2Cultural information 1 Cultural information 1. Quote Socrates: Children today are tyrants. They contradict their parent, gobble their food, and tyrannize their teachers.
3Cultural information 2 2. Children from One-Child Families Some people think that children from only-child families have more merits than shortcomings.Firstly, they value free will and will not accept orders blindly.Secondly, they love trying out new methods and are full of creative ideas.Thirdly, they expect others to treat them as indispensable partners of the team.
4Cultural information 3Cultural informationHowever, some people believe that the only children have more shortcomings than merits.Many are heavily dependent on parents.And some never learn to do household chores.It is even worse that some tend to be spoiled and self-centered. They are “the little emperors” in families and schools.What do you think?
5Global Reading-Text analysis1 Structural analysisText analysisWhat is this expositive text concerned with?This text is concerned with the pros and cons of In other words, the text deals with the typical of not having a second child. The text discusses them in antone.having only one child_______________________advantages and disadvantages_________________________________objective___________
6Global Reading-Text analysis2 Structural analysis2. What is the writer’s answer to the question of whetheror not to have a second child?It goes as follows: “… there is no simple answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child. The circumstances affecting each set of parents are unique, and what is appropriate for one family may not be for another. The important thing, in the end, is to make a decision that both you and your spouse feel confident about.”
71. Divide the text into parts by completing the table. Paragraph(s) Structural analysis 1Text analysisStructural analysisStructural analysis1. Divide the text into parts by completing the table.Paragraph(s)Main idea12-3It puts forward the issue of whether or not to have a second child, and mentions parents’ concern whether an only child necessarily means a lonely child.Two common arguments against having only one child in the family are presented.
8The author cites specific figures and facts Structural analysis 2Text analysisStructural analysisParagraph(s)Main idea4-56The author cites specific figures and factsto show that despite the disadvantages many parents still choose to have onlyone child, and he also points out some causes of their decision.The author briefly states the advantages of having a single child.
9Paragraph(s) Main idea 7 Structural analysis 3Text analysisStructural analysisParagraph(s)Main idea7It concludes that there is no simple answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child, and that the important thing, in the end, is to make the decision that a couple both feel confident about.
10Structural analysis 4Text analysisStructural analysis2. Some words used at the beginning of a paragraph make it easier for the reader to understand the coherence of the whole text, such as Another at the beginning of Paragraph 3, Despite of Paragraph 4, and Unfortunately of Paragraph 7. Can you explain how they function?
11Structural analysis 5Text analysisStructural analysisThe word “Another” used at the beginning of Paragraph 3 implies that at least one argument has been presented earlier.“Despite these arguments …” prepares readers for something against their expectations, i.e. many parents still choose to have one child although the disadvantages of doing so have just been clearly presented.
12Structural analysis 5Text analysisStructural analysis“Unfortunately” tells readers that there follows something disappointing, i.e. the author fails to provide a definite answer to the questions raised at the beginning of the text.
13Detailed reading1 Is an Only Child a Lonely Child? Many couples, who already have one healthy, happy child, are facing a dilemma, namely, the issue of whether or not to have a second child. They have demanding jobs and limited time and financial resources, but they are also very keen to ensure that their only child does not become a lonely child. So, what are the pros and cons of having a second child? Is an only child a lonely child? That is what so many couples are very much concerned about and eager to understand.
14Detailed reading2Detailed readingThe issue of whether to have a second child is one of the most difficult issues that parents nowadays face. A concern that is often heard with regard to single children is whether one child necessarily means a lonely child Many single-child parents feel a stigma associated with their decision to have only one child. There are no other children in the family for the child to associate with, and this may lead to the child feeling lonely at times, especially during vacations.2.
15Detailed reading3Detailed readingAnother common argument against having just one child is that an only child may be more spoiled than one with siblings. Many people believe that a single child will not have learned to negotiate with others, and respect the give-and-take involved in many relationships. Some think this may leave the child less capable of interacting well with people his or her own age than one who has been raised with siblings.3.
16Detailed reading4Detailed readingDespite these arguments, the number of parents choosing to have only one child is increasing in many parts of the world. In the US, for example, percent of women between 18 and 34 plan to have just one child, and this percentage is expected to rise. The same trend can be seen in the UK. According to the Family Policy Studies Center, the overall number of British children being born each year has declined. In Japan, the average number of children born per family had declined to 1.42 by 1996,while latest statistics cite less than one child. This has led to government concerns about supporting an increasing population of elderly people in the future; it is predicted that, by 2020, a third of the population in Japan will be aged 65 or over.4.
17Detailed reading5Detailed readingFor some single-child parents, particularly those with busy careers, the pressures of devoting time and energy to a second child can seem too overwhelming, resulting in them electing to have no more children. For other parents, the financial burden of having a second child may be the prime consideration. According to government surveys, many couples in Japan choose not to have large families as the cost of supporting a child up to the age of 18 is estimated to be around 20 million yen, equivalent to around US $160,000.5.
18Detailed reading6Detailed readingAdvocates of single-child families argue that there are advantages for the child as well as the parents. With just one child, they suggest, there is no potential for family arguments arising from favoritism or sibling jealousy. Moreover, with only one child, the parents can give, and the child can receive, more quality time and attention. This often leads to increased self-esteem which, combined with increased independence, can lead to the child being more confident.6.
19Detailed reading7Detailed readingUnfortunately, there is no simple answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child. The circumstances affecting each set of parents are unique, and what is appropriate for one family may not be for another. The important thing, in the end, is to make a decision that both you and your spouse feel confident about.7.
20Detailed reading1--Quesion Paragraph 1QuestionsWhat is the dilemma that many couples are faced with?The dilemma that many couples are confronted with is whether or not they should have a second child. On one hand, they have demanding jobs and limited time and financial resources; on the other hand, they are also very keen to ensure that their only child does not become a lonely child. So they are plunged into this situation in which it is difficult for them to decide what to do.
21Detailed reading1--Quesion Paragraph 1Questions2) What is the concern that weighs heavily on the minds ofmany couples?Many couples are very much concerned about whether an only child necessarily becomes a lonely child.
22Detailed reading1--dilemma dilemma n.a situation in which it is difficult to decide what to do, because each choice has its advantages and disadvantagese.g.Many women are faced with the dilemma of choosing between career and family commitments.Collocation:be in a dilemmae.g.I’m in a dilemma about this job offer.我不知道是接受还是不接受这份工作。
23Detailed reading1-- issue issue n.a subject or problem that is often discussed or argued aboute.g.Unemployment is not the issue — the real problem is the decline in public morality.I just got a raise, so money’s no longer an issue.Collocation:raise the issue: say that a problem should be discussede.g.We should raise the issue of discrimination with the council.Synonyms:subject, problem
24Detailed reading1-- demanding demanding adj.needing a lot of ability, effort, or skille.g.Climbing is physically demanding, while studying is mentally demanding.Many people agree that teaching is a demanding profession.Derivation:demand n.& v.
25Detailed reading1-- keen keen adj. interested in sth. or eager to do ite.g.John is a keen photographer.Collocations:be keen on sth.e.g.Daniel’s very keen on tennis.be keen to do sth.e.g.She’s out of hospital and keen to get back to work.Synonyms:interested, eagerDerivations:keenly ad.keenness n.
26Detailed reading1-- concerned 1 concerned adj. worried about somethinge.g.Concerned parents approached the school about the problem.Collocations:be concerned aboute.g.Ross has never been particularly concerned about what other people think of him.be concerned fore.g.Rescuers are concerned for the safety of two men trapped in the mine.
27Detailed reading1– concerned 2 be concerned thate.g.He’s concerned that he won’t get his money back.Derivations:concern n.& v.concerning prep.
28Detailed reading1-- the pros and cons of having a second child Explanation:the pros and cons: the advantages and disadvantagese.g.Before we make a decision, we must weigh up the pros and cons.After hours’ discussion, everybody at the meeting could see clearly the pros and cons of the proposal.Paraphrase:the advantages and disadvantages of having one more childTranslation:生育第二个孩子的利与弊
29Detailed reading2—Quesion1 Paragraph 2QuestionsWhat does the writer think of the issue of whether or not to have a second child?The writer thinks that the issue of whether to have a second child is one of the most difficult issues that parents nowadays are confronted with.
30Detailed reading2--Quesion 2 Paragraph 2Questions2) Why does the writer think that an only child necessarily means a lonely child?As there are no other children in the family for the child to associate with, he may feel lonely at times, especially during vacations.
31Detailed reading2-- concern concern n. a feeling of worry about sth. important; sth. that worries youe.g.His main concern is to be able to provide for his family.Collocations:concern about / overe.g.There is growing concern about the effects of pollution on health.concern for sb.e.g.A government spokesman expressed concern for the lives of the hostages.
32Detailed reading2-- stigma stigma n. a mark of shame or disgrace; a shameful feeling or reputatione.g.There is a strong stigma attached to suicide.In the past divorce and single parenthood carried a stigma.离异和单亲家庭在过去是令人感到羞耻的事情。
33Detailed reading2-- at times 1 sometimes but not usuallye.g.At times I wonder if it’s worth all the effort.Comparisons:at no time, at all times, at timesat no times: used to say strongly that something neverhappened or should never happenat all times: used especially in official notices orannouncements to say what always happensor should always happen
34Detailed reading2-- at times 2 Practice:1) did I tell you that you could use my car.2) Identification badges must be worn3) even the most talented athleteslose their motivation.At no time____________at all time____________At times__________
35Detailed reading3-- sibling sibling n.(fml) a brother or sistere.g.A child with siblings seldom gets lonely.Most young smokers are influenced by their elder siblings’ smoking habits.
36Detailed reading3-- negotiate negotiate v. discuss sth. in order to reach an agreement, esp. in business or politicse.g.Union leaders have negotiated an agreement for a shorter working week.Collocation:negotiate withe.g.The government refuses to negotiate with terrorists.Derivations:negotiation n.negotiable adj.
37Detailed reading3-- interact interact v.1) (people) talk to each other and understand each othere.g.He interacts well with other children in the class.2) (things) have an effect on each other and work togethere.g.Social and economic factors are interacting to produce a recession.Derivations:interaction: n.interactive: adj.
38Detailed reading2-- Many single-child Many single-child parents feel a stigma associated with their decision to have only one child.Paraphrase:Many single-child families have a strong sense of shame in their decision to have only one child.Translation:许多只有一个小孩的父母都为自己只生一个小孩的决定感到羞愧。
39Detailed reading2-- this may lead … this may lead to the child feeling lonely at times, …Explanation:lead to sb. doing sth.: cause sth. to happen to sb. or cause sb. to do sth.e.g.His actions could lead to him losing his job.Paraphrase:… such a situation will probably result in the child having a sense of loneliness from time to time, …Translation:……这样一种环境可能经常会让孩子感到孤独,……
40Detailed reading3—Quesion1 Paragraph 3QuestionWhat is the main idea of the third paragraph?The third paragraph states and supports another common argument against having just one-child: an only-child may be more spoiled than one with siblings.
41Detailed reading3-- Another common 1 Another common argument against having just one child is that an only-child may be more spoiled than one with siblings.Explanation:spoil: make sb., esp. a child, selfish from having too much attention or praiseParaphrase:Another reason some people usually hold against having only one child is that an only-child is more likely to be given too much love and care than one that has brothers and/or sisters.
42Detailed reading3-- Another common 2 Translation:另外一个常用于反驳只养育一个孩子的理由是：一个孩子获得的溺爱要比那些有兄弟姐妹的孩子多得多。
43Detailed reading3-- respect the give-and-take respect the give-and-take involved in many relationshipsParaphrase:realize the importance of cooperation and mutual understanding between themselves and other people in various situationsTranslation:认识到在各种关系中合作与相互了解的重要性
44Detailed reading4—Quesion1 Paragraph 4QuestionWhat examples and statistics are given to show that more and more parents have decided to have only one child?In the US, for example, 14 percent of women between 18 and 34 plan to have just one child, and this percentage is expected to rise. The same trend can be seen in the UK. According to the Family Policy Studies Center, the overall number of British children being born each year has declined. In Japan, the average number of children born per family had declined to 1.42 by 1996, while the latest statistics cite less than one child.
45Detailed reading4-- decline decline: v.1) decrease in quantity or importancee.g.Spending on information technology has declined.2) become gradually worse in qualitye.g.Do you think standards of education have declined in recent years?Synonym:decreaseDerivation:decline n.
46Detailed reading4-- cite cite: v.1) mention something as an example, esp. one thatsupports or explains an idea or a situatione.g.Several factors have been cited as the cause of the student unrest.2) give the exact words of something that has been written,esp. in order to support an opinion or prove an ideae.g.The writer cited many quotations from different scholars.Synonym:quoteDerivation:citation n.
47Detailed reading4-- 14 percent of …, 14 percent of women between 18 and 34 plan to have just one child, and this percentage is expected to riseExplanation:Use percent only with a number, e.g. 30 percent, 9 percent, etc. If you mean “an amount expressed as part of a total,” use percentage.e.g.A high percentage of the population was illiterate.Translation:在18至34岁的女性中，14%的女性希望生育一个孩子，而且这一比例预计会更高。
48Detailed reading4-- while latest while latest statistics cite less than one childParaphrase:while latest statistics show that the average number of children born per family has declined to less than one childTranslation:然而最新的统计数据表明平均每个家庭孩子出生率已经低于一
49Detailed reading5—Quesion1 Paragraph 5QuestionWhat is the main idea of Paragraph 5?Paragraph 5 supplies two most typical reasons for the steady increase of the number of parents who have chosen to have only one child.
50Detailed reading5-- overwhelming overwhelming: adj.having such a great effect on you that you feelconfused and at a loss what to doe.g.She felt an overwhelming desire to hug her child.The sheer size of the place seems overwhelming and confusing at first.2) (numbers, odds, etc.) very largee.g.An overwhelming majority of the members were against the idea.Derivation:overwhelm v.
51Detailed reading5-- elect to do sth elect to do sth. : (fml) choose to do somethinge.g.You can elect to delete the message or save it.Translation:购买者可选择按月分期付款。Purchasers can elect to pay in monthly installments.
52Detailed reading5-- prime prime: adj. main; most importantSmoking is the prime cause of lung disease.Our prime concern is providing jobs for all young school leavers.e.g.Synonym:majorDerivations:prime: n.prime: v.
53Detailed reading5-- equivalent equivalent: adj. having the same value, purpose, etc.as a person or thing of a different kinde.g.We could give you an equivalent amount in company shares.Collocation:be equivalent toe.g.This is a qualification which is equivalent to degree.Comparison:equivalent, equalequal: being the same in size, value, amount, number, etc. as something elsee.g.Jennifer cut the cake in to six equal pieces.Derivation:equivalence: n.
54Detailed reading6--Quesion 1 Paragraph 6QuestionWhat advantages of having only one child are argued for by advocates of single-child families?With just one child, there is no potential for family arguments arising from favoritism or sibling jealousy. The child can receive more quality time and attention from parents, which will increase their self-esteem, independence and confidence.
55Detailed reading6- advocate advocate: n. someone who publicly support someoneelse or somethinge.g.He is a strong advocate of “English only” in class.Synonyms:support: [U] the people who support somethingsupporter: [C] someone who supports somethingDerivation:advocate: v.
56Detailed reading6- potential potential: n. the possibility that something will develop ina certain way, or have a particular effecte.g.The potential for abuse in such a system is enormous.Synonym:potentiality: (fml) possibilityDerivations:potential: adj.potentiality: n.
57Detailed reading6- jealousy jealousy: n. anger and unhappiness because someone hassomething you wish you hade.g.Polly felt a sharp pang of jealousy when she saw Paul with Suzanne.Derivation:jealous: adj.
58Detailed reading6- arise1 arise: v. begin to happene.g.A crisis has arisen between the two countries.Collocation:arise from: be caused or started by a situation, event, etc.e.g.Can we begin by discussing matters arising from the last meeting?
59Detailed reading6- arise2 Comparison: arise, riserise: increase in number, amount or valuePractice:1) House prices are likely to towards the end of this year.2) During the night a great stormrise____has arisen___________
60Detailed reading6- self-esteem self-esteem: n. the feeling of being satisfied with yourown abilities, and that you deserve to beliked or respectede.g.You ought to raise your self-esteem.Playing a sport can boot a girl’s self-esteem.Synonym:self-respectAntonym:self-doubt: the feeling that you and your abilitiesare not good enough
61Detailed reading7--Quesion 1 Paragraph 7QuestionsDoes the writer give a definite answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child? Why?No. But the writer does give an appropriate and practicable answer. As the circumstances affecting each set of parents are unique, what is suitable for one family may not be appropriate for another. Obviously, it is impossible or impracticable to give a yes or no answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child.
62Detailed reading7--Quesion 2 Paragraph 7Questions2) What is the writer’s advice given to single-child parents?The writer’s advice is as follows: The important thing, in the end, is to make a decision that both you and your spouse feel confident about.
63Detailed reading7-- unique 1 unique: adj. being the only one of its kinde.g.Each person’s fingerprints are unique.Derivations:uniquely: adv.uniqueness: n.
64Detailed reading7-- unique 2 Comparison:unique, onlyunique: having features or qualities that make it different from anything elseonly: being the only one of something available in a particular place at a particular timePractice:1) She was the woman doctor in the district.2) I am in a rather position, as my job isdifferent from anyone else's.only_____unique________
65Detailed reading7-- spouse spouse: n. (fml) a husband or wifee.g.The writer’s opinion is that you make a decision that both you and your spouse feel confident about.e.g.He never mentioned his spouse.
66Activity Activity: A debate Detailed readingActivity: A debateDirections: Work in pairs and have a debate on the pros and cons of having a second child. You should use the following words and expressions in your debate.dilemma demanding be keen tosibling be concerned aboutoverwhelming elect to prime equivalent arise jealousyself-esteem unique spouse
68Consolidation Activities-Phrase practice 1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningdemanding jobs= jobs needing a lot of attention or effort 费力的工作e.g.Being babysitter is really a demanding job, which requires love, patience and the skills.看护婴儿确实是一项费力的工作，它需要爱心、耐心，还有技巧。
69Consolidation Activities-Phrase practice 2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningwith regard to =in connection with; on the subject of关于，至于e.g.With regard to you health, you must quit smoking right now.考虑到你的健康，你必须马上戒烟。With regard to the financial difficulties, the company decided to cut its expense.考虑到财政困难，公司决定压缩支出。
70Consolidation Activities-Phrase practice 3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningstigma =sign of shame; feeling of being ashamed耻辱，侮辱的标记e.g.The stigma has deprived him of all joy and fun in those days.那些日子里，他心中的耻辱使他的生活没有了任何快乐。
71Consolidation Activities-Phrase practice 4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeninggive-and-take =willingness of each person to satisfy others’ withes 妥协，互让e.g.Give-and-take is the secret of successful friendship.付出和给予是成功的友谊的秘密。
72Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 1with regard to: in connection withe.g.I am writing to you with regard to your letter of 15 March.for the purpose of: why you do sth. or why sth. existse.g.I came to Brighton for the express purpose of seeing you.
73Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 1in view of: used to introduce the reason for a decision,action or situatione.g.In view of his conduct, the club has decided to suspend him.in accordance with: according to a rule, system, etc.e.g.Use this product only in accordance with the manufacture’s instructions.
74Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 2ensure: to ensure sth., or to ensure that sth. happens,means to make certain that it happense.g.We must ensure the purity of drinking water.entertain: to keep a group of people interested orenjoying themselvese.g.We hired a magician to entertain the children.
75Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 2enable: to make it possible for someone to do something,or for something to happene.g.Our main goal is to enable healthy change and growth.enquire: if you enquire about something, you ask forinformation about ite.g.He was so impressed that he enquired the young shepherd’s name.
76Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 3associate with (sb.): to spend time with someone, esp.someone that other people disapproveofe.g.He may have been associating with the criminals.care about: if you care about something, you feel that itis important and are concerned about ite.g.Does anybody know we’re here, does anybody care about that?
77Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 3be concerned with: to be about a particular thing or persone.g.Today’s lesson is concerned with punctuation.touch: to have an effect on someone or something,especially by changing or influencing theme.g.He may have been associating with the criminals.
78Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 4at times: sometimese.g.Life is hard at times.in time: before the time by which it is necessary forsomething to be donee.g.Will you be able to finish it in time?
79Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 4on time: at the correct time or the time that was arrangede.g.Jack was worried about whether he’d be able to get there on time.sometime: at a time in the future or the past which is notknown or not statede.g.We really should meet sometime soon to discuss the details.
80Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 5result in: to cause a particular situation to happene.g.The fire resulted in damage to their property.result from: if a situation or problem results from aparticular event or activity, it is caused by ite.g.His difficulty in walking results from a childhood illness.
81Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison6 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 6cite: if you cite something, you quote it or mention it,especially as an example or proof of what you aresayinge.g.She cites a favorite poem by George Herbert.site: a place where something is, was, or wheresomething happened, is happening, or will happene.g.The council haven’t yet chosen the site for the new hospital.
82Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison7 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 6sight: the physical ability to seee.g.Anne’s sight is very good for someone of her age.borrow: if you borrow something that belongs to someoneelse, you take it or use it for a period of time,usually with their permissione.g.He wouldn’t let me borrow his clothes.
83Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison8 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 7despite: without taking any notice of or being influencedby; not prevented bye.g.I still enjoyed the week despite the weather.in spite of: despitee.g.In spite of his injury, Ricardo will play in Saturday’s match.
84Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison9 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 8equivalent: if one amount or value is the equivalent ofanother, they are the samee.g.The equivalent of two tablespoon of polyunsaturated oils is ample each day.same: exactly like another or each othere.g.She was wearing exactly the same dress as I was.
85Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison10 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGroup 8related to: things that are related are connected in somewaye.g.Police now believe that the three crimes could be related.different to: things are unlike in nature or quality or form or degreee.g.My approach is totally different to his.
86Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGive synonyms or antonyms of the word underlined in each sentence in the sense it is used.1. A concern that is often heard with regard to singlechildren is whether one child necessarily means a lonelychild.Synonyms:only, sole2. Another common argument against having just one child is that an only child may be more spoiled than one with siblings.Antonyms:uncommon, unusual, extraordinary, exceptional
87Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening3. Many people believe that a single child will not havelearned to negotiate with others, and respect the give-and-take involved in many relationships.Synonyms:honor, admire, esteem4. Despite these arguments, the number of parentschoosing to have only one child is increasing in manyparts of the world.Antonyms:decrease, diminish, lessen
88Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening5. This has led to government concerns about supportingan increasing population of elderly people in the future.Synonyms:worries, anxiety6. For some single-child parents, the pressures of devoting time and energy to a second child can seem too overwhelming.Antonyms:insignificant, weak, feeble, powerless
89Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening7. For other parents, the financial burden of having asecond child may be the prime consideration.Synonyms:first, chief, main, primary, principal, foremost, leading8. Unfortunately, there is no simple answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child.Antonyms:fortunately, luckily
90Consolidation Activities- Word derivation1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningFill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate form of the given capitalized word in brackets.1. She is famous for her of human rights.(advocate)advocacy___________2. When the time for parting came, he shook hands witheveryone (respect)respectfully_____________
91Consolidation Activities- Word derivation1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningFill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate form of the given capitalized word in brackets.3. It is estimated that China has enormous for economic development in the coming year.(potentially)potential___________4. The job of a is to examine the condition of a building, or to measure and record the details of an area of land (survey)surveyor__________
92Consolidation Activities- Word derivation1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningFill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate form of the given capitalized word in brackets.5. The British Air Force succeeded despite odds against them (overwhelm)overwhelming________________6. The between the two companies dates back to the last century (associate)association_____________
93Consolidation Activities- Word derivation1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningFill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate form of the given capitalized word in brackets.7. There is no English for “bon appetite,” so we have adopted the French expression.(equivalence)equivalent_____________8. I thought his remark was highly , given the circumstances (appropriate)inappropriate_______________
94Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- advocate 1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningadvocate (v.) 提倡，主张，拥护advocation (n.) 拥护，支持，辩护advocator (n.) 提倡者，拥护者advocatory (a.) 拥护者的，有关拥护者的advocacy (n.) 拥护，主张，辩护Chinese-English translation.1) 年轻人应当拥护社会文化的更新和发展。Young people should advocate social culture renewal and development2) 小说的历史价值在于对人文精神的关怀上。The historical value of the novel lies in its advocation of humanism.
95Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- advocate 2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningChinese-English translation.3) 作为全球化的积极推动者，这个国家得到了巨大的回报。As the advocator of globalization, the country has been greatly rewarded.
96Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening2. respect (v.) 尊敬，尊重；遵守respectable (a.) 人格高尚的，值得尊敬的respectably (ad.) 相当好地，体面地respectful (a.) 恭敬的，礼貌的respectfully (ad.) 尊敬地respective (a.) 分别的，各自的Chinese-English translation.1) 你应该尊敬你的老师。You need to respect your teachers.2) 他是个受人尊敬可信赖的人。He is respectable and reliable.
97Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningChinese-English translation.3) 他们和经理站开了一些距离，以示尊敬。They stood at a respectful distance from the manager.4)下课后，学生们各自回家。The students returned to their respective homes after class.
98Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening3. potential (n.) 可能性，潜能potentially (ad.)可能地，潜在地potent (adj.) 有效的，强有力的，有权势的e.g.It is the most potent poison.这是最厉害的毒药。One has unlimited potential waiting to be explored.人们有着无尽的潜能等待发掘。I’m facing a potentially very dangerous crisis.我可能要面对一场非常凶险的危机。
99Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening4. survey (v.) 监督，监视surveillance (n.) 监督，监视surveyor (n.) 测量员，检验员e.g.It is impossible to survey the will of the people in such short notice.想要在这么短时间内完成民意调查是不可能的。The surveyor announced that all the walls were completely sound.检查员宣布所有墙壁均完好无损。Surveillance video captures a woman with the kidnapped boy.监视器拍摄到了一名妇女带着这名被绑架的男孩。
100Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening5. overwhelm (v.) 压倒，淹没，受打击overwhelming (adj.) 压倒性的，势不可挡的overwhelmingly (adv.) 压倒性地，不可抵抗地e.g.No difficulty can overwhelm the brave.勇敢的人是不会被困难打倒的。She felt an overwhelming desire to see her boy. 她无比渴望见到自己的儿子。Chinese youth overwhelmingly want personal computer.中国的年轻人非常想拥有个人电脑。
101Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening6. associate (v.) 结交，交往association (n.) 协会，联盟，社团associative (adj.) 联合的，联想的，组合的associator (n.) 社员，伙伴，会员e.g.Many people associate dark clouds with depression and bad luck.许多人把乌云与沮丧和厄运联系起来。The anti-smoking association launches a new campaign in the campus.禁烟协会在校园里发动了一场新的运动。His associative ability impressed me a lot.他的联想能力使我印象深刻。The associators are working hard together for their common goal.会员们为了他们共同的目标团结奋斗。
103Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeninge.g.Woman and man should enjoy equal pay for the same job.男性女性应当同工同酬。I would sacrifice my life for equality and freedom. 为了平等和自由我宁愿牺牲生命。The equation of happiness and wealth is dangerous.将幸福与财富等同是很危险的。He changed his pounds for the equivalence amount in dollars.他把英镑兑换成等值的美元。There is no equivalence of parental love for kids.对孩子而言，父母之爱是无可替代的。
104Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening8. appropriate (adj.) 适当的appropriable (adj.) 可供专用的appropriately (adv.) 适当地inappropriate (adj.) 不适当的，不相称的inappropriately (adv.) 不适当地，不相称地e.g.Appropriate table manner is required in a formal banquet.正式聚会要求得体的餐桌礼仪。Parents need to handle their emotion appropriately.父母应当妥当处理自己的情绪。It is inappropriate to put the knife into the mouth at the table.就餐时不应当将叉子放入口中。
105Consolidation Activities- Vocabulary main GrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningSimple prepositions and complex prepositionsConjunctions
106Consolidation Activities- Grammar1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening1. Simple prepositions and complex prepositions1) The prepositions, such as in, of, at, and to, are allsingle words. We call them SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS.2) COMPLEX PREPOSITIONS consist of two- or three-wordcombinations acting as a single unit. Here are someexamples:according to, but for, except for, in termsof, in point of, with regard to, in the case of, etc.
107Consolidation Activities- Grammar2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningPracticeComplete the following sentences with the appropriate complex prepositions listed below.regardless of but for in terms of except for according to in case ofa few spelling mistakes, it is on thewhole a good composition.2. We would have arrived two hours ago thetraffic jam.money, they’re quite rich.Except for____________but for________In terms of____________
108Consolidation Activities- Grammar2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningregardless of but for in terms of except for according to in case of4. They divided themselves into three groups age.fire, open this safety door.danger, he climbed the tower.according to_____________In case of___________Regardless of______________
109Consolidation Activities- Grammar3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening2. ConjunctionsConjunctions are used to express a connection between words. There are two types of conjunctions. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS (or simply COORDINATORS) connect elements of equal syntactic status:e.g.Paul and DavidI play tennis but I don't play well.meat or fishOn the other hand, SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS (or SUBORDINATORS) connect elements of unequal syntactic status:e.g.I left early because I had an interview the next day.I'll be home at nine if I can get a taxi.
110Consolidation Activities- Grammar4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningPracticeIn each sentence, insert an appropriate conjunction from the list.whenever where as becausesince although or else wherever1. Many exam candidates lose marks simply they do not read the questions properly.2. Bill works foreman at Whiting’s Corporation.the sun was shining, he went out wearing a coat.because__________as____Although___________
111Consolidation Activities- Grammar5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningI hear that tune, it makes me think of my former classmates.5. Take your passport with you you go.6. It’s a long time I last heard from Albert.7. Plant your fig-tree there is plenty of sunshine.8. Take your medicine regularly you won’t get well.Whenever___________wherever___________since______where_______or else_______
112Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening1. “Except for” means “not including.” It is used to show that a general statement made in the main part of the sentence is not completely true.
113Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening2. “But for” means “except for the effects of.”
114Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening3. “In terms of” means “in the circumstance of.”
118Consolidation Activities- Grammar4.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening2. as“As” means “in the capacity of” while “like” means “in the manner of.”
119Consolidation Activities- Grammar5.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening6. since“Since” introduces a past date, moment, event, a point of time while “for” introduces a period of time.
120Consolidation Activities- Translation1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningTranslate the following sentences into English.1. 让她感到为难的是，要不要把丈夫得了不治之症的真相告诉他。(dilemma)If you are in dilemma, you are in a state of uncertainty or perplexity especially as requiring a choice between equally unfavorable options.The dilemma she is facing is whether to tell her husband the truth about his fatal disease.
121Consolidation Activities- Translation2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningPractice：Translate the following sentences into English.很多女性面临着选择家庭还是事业的两难境地。Many women are faced with the dilemma of choosing between work and family commitments.常见的难题：是留在家人朋友身边，还是去远方城市谋个好差事？It is a common dilemma: Should you stay where you have friends and family, or take that good job in a far-away city?
122Consolidation Activities- Translation3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening微软清楚地意识到这样的两难局面。Microsoft has clearly seen the dilemma that arises.
123Consolidation Activities- Translation4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening2. 全世界几乎所有的政府都十分关注这个金融问题。(be concerned about)If you are concerned about something, you care about it; you pay great attention to it.Almost all the governments in the world are very much concerned about the financial issue.
124Consolidation Activities- Translation5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningPractice：Translate the following sentences into English.当前，人们不仅关注要吃好，还要寻求营养平衡。Nowadays, people are not only concerned about good food, but also about balanced nutrition.她最新出版的这本书是关于环境保护的。Her newly published book is concerned about environmental protection.
125Consolidation Activities- Translation6 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening越来越多的人开始关心自然环境了。More and more people begin to be concerned about our natural environment.
126Consolidation Activities- Translation4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening3. 至于英语教学研讨会，我建议本周末召开。(with regard to)With regard to equals as for or concerning.With regard to the seminar on English teaching, I suggest that it be held on the coming weekend.
127Consolidation Activities- Translation5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningPractice：Translate the following sentences into English.政府已采取了多项调控房价的措施。The government has taken several regulative measures in regard to housing prices.由于我的专业是旅游管理，所以我想得到一份与旅游相关的工作。Since I major in management of tourism, so I want to get a job with regard to tourism.
128Consolidation Activities- Translation6 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening亚洲国家对于外国游客也有一些规定，特别是在其国家的逗留时间。Asian nations do have regulations for foreign visitors, particularly with regard to length of stay.
129Consolidation Activities- Translation4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening4. 凭借他的表演潜力，这个小伙子有可能成为娱乐界的超级明星。 (potential)If you have potential for something, you have the inherent capacity for making it coming into being.With his acting potential, the young man is likely to be a superstar in the field of entertainment.
130Consolidation Activities- Translation5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningPractice：Translate the following sentences into English.所有人无论性别与家庭背景，必须都能发掘自身才能，充分发挥潜力。All girls and boys, from every background, must be able to discover their talents and fulfill their potential.她有做艺术家的潜质。She has a potential to be an artist.
131Consolidation Activities- Translation6 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening文字可以传递大量信息，但是如果使用不当，文字是有可能误导用户的。Written language is capable of conveying dense information, but inappropriate use of text has a great potential to confuse.
132Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningDictationFill in the blanks
133Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningDictationYou will hear a passage read three times. At the first reading, you should listen carefully for its general idea. At the second reading, you are required to write down the exact words you have just heard (with proper punctuation). At the third reading, you should check what you have written down.
134Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningDictationAbout this time / I found out the use of a key. / One morning I locked my mother up in the pantry, / where she was obliged to remain three hours. / She kept knocking on the door, / while I sat outside on the porch steps and laughed. / This naughty behavior of mine / convinced my parents / that I must be taught as soon as possible. / After my teacher came to me, / I sought an early opportunity / to lock her up in her room. / I could not be induced to tell / where the key was. / My father had to get a ladder / and take the teacher out through the window. / Months after, / I produced the key.
135Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningFill in each blank in the passage below with ONEword you think appropriate.Traditionally, so-called only children have gotten a bad (1) Not many years (2) it was common for people to assume that an only child was sure to be hopelessly selfish and spoiled. Experts added to the (3) of only-child woes,(4) that they were apt to be more aggressive, uncooperative, socially inept, less (5) in marriage, and so on. But none of this is necessarily true. Only children often grow (6) to be happy and well adjusted. In fact, being an only child has some (7) :nameago___________listclaiming______________successful____________up____advantages_____________
136Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningThey spend a lot of time interacting with adults, so they develop strong (8) skills, which serve them well in school and later in life. They enjoy their parents’ undivided (9) , and never have to suffer the pain of sibling jealousy. And they often enjoy educational, cultural, and travel (10) that children from large families might miss out on.language__________attention___________opportunities______________
137Consolidation Activities- Hints VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningHere you can use a word meaning “reputation”.Traditionally, so-called only children have gotten a bad (1) Not many years (2) it was common for people to assume that an only child was sure to be hopelessly selfish and spoiled. Experts added to the (3) of only-child woes,(4) that they were apt to be more aggressive, uncooperative, socially inept, less (5) in marriage, and so on. But none of this is necessarily true. Only children often grow (6) to be happy and well adjusted. In fact, being an only child has some (7) :nameago___________listclaiming______________successful____________up____advantages_____________
138Consolidation Activities- Hints VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningHere you need a word to indicate the past tense.Traditionally, so-called only children have gotten a bad (1) Not many years (2) it was common for people to assume that an only child was sure to be hopelessly selfish and spoiled. Experts added to the (3) of only-child woes,(4) that they were apt to be more aggressive, uncooperative, socially inept, less (5) in marriage, and so on. But none of this is necessarily true. Only children often grow (6) to be happy and well adjusted. In fact, being an only child has some (7) :nameago___________listclaiming______________successful____________up____advantages_____________
139Consolidation Activities- Hints VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningIf you want to express a set of things which all belong to a particular category, what word can you use?Traditionally, so-called only children have gotten a bad (1) Not many years (2) it was common for people to assume that an only child was sure to be hopelessly selfish and spoiled. Experts added to the (3) of only-child woes,(4) that they were apt to be more aggressive, uncooperative, socially inept, less (5) in marriage, and so on. But none of this is necessarily true. Only children often grow (6) to be happy and well adjusted. In fact, being an only child has some (7) :nameago___________listclaiming______________successful____________up____advantages_____________
140Consolidation Activities- Hints VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningHere you can use a word meaning “say.”Traditionally, so-called only children have gotten a bad (1) Not many years (2) it was common for people to assume that an only child was sure to be hopelessly selfish and spoiled. Experts added to the (3) of only-child woes,(4) that they were apt to be more aggressive, uncooperative, socially inept, less (5) in marriage, and so on. But none of this is necessarily true. Only children often grow (6) to be happy and well adjusted. In fact, being an only child has some (7) :nameago___________listclaiming______________successful____________up____advantages_____________
141Consolidation Activities- Hints VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningHow can we describe a person who achieves what he or she is intended to achieve?Traditionally, so-called only children have gotten a bad (1) Not many years (2) it was common for people to assume that an only child was sure to be hopelessly selfish and spoiled. Experts added to the (3) of only-child woes,(4) that they were apt to be more aggressive, uncooperative, socially inept, less (5) in marriage, and so on. But none of this is necessarily true. Only children often grow (6) to be happy and well adjusted. In fact, being an only child has some (7) :nameago___________listclaiming______________successful____________up____advantages_____________
142Consolidation Activities- Hints VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningHere you need a word to collocate with “grow”. It means a gradual change from being a child into being an adultTraditionally, so-called only children have gotten a bad (1) Not many years (2) it was common for people to assume that an only child was sure to be hopelessly selfish and spoiled. Experts added to the (3) of only-child woes,(4) that they were apt to be more aggressive, uncooperative, socially inept, less (5) in marriage, and so on. But none of this is necessarily true. Only children often grow (6) to be happy and well adjusted. In fact, being an only child has some (7) :nameago___________listclaiming______________successful____________up____advantages_____________
143Consolidation Activities- Hints VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningWhat are the good points of being the only child?Traditionally, so-called only children have gotten a bad (1) Not many years (2) it was common for people to assume that an only child was sure to be hopelessly selfish and spoiled. Experts added to the (3) of only-child woes,(4) that they were apt to be more aggressive, uncooperative, socially inept, less (5) in marriage, and so on. But none of this is necessarily true. Only children often grow (6) to be happy and well adjusted. In fact, being an only child has some (7) :nameago___________listclaiming______________successful____________up____advantages_____________
144Consolidation Activities- Hints VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningWhat kind of skill you need when you want to talk to others?They spend a lot of time interacting with adults, so they develop strong (8) skills, which serve them well in school and later in life. They enjoy their parents’ undivided (9) , and never have to suffer the pain of sibling jealousy. And they often enjoy educational, cultural, and travel (10) that children from large families might miss out on.language__________attention___________opportunities______________
145Consolidation Activities- Hints VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningWhat word can you use when you look at, listen to and think of someone carefully?They spend a lot of time interacting with adults, so they develop strong (8) skills, which serve them well in school and later in life. They enjoy their parents’ undivided (9) , and never have to suffer the pain of sibling jealousy. And they often enjoy educational, cultural, and travel (10) that children from large families might miss out on.language__________attention___________opportunities______________
146Consolidation Activities- Hints VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningHere you can use a word meaning “chance.”They spend a lot of time interacting with adults, so they develop strong (8) skills, which serve them well in school and later in life. They enjoy their parents’ undivided (9) , and never have to suffer the pain of sibling jealousy. And they often enjoy educational, cultural, and travel (10) that children from large families might miss out on.language__________attention___________opportunities______________
147Consolidation Activities- Oral activities VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGiving a talkHaving a discussion
148Consolidation Activities- Oral activities VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGiving a talkEver since the adoption of the “One Couple, One Child” policy, China has succeeded in slowing down the rapid expansion of her population. But every coin has two sides, and so does China’s population policy. Probably you are the only child of your family. Tell your fellow classmates, on the basis of your own life experience, the advantages and disadvantages of being the only child at home.Probably you could begin your talk with “As the only child of my parents, I have suffered a lot from their tyrannical control and pressure despite their love and care for me. Now let me tell you some of my experiences with them.”
149Consolidation Activities- For your reference1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningFor your reference1) You may use the following words or expressions in your talk:one-child policy, family planning, get more love and attention, spoil, “little emperors”, good education and training, opportunity, self-center, dependence, lonely, arrogant, burden2) You may want to introduce the advantages of being the only child at home as follows:Child can get more nutrition.Child can get more love and attention.Child may get good education even more opportunities to success.
150Consolidation Activities- For your reference2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningYou may want to introduce the disadvantages of being the only child at home as follows:Child may be self-centered and arrogant.Child may be lonely.Child may show a lack of independence.Child has big burden in supporting not only his parents but also his grandparents.—
151Consolidation Activities- Oral activities VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningHaving a discussionIt is generally believed that the only child in the family tends to be spoiled as too much love and care are lavished on him. Most of those born in the 80s and 90s of the 20th century are the only child in their families. People tend to think they are selfish, self-centred, and lacking in the ability to communicate and negotiate with others. You may not agree with them. Now hold a discussion, in a group of four or five students, on how to demonstrate to society that you, the only child in your respective families, can prove useful, valuable, and trustworthy.
152Consolidation Activities- For your reference1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningFor your referenceI think the only child in a family can prove useful and valuable. As long as he grows up in a healthy, democratic and harmonious family, he can be independent and trustworthy. Remember the kids in Sichuan earthquake in Quite a lot of them are the only child at home, but they are very strong and helpful.
153Consolidation Activities- For your reference2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningI think the only child in a family can be more confident and brave. They were born in such an open world that they can be more open-minded and confident. Meanwhile, in living such a world with fierce competition, they should learn how to fight with pressure at their early age, and that is why they become stronger. Without brothers and sisters, they should learn how to communicate with classmates or even strangers well. In doing so, they cultivate their open-mindedness.
155Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningParallelismParallelism is a balance of two or more grammatically and semantically similar words, phrases, or clauses. The application of parallelism in sentence construction improves writing style and readability — to give the sentence rhythm, balance and force.Generally, there are five ways to achieve parallelism.
156Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningA. Express similar ideas in similar grammatical formse.g.The strikers had tried pleading, threatening, and shouting.B. Arrange parallel elements in climactic ordere.g.This is a cause that means something to thousands, to a people, to a nation, to humanity, to God.C. Use parallel forms with coordinating conjunctionse.g.This government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth.
157Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningD. Use parallel forms with correlative conjunctionse.g.This is a time not for words, but for actions.E. Repeat certain words to begin parallel elementse.g.For the handicapped, getting an education is often a tribulation, a necessity, and a victory.
158Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningPracticeRewrite the following sentences in a parallel form.1. Faith sees the invisible, feels the intangible andachieves the impossibility.Faith sees the invisible, feels the intangible and achieves the impossible.[Use similar adjective form: invisible, intangible and impossible to achieve parallelism.]
159Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening2. Dream what you want to dream; go wherever you like;be what you want to be.Dream what you want to dream; go where you want to go; be what you want to be.[Use similar infinitive form: to dream, to go and to be to achieve parallelism.]3. What you say reflects your mind; what you do reflectshow able you are.What you say reflects your mind; what you do reflects your ability.[Use similar grammatical form — personal pronoun: your+ noun: mind and ability to achieve parallelism.]
160Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening4. A single dollar could save a man’s life, and a thousanddollars could better it, while a man’s life could beended by a million.A single dollar could save a man’s life, and a thousand dollars could better it, while a million dollars could end it.[Arrange parallel elements — a single dollar, a thousand dollars and a million dollars in climactic order to achieve parallelism.]
161Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening5. Endeavor, being confident and opportunity are thebasic elements of one’s success.Endeavor, confidence and opportunity are the basic elements of one’s success.[Use similar noun form — endeavor, confidence and opportunity to achieve parallelism.]
162Consolidation Activities- Listening VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningTitles Other than MotherA. While “housewife” can be an occupation, why can’t “mother” be? Listen to a speech made by a young mother of four girls. What high-sounding titles has she created for the following?
163Consolidation Activities- Listening VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening1. Herself (mother):2. Her three elder daughters:3. Her youngest daughter:Research Associate in the field of__________________________________________________________________________________Child Development and Human Relationslab assistants________________new experimental model in_________________________________________________________________the child-development program4. Grandmothers:5. Great grandmothers:6. Aunts:Senior Research Associates in the field__________________________________________________________________________________________of Child Development and Human R elations___________________________________________Executive Senior ResearchAssociatesAssociate Research Assistants in the field of_______________________________________________Child Development and Human Relations
164Consolidation Activities- Listening VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningB. When the speaker describes her job as a “mother,” she uses quite a few big words. What do they refer to? Listen again. Explain in your own words the real meaning of the following paragraph.
165Consolidation Activities- Listening VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningI have a continuing program of research, in the laboratory and in the field. I’m working for myMasters, and already have four credits. Of course, the job is one of the most demanding in the humanities, and I often work 14 hours a day.______________________________________________________________I have a list of endless things to do, both indoors and outdoors. I’m working for my whole family, and already have four daughters. Of course, every mother would agree that being a mother is one of the most time-consuming thing in the world, and I often have to work 14 hours a day.
166Consolidation Activities- Script VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningTitles Other than MotherA woman named Emily renewing her driver’s license at the County Clerk’s office was asked by the woman recorder to state her occupation. She hesitated, uncertain how to classify herself. “What I mean is,” explained the recorder, “do you have a job, or are you just a ...”“Of course I have a job,” snapped Emily. “I’m a mother.”“We don’t list ‘mother’ as an occupation ... ‘Housewife’ covers it,” said the recorder emphatically.
167Consolidation Activities- Script VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningI forgot all about her story until one day I found myself in the same situation, this time at our own Town Hall. The clerk was obviously a career woman, poised, efficient, and possessed of a high-sounding title like “Official Interrogator” or “Town Registrar.”“What is your occupation?” she probed.What made me say it, I do not know ... The words simply popped out. “I’m a Research Associate in the field of Child Development and Human Relations.”The clerk paused, ballpoint pen frozen in midair, and looked up as though she had not heard right.
168Consolidation Activities- Script VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningI repeated the title slowly, emphasizing the most significant words. Then I stared with wonder as my pronouncement was written in bold, black ink on the official questionnaire.“Might I ask,” said the clerk with new interest, “just what you do in your field?”Coolly, without any trace of fluster in my voice, I heard myself reply, “I have a continuing program of research, (what mother doesn’t), in the laboratory and in the field, (normally I would have said indoors and out). I’m working for my Masters, (the whole family), and already have four credits, (all daughters). Of course, the
169Consolidation Activities- Script VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningjob is one of the most demanding in the humanities, (any mother cares to disagree?) and I often work 14 hours a day, (24 is more like it). But the job is more challenging than most run-of-the-mill careers and the rewards are more of a satisfaction rather than just money.”There was an increasing note of respect in the clerk’s voice as she completed the form, stood up, and personally ushered me to the door.As I drove into our driveway, buoyed up by my glamorous new career, I was greeted by my lab assistants – ages 13, 7, and 3. Upstairs I could hear our new experimental model, (a 6-month-old baby), in the child-development program, testing out a new vocal pattern.
170Consolidation Activities- Script VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningI felt triumphant! I had scored a beat on bureaucracy! And I had gone on the official records as someone more distinguished and indispensable to mankind than “just another mother.”Motherhood ... What a glorious career! Especially when there’s a title on the door.Does this make grandmothers “Senior Research Associates in the field of Child Development and Human Relations” and great grandmothers “Executive Senior Research Associates”? I think so!!!I also think it makes aunts “Associate Research Assistants.”
171Section Five Further Enhancement Text IIMemorable quotesLead-in questionsTextQuestions for discussion
172Lead-in questions Lead-in questions Text IIMemorable quotesLead-in questions1. Is it the father or mother who plays a more importantrole in building up a child?2. What do you think are the benefits of having one parentstay at home to care for the children?
173Changing Roles: Stay-at-Home Dads Text1Text IIMemorable quotesChanging Roles: Stay-at-Home DadsBritish mechanic Neil Walkingshaw was looking for a way to care for his newborn child when he approached his boss with a proposal in early Reluctant to hire ababysitter once his wife’s maternity leave ended and she returned to work, Walkingshaw asked if he could switch to part-time hours in order to spend half of each day at home looking after his son. His employer refused, sayingthe paperwork would be “to messy” and that it would be difficult to get anyone to share Walkingshaw’s job.1.
174Text2Text IIMemorable quotesKnowing that the company he worked for had granted similar requests to female employees, Walkingshaw sued on the grounds of sex discrimination. On November 20, 2001, an industrial tribunal ruled that Walkingshaw had been discriminated against and awarded him ￡3,600.The ruling is believed to be the first of its kind, and demonstrates just how much views on parental roles have changed over the years.
175Text3Text IIMemorable quotesAs little as thirty years ago, few people questioned the gender roles that had prevailed for centuries The conventional wisdom was that a woman’s place was in the home and that a man’s main responsibility was to put food on the table. In the 1970s and 1980s, however, greater numbers of working women meant that men were no longer the sole breadwinner A father’s emothinal involvement with his family also became more important. Fifty years ago, almost no husbands were present in the delivery room when their wives gave birth. Today, it is generally expected for male partners to attend childbirth classes, be there for the delivery, and to make more responsibility for child rearing than their fathers or grandfathers did.2.
176Text4Text IIMemorable quotes3.In addition to society the role men play in relation to childcare, social scientists are also re-examining the contribution a father makes to his child’s welfare and development. Researchers have found evidence to suggest that a father plays a role in child development that is quite different from that of the mother. According to the research, fathers tend to be more playful, thus encouraging children to develop in a different way emotionally and physically than a child might under a mother’s exclusive care.
177Text5Text IIMemorable quotes4.Studies have also found that the presence of the father in the home can contribute to lower juvenile crime rates, a decrease in child poverty, and lower rates of teenage pregnancy. Differences in parenting styles between men and women are also believed to contribute to children’s ability to understand and communicate emotions in different ways. The research supports claims by some groups that the absence of a father in the family is the single biggest social problem in modern society.
178Text6 In recent years, organizations like the US-based 5. Text IIMemorable quotesIn recent years, organizations like the US-basedNational Fatherhood Initiative have begun to argue that the presence of the father is vital to a child’s development. These organizations aim to encourage fathers to take a more active role in their children’s lives. The movement also calls for the creation of a new image of fatherhood, one that goes beyond the traditional view of the father solely as provider, and also includes the equally crucial roles of nurturer, moral example, disciplinarian, and teacher.5.
179Text7Text IIMemorable quotes6.Many family experts believe that the ability of a family to raise well-adjusted children has much to do with a society promoting healthy families. If this theory is true, and if the father’s role is as important as mother’s in raising children, it’s possible to imagine a day when society will value the role of the father more, and when all men will learn to take their paternal duties as seriously as Neil Walkingshaw.
180Text1 – babysitterText IIMemorable quotesbabysitter (Paragraph 1): a babysitter is one who temporarily takes care of a child on behalf of the child’s parents
181Text1 – maternity leaveText IIMemorable quotesmaternity leave (Paragraph 1): time that a mother is allowed to spend away from work when she has a baby
182Text1 –part-time hoursText IIMemorable quotespart-time hours (Paragraph 1): working less than the normal hours, perhaps by working fewer days per week
183Text1 –the paperwork would Text IIMemorable quotes... the paperwork would be “too messy”… (Paragraph 1): … switching to part-time hours would involve tasks such as filling in forms, keeping files up to date, or writing reports and letters which are complicated and unpleasant to deal with …
184Text2– Walkingshaw ...Walkingshaw sued on the grounds of sex Text IIMemorable quotes...Walkingshaw sued on the grounds of sexdiscrimination. (Paragraph 1): … Walkingshaw took legalaction against the company for treating him differentlybecause of prejudice.
185Text2–an industrial tribunal Text IIMemorable quotesan industrial tribunal (Paragraph 1): a court whichjudges disagreements between workers and theiremployers
186Text2- The ruling isText IIMemorable quotesThe ruling is believed to be the first of its kind, and demonstrates just how much views on parental roles have changed over the years. (Paragraph 1): This official decision is said to be the first case of its category, and shows how greatly opinions of parental roles have altered in recent years. Attention should be paid to that fact that the word much in the sentence is not an adjective modifying the noun views, but an adverb in the meaning of a great deal modifying the verb changed.
187Text3- As little asText IIMemorable quotesAs little as thirty years ago, few people questioned the gender roles that had prevailed for centuries. (Paragraph 2): Only thirty years ago, few people expressed doubts about general beliefs of the social functions performed by males and females that had been widely held for centuries.
188Text3- The conventional Text IIMemorable quotesThe conventional wisdom was that a woman responsibility to his family was to put food on the table. (Paragraph 2): A belief most people held was that a woman should play the role of a housewife or homemaker, and a man a bread-earner.
189Text3 - A father’s emotional Text IIMemorable quotesA father’s emotional involvement with his family also became more important. (Paragraph 2): It was also getting more important that a father should have stronger emotional links with his family.
190Text4 - fathers tend toText IIMemorable quotes… fathers tend to be more playful, … (Paragraph 3): … fathers tend to be active, and more capable of providing fun for the child, …
191Text4 - under aText IIMemorable quotes... under a mother’s exclusive care: taken care of by the mother only
192Text5 - the presence ofText IIMemorable quotes... the presence of the father in the home can contribute to lower juvenile crime rates, a decrease in child poverty, and lower rates of teenage pregnancy. (Paragraph 4): With the father in the home, young people can be helped to prevent against legal offense and sexual misbehavior that might result in chance pregnancy.
193Text6 - National Fatherhood Initiative Text IIMemorable quotesNational Fatherhood Initiative (Paragraph 5): The National Fatherhood Initiative is a US-based non-profit, non-partisan organization that aims to improve the well-being of children through the promotion of responsible fatherhood. It was launched on 7th March, 1994 by Don Eberly, a former George H.W. Bush advisor and civil society scholar and Wade F. Horn, a child psychologist.
194Text6 - The movement also Text IIMemorable quotesThe movement also calls for the creation of a new image of fatherhood, one that goes beyond the traditional view of the father solely as provider, and also includes the equally crucial roles of nurturer, moral example, disciplinarian, and teacher. (Paragraph 5): According to the movement, the traditional view on the role of the father should change. He should support his family, devote his time to child rearing, set an example for his children, discipline them and teach them knowledge and skills.
195Text7 - well-adjusted children Text IIMemorable quoteswell-adjusted children (Paragraph 6): children who are emotionally healthy and able to deal well with the problems of life
196Questions for discussion1 Text IIMemorable quotesQuestions for discussionWhat was the traditional view on the roles of men and women?Traditionally, Western civilization viewed a woman as a wife and mother whose place should be in the home and a man the sole wage-earner of the family.
197Questions for discussion2 Text IIMemorable quotesQuestions for discussion2. What does Walkingshaw’s case imply about the problem with children?Many women decide to get jobs because of financial need or to achieve freedom from women’s traditional roles of child rearing and housework. As more and more women have begun working outside the home, many families no longer have an adult at home during the day, and the demand for childcare has risen.
198Questions for discussion3 Text IIMemorable quotesQuestions for discussion3. What are society’s changing views of the role of menplay in relation to childcare?People are re-thinking men’s values and their role in family life. Today, male parents are generally expected to attend childbirth classes, be there for the delivery, and to take more responsibility for child rearing than their fathers or grandfathers did. In other words, they should be more active in the care of children and the home.
199Questions for discussion4 Text IIMemorable quotesQuestions for discussion4. According to the passage, what do children needmost from their fathers?What kids need most from their father is probably his simple presence. Often the two most important things a father should give his children are love and time. Fathers need to make a special point of devoting their home hours and energy to their children. Mutual trust and unconditional love are still the keys to successful child rearing.
200Questions for discussion5 Text IIMemorable quotesQuestions for discussion5. What can we conclude from the passage about thefather’s role in child rearing?Open to discussion.
201Memorable Quotes Memorable Quotes Text IIMemorable quotesMemorable QuotesRead the following quotes and identify the relationship between blessing and bother, childhood and man, morning and day.
202Memorable Quotes Memorable Quotes Text IIMemorable quotesMemorable Quotes1. A baby is an inestimable blessing andbother.– Mark Twaininestimable: impossible to estimate or calculatee.g.What he said at my birthday party serves as an inestimable gift for all my life.Bringing up a baby takes very great efforts, which will bring enormous happiness at the same time.
203Memorable Quotes 2. The childhood shows the man, as Text IIMemorable quotes2. The childhood shows the man, asmorning shows the day.— John Miltonas: used as conjunction here to say the way in which sth. happens.e.g.Books are important to the mind, as water is to the fish.An anticipation of the adult’s future features can be discerned with the present character of a child. The same is true with the anticipation of the day which can be told by what the morning is like.