – group of similar cell types that perform a common function  The human body has four basic types of tissue: Epithelial Epithelial Connective.

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Presentation on theme: "Tissues  Tissues – group of similar cell types that perform a common function  The human body has four basic types of tissue: Epithelial Epithelial Connective."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tissues  Tissues – group of similar cell types that perform a common function  The human body has four basic types of tissue: Epithelial Epithelial Connective Connective Muscle Muscle Nervous Nervous

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3 Tissues – Epithelial Tissue  Epithelium is tightly packed sheets of cells that line organs and outer surfaces, as well as the insides of hollow organs, vessels, and body cavities.

4 Epithelial Tissue  Epithelia are typically anchored on one face, but free on another The free side is typically exposed to the environment of body fluids The free side is typically exposed to the environment of body fluids Can be single layer or many layers thick Can be single layer or many layers thick Function in protection, secretion, and absorption Function in protection, secretion, and absorption Epithelial cells are continuously sloughing off and are replaced by cell division Epithelial cells are continuously sloughing off and are replaced by cell division

5 Tissues – Epithelial Tissue  Many organs are lined with epithelial tissue

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7 Tissues – Epithelial Tissue  Many organs are lined with epithelial tissue Simple Squamous Epithelial Tissue – inside your cheek, skin cells

8 Tissues – Epithelial Tissue  Many organs are lined with epithelial tissue Simple Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue – kidney tubule cells

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint Lecture prepared by Jill Feinstein Richland Community College Fourth Edition BIOLOGY Science for Life | with Physiology Colleen Belk Virginia Borden Maier

10 Tissues – Epithelial Tissue  Many organs are lined with epithelial tissue Simple Columnar Epithelial Tissue – large intestine

11 Tissues – Epithelial Tissue  Many organs are lined with epithelial tissue Ciliated Pseudostratified Columar Epithelial Tissue - trachea

12 Tissues– Connective Tissue  Loosely organized and composed of cells embedded in a matrix  Matrix is composed of protein fibers and protein fibers and ground substance ground substance  Usually binds organs or tissues to one another

13 Tissues – Connective Tissue  Six different types: Loose connective tissue Loose connective tissue Adipose tissue Adipose tissue Blood Blood Fibrous connective tissue Fibrous connective tissue Cartilage Cartilage Bone Bone

14 Tissues – Connective Tissue  Loose connective tissue Most widespread tissue in animal body Most widespread tissue in animal body Matrix composed of collagen and elastin fibers Matrix composed of collagen and elastin fibers It is called “loose” because of the fibers that are loosely woven together It is called “loose” because of the fibers that are loosely woven together Binds epithelia to tissues, pads the skin, and holds organs in place Binds epithelia to tissues, pads the skin, and holds organs in place

15 Loose connective tissue

16 Tissues – Connective Tissue  Adipose tissue Also called fat Also called fat Connects skin to underlying structures, pads organs Connects skin to underlying structures, pads organs Used for storage of energy (fat) Used for storage of energy (fat) Primarily cells; small amount of matrix Primarily cells; small amount of matrix

17 Adipose tissue

18 Tissues – Connective Tissue  Blood Cellular component, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets Cellular component, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets Matrix is the plasma Matrix is the plasma Functions include carrying oxygen and nutrients; fighting infection Functions include carrying oxygen and nutrients; fighting infection

19 Blood

20 Blood

21 Blood

22 Tissues – Connective Tissue  Fibrous connective tissue Forms tendons and ligaments Forms tendons and ligaments Matrix is densely packed collagen fibers running in parallel. Matrix is densely packed collagen fibers running in parallel.

23 Fibrous connective tissue Nuclei of fibroblasts

24 Tissues – Connective Tissue  Cartilage Cellular component  chondrocytes Cellular component  chondrocytes Chondrocytes secrete own matrix Chondrocytes secrete own matrix Cartilage cushions joints, forms Cartilage cushions joints, forms support for ears and nose Not vascularized, so takes a long time to heal if injured Not vascularized, so takes a long time to heal if injured

25 Cartilage

26 Damaged Cartilage

27 Tissues – Connective Tissue  Bone Rigid connective tissue Rigid connective tissue Osteoblasts secrete matrix that is composed of collagen fibers and calcium salts Osteoblasts secrete matrix that is composed of collagen fibers and calcium salts Osteocytes maintain the hardened bone matrix Osteocytes maintain the hardened bone matrix Body can make use of calcium from bones if dietary levels are too low Body can make use of calcium from bones if dietary levels are too low

28 Bone

29 Tissues – Muscle Tissue  Skeletal Muscle Usually attached to bone Usually attached to bone Produces all voluntary movements Produces all voluntary movements Striated Striated Long, thin, cylindrical shape Long, thin, cylindrical shape

30 Striated (Skeletal) Muscle Tissue

31 Smooth Muscle  Smooth muscle Not striated and involuntary Not striated and involuntary Musculature of organs, blood vessels, digestive tract Musculature of organs, blood vessels, digestive tract Contracts more slowly and for longer than skeletal muscle Contracts more slowly and for longer than skeletal muscle

32 Cardiac Muscle

33 Tissues – Nervous Tissue  Neurons conduct electrical signals and compose the cells of the brain and spinal cord  Main functions of neurons are to: Sense stimuli Sense stimuli Process stimuli Process stimuli Transmit signals Transmit signals  Most cells of nervous system do not undergo cell division

34 Tissues – Nervous Tissue

35 Nervous Tissue

36 Tissues – Tissue Donation  One person’s tissues can improve the lives of as many as 50 people. Injuries from motor vehicle accidents, burst blood vessels, and drowning are common causes of brain death. Injuries from motor vehicle accidents, burst blood vessels, and drowning are common causes of brain death.  Once dead, brain cells cannot recover. Brain dead is different than being in a coma or vegetative state. Brain dead is different than being in a coma or vegetative state. Tissues can be treated to remove any proteins that a person’s immune system may react to so there is no need for donor matching. Tissues can be treated to remove any proteins that a person’s immune system may react to so there is no need for donor matching.

37 Tissues – Tissue Donation  Types of tissues Corneas Corneas Eye tissue Eye tissue Skin Skin Bones Bones Tendons Tendons Veins Veins Heart valves Heart valves


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