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Unit6 1. Quote Socrates: Children today are tyrants. They contradict their parent, gobble their food, and tyrannize their teachers. Cultural information.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit6 1. Quote Socrates: Children today are tyrants. They contradict their parent, gobble their food, and tyrannize their teachers. Cultural information."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Unit6

3 1. Quote Socrates: Children today are tyrants. They contradict their parent, gobble their food, and tyrannize their teachers. Cultural information Cultural information 1 Cultural information

4 2. Children from One-Child Families Cultural information 2 Some people think that children from only-child families have more merits than shortcomings. Cultural information Firstly, they value free will and will not accept orders blindly. Secondly, they love trying out new methods and are full of creative ideas. Thirdly, they expect others to treat them as indispensable partners of the team.

5 However, some people believe that the only children have more shortcomings than merits. Cultural information 3 Cultural information Many are heavily dependent on parents. And some never learn to do household chores. What do you think? It is even worse that some tend to be spoiled and self- centered. They are “the little emperors” in families and schools.

6 1. What is this expositive text concerned with? This text is concerned with the pros and cons of. In other words, the text deals with the typical of not having a second child. The text discusses them in an tone. Text analysis having only one child _______________________ advantages and disadvantages _________________________________ objective ___________ Global Reading-Text analysis1 Text analysis Structural analysis

7 2. What is the writer’s answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child? It goes as follows: “… there is no simple answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child. The circumstances affecting each set of parents are unique, and what is appropriate for one family may not be for another. The important thing, in the end, is to make a decision that both you and your spouse feel confident about.” Global Reading-Text analysis2 Text analysis Structural analysis

8 1. Divide the text into parts by completing the table. Structural analysis Paragraph(s)Main idea 1 2-3 It puts forward the issue of whether or not to have a second child, and mentions parents’ concern whether an only child necessarily means a lonely child. Two common arguments against having only one child in the family are presented. Structural analysis 1 Text analysis Structural analysis

9 Paragraph(s)Main idea 4-54-5 6 The author cites specific figures and facts to show that despite the disadvantages many parents still choose to have only one child, and he also points out some causes of their decision. The author briefly states the advantages of having a single child. Structural analysis 2 Text analysis Structural analysis

10 Paragraph(s)Main idea 7 It concludes that there is no simple answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child, and that the important thing, in the end, is to make the decision that a couple both feel confident about. Structural analysis 3 Text analysis Structural analysis

11 2. Some words used at the beginning of a paragraph make it easier for the reader to understand the coherence of the whole text, such as Another at the beginning of Paragraph 3, Despite of Paragraph 4, and Unfortunately of Paragraph 7. Can you explain how they function? Structural analysis 4 Text analysis Structural analysis

12 Structural analysis 5 “Despite these arguments …” prepares readers for something against their expectations, i.e. many parents still choose to have one child although the disadvantages of doing so have just been clearly presented. The word “Another” used at the beginning of Paragraph 3 implies that at least one argument has been presented earlier. Text analysis Structural analysis

13 Structural analysis 5 “Unfortunately” tells readers that there follows something disappointing, i.e. the author fails to provide a definite answer to the questions raised at the beginning of the text. Text analysis Structural analysis

14 1. Many couples, who already have one healthy, happy child, are facing a dilemma, namely, the issue of whether or not to have a second child. They have demanding jobs and limited time and financial resources, but they are also very keen to ensure that their only child does not become a lonely child. So, what are the pros and cons of having a second child? Is an only child a lonely child? That is what so many couples are very much concerned about and eager to understand. Is an Only Child a Lonely Child? Detailed reading1 Detailed reading

15 The issue of whether to have a second child is one of the most difficult issues that parents nowadays face. A concern that is often heard with regard to single children is whether one child necessarily means a lonely child. Many single-child parents feel a stigma associated with their decision to have only one child. There are no other children in the family for the child to associate with, and this may lead to the child feeling lonely at times, especially during vacations. Detailed reading2 Detailed reading 2.

16 Another common argument against having just one child is that an only child may be more spoiled than one with siblings. Many people believe that a single child will not have learned to negotiate with others, and respect the give-and-take involved in many relationships. Some think this may leave the child less capable of interacting well with people his or her own age than one who has been raised with siblings. Detailed reading3 Detailed reading 3.

17 Despite these arguments, the number of parents choosing to have only one child is increasing in many parts of the world. In the US, for example, 14 percent of women between 18 and 34 plan to have just one child, and this percentage is expected to rise. The same trend can be seen in the UK. According to the Family Policy Studies Center, the overall number of British children being born each year has declined. In Japan, the average number of children born per family had declined to 1.42 by 1996, while latest statistics cite less than one child. This has led to government concerns about supporting an increasing population of elderly people in the future; it is predicted that, by 2020, a third of the population in Japan will be aged 65 or over. Detailed reading4 Detailed reading 4.

18 For some single-child parents, particularly those with busy careers, the pressures of devoting time and energy to a second child can seem too overwhelming, resulting in them electing to have no more children. For other parents, the financial burden of having a second child may be the prime consideration. According to government surveys, many couples in Japan choose not to have large families as the cost of supporting a child up to the age of 18 is estimated to be around 20 million yen, equivalent to around US $160,000. Detailed reading5 Detailed reading 5.

19 Advocates of single-child families argue that there are advantages for the child as well as the parents. With just one child, they suggest, there is no potential for family arguments arising from favoritism or sibling jealousy. Moreover, with only one child, the parents can give, and the child can receive, more quality time and attention. This often leads to increased self-esteem which, combined with increased independence, can lead to the child being more confident. Detailed reading6 Detailed reading 6.

20 Unfortunately, there is no simple answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child. The circumstances affecting each set of parents are unique, and what is appropriate for one family may not be for another. The important thing, in the end, is to make a decision that both you and your spouse feel confident about. Detailed reading7 Detailed reading 7.

21 Paragraph 1 Questions 1) What is the dilemma that many couples are faced with? Detailed reading1--Quesion The dilemma that many couples are confronted with is whether or not they should have a second child. On one hand, they have demanding jobs and limited time and financial resources; on the other hand, they are also very keen to ensure that their only child does not become a lonely child. So they are plunged into this situation in which it is difficult for them to decide what to do. Detailed reading

22 Paragraph 1 Questions 2) What is the concern that weighs heavily on the minds of many couples? Detailed reading1--Quesion Many couples are very much concerned about whether an only child necessarily becomes a lonely child. Detailed reading

23 dilemma n. a situation in which it is difficult to decide what to do, because each choice has its advantages and disadvantages Detailed reading1--dilemma e.g. Many women are faced with the dilemma of choosing between career and family commitments. Collocation: be in a dilemma e.g. I’m in a dilemma about this job offer. 我不知道是接受还是不接受这份工作。 Detailed reading

24 issue n. a subject or problem that is often discussed or argued about Detailed reading1-- issue e.g. Unemployment is not the issue — the real problem is the decline in public morality. I just got a raise, so money’s no longer an issue. Collocation: raise the issue: say that a problem should be discussed e.g. We should raise the issue of discrimination with the council. Synonyms: subject, problem Detailed reading

25 demanding adj. needing a lot of ability, effort, or skill Detailed reading1-- demanding e.g. Climbing is physically demanding, while studying is mentally demanding. Many people agree that teaching is a demanding profession. Derivation: demand n.& v. Detailed reading

26 keen adj. interested in sth. or eager to do it Detailed reading1-- keen e.g. John is a keen photographer. Collocations: be keen on sth. e.g. Daniel’s very keen on tennis. be keen to do sth. e.g.She’s out of hospital and keen to get back to work. Synonyms:interested, eager Derivations: keenly ad. keenness n. Detailed reading

27 concerned adj. worried about something Detailed reading1-- concerned 1 e.g. Concerned parents approached the school about the problem. Collocations: be concerned about e.g. Ross has never been particularly concerned about what other people think of him. be concerned for e.g. Rescuers are concerned for the safety of two men trapped in the mine. Detailed reading

28 Detailed reading1– concerned 2 be concerned that e.g. He’s concerned that he won’t get his money back. Derivations: concern n.& v. concerning prep. Detailed reading

29 the pros and cons of having a second child Detailed reading1-- the pros and cons of having a second child Explanation: the pros and cons: the advantages and disadvantages e.g. Before we make a decision, we must weigh up the pros and cons. After hours’ discussion, everybody at the meeting could see clearly the pros and cons of the proposal. Paraphrase: the advantages and disadvantages of having one more child Translation: 生育第二个孩子的利与弊 Detailed reading

30 Paragraph 2 Questions 1)What does the writer think of the issue of whether or not to have a second child? Detailed reading2— Quesion1 The writer thinks that the issue of whether to have a second child is one of the most difficult issues that parents nowadays are confronted with. Detailed reading

31 Paragraph 2 Questions 2) Why does the writer think that an only child necessarily means a lonely child? Detailed reading2--Quesion 2 As there are no other children in the family for the child to associate with, he may feel lonely at times, especially during vacations. Detailed reading

32 A government spokesman expressed concern for the lives of the hostages. concern n. a feeling of worry about sth. important; sth. that worries you Detailed reading2-- concern e.g. His main concern is to be able to provide for his family. Collocations: concern about / over e.g. There is growing concern about the effects of pollution on health. concern for sb. e.g. Detailed reading

33 stigma n. a mark of shame or disgrace; a shameful feeling or reputation Detailed reading2-- stigma e.g. There is a strong stigma attached to suicide. In the past divorce and single parenthood carried a stigma. 离异和单亲家庭在过去是令人感到羞耻的事情。 Detailed reading

34 at times sometimes but not usually Detailed reading2-- at times 1 e.g.At times I wonder if it’s worth all the effort. Comparisons: at no time, at all times, at times at no times: used to say strongly that something never happened or should never happen at all times: used especially in official notices or announcements to say what always happens or should always happen Detailed reading

35 Practice: Detailed reading2-- at times 2 1) did I tell you that you could use my car. 2) Identification badges must be worn. 3) even the most talented athletes lose their motivation. At no time ____________ at all time ____________ At times __________ Detailed reading

36 sibling n. (fml) a brother or sister Detailed reading3-- sibling e.g. A child with siblings seldom gets lonely. Most young smokers are influenced by their elder siblings’ smoking habits. Detailed reading

37 negotiate v. discuss sth. in order to reach an agreement, esp. in business or politics Detailed reading3-- negotiate e.g. Union leaders have negotiated an agreement for a shorter working week. Collocation: negotiate with e.g. The government refuses to negotiate with terrorists. Derivations: negotiation n. negotiable adj. Detailed reading

38 interact v. 1) (people) talk to each other and understand each other Detailed reading3-- interact e.g.He interacts well with other children in the class. e.g. Social and economic factors are interacting to produce a recession. Derivations: interaction: n. interactive: adj. 2) (things) have an effect on each other and work together Detailed reading

39 Many single-child parents feel a stigma associated with their decision to have only one child. Detailed reading2-- Many single-child Paraphrase: Many single-child families have a strong sense of shame in their decision to have only one child. Translation: 许多只有一个小孩的父母都为自己只生一个小孩的决 定感到羞愧。 Detailed reading

40 … this may lead to the child feeling lonely at times, … Detailed reading2-- this may lead Explanation: lead to sb. doing sth.: cause sth. to happen to sb. or cause sb. to do sth. Translation: …… 这样一种环境可能经常会让孩子感到孤独,…… e.g.His actions could lead to him losing his job. Paraphrase: … such a situation will probably result in the child having a sense of loneliness from time to time, … Detailed reading

41 Paragraph 3 Question What is the main idea of the third paragraph? Detailed reading3— Quesion1 The third paragraph states and supports another common argument against having just one-child: an only-child may be more spoiled than one with siblings. Detailed reading

42 Another common argument against having just one child is that an only-child may be more spoiled than one with siblings. Detailed reading3-- Another common 1 Explanation: spoil: make sb., esp. a child, selfish from having too much attention or praise Paraphrase: Another reason some people usually hold against having only one child is that an only-child is more likely to be given too much love and care than one that has brothers and/or sisters. Detailed reading

43 Detailed reading3-- Another common 2 Translation: 另外一个常用于反驳只养育一个孩子的理由是:一个 孩子获得的溺爱要比那些有兄弟姐妹的孩子多得多。 Detailed reading

44 respect the give-and-take involved in many relationships Detailed reading3-- respect the give-and-take Paraphrase: realize the importance of cooperation and mutual understanding between themselves and other people in various situations Translation: 认识到在各种关系中合作与相互了解的重要性 Detailed reading

45 Paragraph 4 Question What examples and statistics are given to show that more and more parents have decided to have only one child? Detailed reading4— Quesion1 In the US, for example, 14 percent of women between 18 and 34 plan to have just one child, and this percentage is expected to rise. The same trend can be seen in the UK. According to the Family Policy Studies Center, the overall number of British children being born each year has declined. In Japan, the average number of children born per family had declined to 1.42 by 1996, while the latest statistics cite less than one child. Detailed reading

46 decline: v. Detailed reading4-- decline Detailed reading 1) decrease in quantity or importance e.g.Spending on information technology has declined. e.g. Do you think standards of education have declined in recent years? Synonym: decrease 2) become gradually worse in quality Derivation: decline n.

47 cite: v. Detailed reading4-- cite Detailed reading 1) mention something as an example, esp. one that supports or explains an idea or a situation e.g. Several factors have been cited as the cause of the student unrest. e.g. The writer cited many quotations from different scholars. Synonym: quote 2) give the exact words of something that has been written, esp. in order to support an opinion or prove an idea Derivation: citation n.

48 …, 14 percent of women between 18 and 34 plan to have just one child, and this percentage is expected to rise Detailed reading4-- 14 percent of Explanation: Use percent only with a number, e.g. 30 percent, 9 percent, etc. If you mean “an amount expressed as part of a total,” use percentage. Detailed reading e.g.A high percentage of the population was illiterate. Translation: 在 18 至 34 岁的女性中, 14% 的女性希望生育一个孩子, 而且这一比例预计会更高。

49 while latest statistics cite less than one child Detailed reading4-- while latest Paraphrase: while latest statistics show that the average number of children born per family has declined to less than one child Detailed reading Translation: 然而最新的统计数据表明平均每个家庭孩子出生率已 经低于一

50 Paragraph 5 Question What is the main idea of Paragraph 5? Detailed reading5— Quesion1 Paragraph 5 supplies two most typical reasons for the steady increase of the number of parents who have chosen to have only one child. Detailed reading

51 overwhelming: adj. Detailed reading5-- overwhelming Detailed reading 1)having such a great effect on you that you feel confused and at a loss what to do e.g. She felt an overwhelming desire to hug her child. The sheer size of the place seems overwhelming and confusing at first. e.g. An overwhelming majority of the members were against the idea. 2) (numbers, odds, etc.) very large Derivation: overwhelm v.

52 elect to do sth. : (fml) choose to do something Detailed reading5-- elect to do sth Detailed reading e.g.You can elect to delete the message or save it. Translation: 购买者可选择按月分期付款。 Purchasers can elect to pay in monthly installments.

53 prime: adj. main; most important Detailed reading5-- prime Detailed reading e.g. Smoking is the prime cause of lung disease. Our prime concern is providing jobs for all young school leavers. Synonym: major Derivations: prime: n. prime: v.

54 equivalent: adj. having the same value, purpose, etc. as a person or thing of a different kind Detailed reading5-- equivalent Detailed reading e.g. We could give you an equivalent amount in company shares. Collocation: be equivalent to e.g.This is a qualification which is equivalent to degree. Comparison: equivalent, equal equal: being the same in size, value, amount, number, etc. as something else e.g.Jennifer cut the cake in to six equal pieces. Derivation: equivalence: n.

55 Paragraph 6 Question What advantages of having only one child are argued for by advocates of single-child families? Detailed reading6--Quesion 1 With just one child, there is no potential for family arguments arising from favoritism or sibling jealousy. The child can receive more quality time and attention from parents, which will increase their self-esteem, independence and confidence. Detailed reading

56 advocate: n. someone who publicly support someone else or something Detailed reading6- advocate Detailed reading e.g.He is a strong advocate of “English only” in class. Synonyms: support: [U] the people who support something supporter: [C] someone who supports something Derivation: advocate: v.

57 potential: n. the possibility that something will develop in a certain way, or have a particular effect Detailed reading6- potential Detailed reading e.g.The potential for abuse in such a system is enormous. Synonym: potentiality: (fml) possibility Derivations: potential: adj. potentiality: n.

58 jealousy: n. anger and unhappiness because someone has something you wish you had Detailed reading6- jealousy Detailed reading e.g. Polly felt a sharp pang of jealousy when she saw Paul with Suzanne. Derivation: jealous: adj.

59 arise: v. begin to happen Detailed reading6- arise1 Detailed reading e.g.A crisis has arisen between the two countries. Collocation: arise from: be caused or started by a situation, event, etc. e.g. Can we begin by discussing matters arising from the last meeting?

60 Detailed reading6- arise2 Detailed reading Practice: 1) House prices are likely to towards the end of this year. 2) During the night a great storm. rise ____ has arisen ___________ Comparison: arise, rise rise: increase in number, amount or value

61 self-esteem: n. the feeling of being satisfied with your own abilities, and that you deserve to be liked or respected Detailed reading6- self- esteem Detailed reading e.g. You ought to raise your self-esteem. Playing a sport can boot a girl’s self-esteem. Synonym: self-respect Antonym: self-doubt: the feeling that you and your abilities are not good enough

62 Paragraph 7 Questions 1)Does the writer give a definite answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child? Why? Detailed reading7--Quesion 1 No. But the writer does give an appropriate and practicable answer. As the circumstances affecting each set of parents are unique, what is suitable for one family may not be appropriate for another. Obviously, it is impossible or impracticable to give a yes or no answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child. Detailed reading

63 Paragraph 7 Questions 2) What is the writer’s advice given to single-child parents? Detailed reading7--Quesion 2 The writer’s advice is as follows: The important thing, in the end, is to make a decision that both you and your spouse feel confident about. Detailed reading

64 unique: adj. being the only one of its kind Detailed reading7-- unique 1 e.g.Each person’s fingerprints are unique. Derivations: uniquely: adv. uniqueness: n. Detailed reading

65 Practice: Detailed reading7-- unique 2 1) She was the woman doctor in the district. 2) I am in a rather position, as my job is different from anyone else's. only _____ unique ________ Detailed reading Comparison: unique, only unique: having features or qualities that make it different from anything else only: being the only one of something available in a particular place at a particular time

66 spouse: n. (fml) a husband or wife Detailed reading7-- spouse e.g. The writer’s opinion is that you make a decision that both you and your spouse feel confident about. e.g.He never mentioned his spouse. Detailed reading

67 Activity: A debate Directions: Work in pairs and have a debate on the pros and cons of having a second child. You should use the following words and expressions in your debate. Activity dilemmademandingbe keen to sibling be concerned about overwhelming elect toprime equivalentarisejealousy self-esteemuniquespouse Detailed reading

68 Consolidation Activities- Vocabulary main Phrase practice Word / Phrase comparison Synonym / Antonym Word derivation VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

69 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 1 demanding jobs= jobs needing a lot of attention or effort 费力的工作 e.g. Being babysitter is really a demanding job, which requires love, patience and the skills. 看护婴儿确实是一项费力的工作,它需要爱心、耐心, 还有技巧。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

70 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 2 with regard to =in connection with; on the subject of 关于,至于 e.g. With regard to you health, you must quit smoking right now. 考虑到你的健康,你必须马上戒烟。 With regard to the financial difficulties, the company decided to cut its expense. 考虑到财政困难,公司决定压缩支出。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

71 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 3 stigma =sign of shame; feeling of being ashamed 耻辱,侮辱的标记 e.g. The stigma has deprived him of all joy and fun in those days. 那些日子里,他心中的耻辱使他的生活没有了任何快 乐。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

72 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 4 give-and-take =willingness of each person to satisfy others’ withes 妥协,互让 e.g. Give-and-take is the secret of successful friendship. 付出和给予是成功的友谊的秘密。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

73 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison1 with regard to: in connection with e.g. I am writing to you with regard to your letter of 15 March. Group 1 for the purpose of: why you do sth. or why sth. exists e.g. I came to Brighton for the express purpose of seeing you. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

74 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison1 in accordance with: according to a rule, system, etc. e.g. Use this product only in accordance with the manufacture’s instructions. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening in view of: used to introduce the reason for a decision, action or situation e.g. In view of his conduct, the club has decided to suspend him. Grammar Group 1

75 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison2 ensure: to ensure sth., or to ensure that sth. happens, means to make certain that it happens e.g. We must ensure the purity of drinking water. Group 2 entertain: to keep a group of people interested or enjoying themselves e.g.We hired a magician to entertain the children. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

76 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison2 Group 2 enquire: if you enquire about something, you ask for information about it e.g. He was so impressed that he enquired the young shepherd’s name. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening enable: to make it possible for someone to do something, or for something to happen e.g. Our main goal is to enable healthy change and growth. Grammar

77 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison3 Group 3 associate with (sb.): to spend time with someone, esp. someone that other people disapprove of e.g. He may have been associating with the criminals. care about: if you care about something, you feel that it is important and are concerned about it e.g. Does anybody know we’re here, does anybody care about that? VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

78 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison3 touch: to have an effect on someone or something, especially by changing or influencing them e.g. He may have been associating with the criminals. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening be concerned with: to be about a particular thing or person e.g.Today’s lesson is concerned with punctuation. Grammar Group 3

79 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison4 at times: sometimes e.g.Life is hard at times. in time: before the time by which it is necessary for something to be done e.g.Will you be able to finish it in time? VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 4

80 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison4 on time: at the correct time or the time that was arranged e.g. Jack was worried about whether he’d be able to get there on time. sometime: at a time in the future or the past which is not known or not stated e.g. We really should meet sometime soon to discuss the details. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 4

81 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison5 result in: to cause a particular situation to happen e.g.The fire resulted in damage to their property. result from: if a situation or problem results from a particular event or activity, it is caused by it e.g. His difficulty in walking results from a childhood illness. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 5

82 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison6 cite: if you cite something, you quote it or mention it, especially as an example or proof of what you are saying e.g.She cites a favorite poem by George Herbert. site: a place where something is, was, or where something happened, is happening, or will happen e.g. The council haven’t yet chosen the site for the new hospital. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 6

83 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison7 borrow: if you borrow something that belongs to someone else, you take it or use it for a period of time, usually with their permission e.g.He wouldn’t let me borrow his clothes. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening sight: the physical ability to see e.g.Anne’s sight is very good for someone of her age. Grammar Group 6

84 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison8 despite: without taking any notice of or being influenced by; not prevented by e.g.I still enjoyed the week despite the weather. in spite of: despite e.g. In spite of his injury, Ricardo will play in Saturday’s match. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 7

85 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison9 equivalent: if one amount or value is the equivalent of another, they are the same e.g. The equivalent of two tablespoon of polyunsaturated oils is ample each day. same: exactly like another or each other e.g.She was wearing exactly the same dress as I was. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 8

86 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison10 different to: things are unlike in nature or quality or form or degree e.g. My approach is totally different to his. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening related to: things that are related are connected in some way e.g. Police now believe that the three crimes could be related. Grammar Group 8

87 uncommon, unusual, extraordinary, exceptional Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym1 Give synonyms or antonyms of the word underlined in each sentence in the sense it is used. 1. A concern that is often heard with regard to single children is whether one child necessarily means a lonely child. Synonyms: only, sole 2. Another common argument against having just one child is that an only child may be more spoiled than one with siblings. Antonyms: VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

88 Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym2 3. Many people believe that a single child will not have learned to negotiate with others, and respect the give- and-take involved in many relationships. Synonyms:honor, admire, esteem 4. Despite these arguments, the number of parents choosing to have only one child is increasing in many parts of the world. Antonyms: decrease, diminish, lessen VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

89 Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym3 5. This has led to government concerns about supporting an increasing population of elderly people in the future. Synonyms:worries, anxiety 6. For some single-child parents, the pressures of devoting time and energy to a second child can seem too overwhelming. Antonyms: insignificant, weak, feeble, powerless VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

90 Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym4 7. For other parents, the financial burden of having a second child may be the prime consideration. Synonyms: first, chief, main, primary, principal, foremost, leading 8. Unfortunately, there is no simple answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child. Antonyms:fortunately, luckily VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

91 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation1 Fill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate form of the given capitalized word in brackets. 1. She is famous for her of human rights. (advocate) advocacy ___________ 2. When the time for parting came, he shook hands with everyone. (respect) respectfully _____________ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

92 3. It is estimated that China has enormous for economic development in the coming year. (potentially) 4. The job of a is to examine the condition of a building, or to measure and record the details of an area of land. (survey) Consolidation Activities- Word derivation1 Fill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate form of the given capitalized word in brackets. surveyor __________ potential ___________ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

93 5. The British Air Force succeeded despite odds against them. (overwhelm) 6. The between the two companies dates back to the last century. (associate) Consolidation Activities- Word derivation1 Fill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate form of the given capitalized word in brackets. overwhelming ________________ association _____________ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

94 7. There is no English for “bon appetite,” so we have adopted the French expression. (equivalence) 8. I thought his remark was highly, given the circumstances. (appropriate) Consolidation Activities- Word derivation1 Fill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate form of the given capitalized word in brackets. equivalent _____________ inappropriate _______________ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

95 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- advocate 1 advocate (v.) 提倡,主张,拥护 advocation (n.) 拥护,支持,辩护 advocator (n.) 提倡者,拥护者 advocatory (a.) 拥护者的,有关拥护者的 advocacy (n.) 拥护,主张,辩护 Chinese-English translation. 1) 年轻人应当拥护社会文化的更新和发展。 Young people should advocate social culture renewal and development 2) 小说的历史价值在于对人文精神的关怀上。 The historical value of the novel lies in its advocation of humanism. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

96 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- advocate 2 Chinese-English translation. 3) 作为全球化的积极推动者,这个国家得到了巨大的回报。 As the advocator of globalization, the country has been greatly rewarded. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

97 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 2. respect (v.) 尊敬,尊重;遵守 respectable (a.) 人格高尚的,值得尊敬的 respectably (ad.) 相当好地,体面地 respectful (a.) 恭敬的,礼貌的 respectfully (ad.) 尊敬地 respective (a.) 分别的,各自的 Chinese-English translation. 1) 你应该尊敬你的老师。 You need to respect your teachers. 2) 他是个受人尊敬可信赖的人。 He is respectable and reliable. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

98 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 Chinese-English translation. 3) 他们和经理站开了一些距离,以示尊敬。 They stood at a respectful distance from the manager. 4) 下课后,学生们各自回家。 The students returned to their respective homes after class. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

99 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 3. potential (n.) 可能性,潜能 potentially (ad.) 可能地,潜在地 potent (adj.) 有效的,强有力的,有权势的 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening e.g. It is the most potent poison. 这是最厉害的毒药。 One has unlimited potential waiting to be explored. 人们有着无尽的潜能等待发掘。 I’m facing a potentially very dangerous crisis. 我可能要面对一场非常凶险的危机。 Grammar

100 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening 4. survey (v.) 监督,监视 surveillance (n.) 监督,监视 surveyor (n.) 测量员,检验员 e.g. It is impossible to survey the will of the people in such short notice. 想要在这么短时间内完成民意调查是不可能的。 The surveyor announced that all the walls were completely sound. 检查员宣布所有墙壁均完好无损。 Surveillance video captures a woman with the kidnapped boy. 监视器拍摄到了一名妇女带着这名被绑架的男孩。 Grammar

101 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening 5. overwhelm (v.) 压倒,淹没,受打击 overwhelming (adj.) 压倒性的,势不可挡的 overwhelmingly (adv.) 压倒性地,不可抵抗地 e.g. No difficulty can overwhelm the brave. 勇敢的人是不会被困难打倒的。 She felt an overwhelming desire to see her boy. 她 无比渴望见到自己的儿子。 Chinese youth overwhelmingly want personal computer. 中国的年轻人非常想拥有个人电脑。 Grammar

102 Many people associate dark clouds with depression and bad luck. 许多人把乌云与沮丧和厄运联系起来。 The anti-smoking association launches a new campaign in the campus. 禁烟协会在校园里发动了一场新的运动。 His associative ability impressed me a lot. 他的联想能力使我印象深刻。 The associators are working hard together for their common goal. 会员们为了他们共同的目标团结奋斗。 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 6.associate (v.) 结交,交往 association (n.) 协会,联盟,社团 associative (adj.) 联合的,联想的,组合的 associator (n.) 社员,伙伴,会员 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening e.g. Grammar

103 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 7. equal (adj.) 相等的,胜任的,平等的 equality (n.) 平等,相等 equation (n.) 等式,方程式 equivalence (n.) 等值,相等 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

104 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening e.g. Woman and man should enjoy equal pay for the same job. 男性女性应当同工同酬。 I would sacrifice my life for equality and freedom. 为了平等和自由我宁愿牺牲生命。 The equation of happiness and wealth is dangerous. 将幸福与财富等同是很危险的。 He changed his pounds for the equivalence amount in dollars. 他把英镑兑换成等值的美元。 There is no equivalence of parental love for kids. 对孩子而言,父母之爱是无可替代的。

105 Appropriate table manner is required in a formal banquet. 正式聚会要求得体的餐桌礼仪。 Parents need to handle their emotion appropriately. 父母应当妥当处理自己的情绪。 It is inappropriate to put the knife into the mouth at the table. 就餐时不应当将叉子放入口中。 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- respect 1 8. appropriate (adj.) 适当的 appropriable (adj.) 可供专用的 appropriately (adv.) 适当地 inappropriate (adj.) 不适当的,不相称的 inappropriately (adv.) 不适当地,不相称地 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening e.g.

106 Consolidation Activities- Vocabulary main Simple prepositions and complex prepositions Conjunctions VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

107 Consolidation Activities- Grammar1 1. Simple prepositions and complex prepositions 1) The prepositions, such as in, of, at, and to, are all single words. We call them SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 2) COMPLEX PREPOSITIONS consist of two- or three-word combinations acting as a single unit. Here are some examples: VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening according to, but for, except for, in terms of, in point of, with regard to, in the case of, etc.

108 1. a few spelling mistakes, it is on the whole a good composition. 2. We would have arrived two hours ago the traffic jam. 3. money, they’re quite rich. Consolidation Activities- Grammar2 Practice Complete the following sentences with the appropriate complex prepositions listed below. regardless of but for in terms of except for according to in case of Except for ____________ but for ________ In terms of ____________ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

109 4. They divided themselves into three groups age. 5. fire, open this safety door. 6. danger, he climbed the tower. Consolidation Activities- Grammar2 regardless of but for in terms of except for according to in case of according to _____________ In case of ___________ Regardless of ______________ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

110 I left early because I had an interview the next day. I'll be home at nine if I can get a taxi. Consolidation Activities- Grammar3 2. Conjunctions Conjunctions are used to express a connection between words. There are two types of conjunctions. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS (or simply COORDINATORS) connect elements of equal syntactic status: e.g. Paul and David I play tennis but I don't play well. meat or fish e.g. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar On the other hand, SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS (or SUBORDINATORS) connect elements of unequal syntactic status:

111 Consolidation Activities- Grammar4 1. Many exam candidates lose marks simply they do not read the questions properly. 2. Bill works foreman at Whiting’s Corporation. 3. the sun was shining, he went out wearing a coat. Practice In each sentence, insert an appropriate conjunction from the list. whenever where as because since although or else wherever because __________ as ____ Although ___________ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

112 Consolidation Activities- Grammar5 4. I hear that tune, it makes me think of my former classmates. 5. Take your passport with you you go. 6. It’s a long time I last heard from Albert. 7. Plant your fig-tree there is plenty of sunshine. 8. Take your medicine regularly you won’t get well. since ______ Whenever ___________ wherever ___________ where _______ or else _______ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

113 Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.1 1. “Except for” means “not including.” It is used to show that a general statement made in the main part of the sentence is not completely true. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

114 Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.2 2. “But for” means “except for the effects of.” VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

115 Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.3 3. “In terms of” means “in the circumstance of.” VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

116 Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.4 4. “According to” means “as determined by.” VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

117 Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.5 5. “In case of” means “if there should happen to be.” VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

118 Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.6 6. “Regardless of” means “in spite of.” VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

119 Consolidation Activities- Grammar4.1 2. as “As” means “in the capacity of” while “like” means “in the manner of.” VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

120 Consolidation Activities- Grammar5.1 6. since “Since” introduces a past date, moment, event, a point of time while “for” introduces a period of time. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

121 Consolidation Activities- Translation1 1. 让她感到为难的是,要不要把丈夫得了不治之症的真相 告诉他。 (dilemma) If you are in dilemma, you are in a state of uncertainty or perplexity especially as requiring a choice between equally unfavorable options. The dilemma she is facing is whether to tell her husband the truth about his fatal disease. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Translate the following sentences into English.

122 Consolidation Activities- Translation2 Practice : Translate the following sentences into English. 很多女性面临着选择家庭还是事业的两难境地。 常见的难题:是留在家人朋友身边,还是去远方城市谋个 好差事? VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Many women are faced with the dilemma of choosing between work and family commitments. It is a common dilemma: Should you stay where you have friends and family, or take that good job in a far-away city?

123 Consolidation Activities- Translation3 微软清楚地意识到这样的两难局面。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Microsoft has clearly seen the dilemma that arises.

124 Consolidation Activities- Translation4 2. 全世界几乎所有的政府都十分关注这个金融问题。 (be concerned about) If you are concerned about something, you care about it; you pay great attention to it. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Almost all the governments in the world are very much concerned about the financial issue.

125 Consolidation Activities- Translation5 Practice : Translate the following sentences into English. 当前,人们不仅关注要吃好,还要寻求营养平衡。 她最新出版的这本书是关于环境保护的。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Nowadays, people are not only concerned about good food, but also about balanced nutrition. Her newly published book is concerned about environmental protection.

126 Consolidation Activities- Translation6 越来越多的人开始关心自然环境了。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar More and more people begin to be concerned about our natural environment.

127 Consolidation Activities- Translation4 3. 至于英语教学研讨会,我建议本周末召开。 (with regard to) With regard to equals as for or concerning. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar With regard to the seminar on English teaching, I suggest that it be held on the coming weekend.

128 Consolidation Activities- Translation5 Practice : Translate the following sentences into English. 政府已采取了多项调控房价的措施。 由于我的专业是旅游管理,所以我想得到一份与旅游相关 的工作。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar The government has taken several regulative measures in regard to housing prices. Since I major in management of tourism, so I want to get a job with regard to tourism.

129 Consolidation Activities- Translation6 亚洲国家对于外国游客也有一些规定,特别是在其国家 的逗留时间。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Asian nations do have regulations for foreign visitors, particularly with regard to length of stay.

130 Consolidation Activities- Translation4 4. 凭借他的表演潜力,这个小伙子有可能成为娱乐界的超 级明星。 (potential) If you have potential for something, you have the inherent capacity for making it coming into being. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar With his acting potential, the young man is likely to be a superstar in the field of entertainment.

131 Consolidation Activities- Translation5 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Practice : Translate the following sentences into English. 所有人无论性别与家庭背景,必须都能发掘自身才能,充分 发挥潜力。 她有做艺术家的潜质。 All girls and boys, from every background, must be able to discover their talents and fulfill their potential. She has a potential to be an artist.

132 Consolidation Activities- Translation6 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar 文字可以传递大量信息,但是如果使用不当,文字是有 可能误导用户的。 Written language is capable of conveying dense information, but inappropriate use of text has a great potential to confuse.

133 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Dictation Fill in the blanks

134 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Dictation You will hear a passage read three times. At the first reading, you should listen carefully for its general idea. At the second reading, you are required to write down the exact words you have just heard (with proper punctuation). At the third reading, you should check what you have written down.

135 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills Dictation About this time / I found out the use of a key. / One morning I locked my mother up in the pantry, / where she was obliged to remain three hours. / She kept knocking on the door, / while I sat outside on the porch steps and laughed. / This naughty behavior of mine / convinced my parents / that I must be taught as soon as possible. / After my teacher came to me, / I sought an early opportunity / to lock her up in her room. / I could not be induced to tell / where the key was. / My father had to get a ladder / and take the teacher out through the window. / Months after, / I produced the key. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

136 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills Fill in each blank in the passage below with ONE word you think appropriate. Traditionally, so-called only children have gotten a bad (1). Not many years (2) it was common for people to assume that an only child was sure to be hopelessly selfish and spoiled. Experts added to the (3) of only-child woes,(4) that they were apt to be more aggressive, uncooperative, socially inept, less (5) in marriage, and so on. But none of this is necessarily true. Only children often grow (6) to be happy and well adjusted. In fact, being an only child has some (7) : name ______ ago _____ list ____ claiming __________ successful ____________ up ____ advantages _____________ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

137 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills They spend a lot of time interacting with adults, so they develop strong (8) skills, which serve them well in school and later in life. They enjoy their parents’ undivided (9), and never have to suffer the pain of sibling jealousy. And they often enjoy educational, cultural, and travel (10) that children from large families might miss out on. language __________ attention ___________ opportunities ______________ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

138 Traditionally, so-called only children have gotten a bad (1). Not many years (2) it was common for people to assume that an only child was sure to be hopelessly selfish and spoiled. Experts added to the (3) of only-child woes,(4) that they were apt to be more aggressive, uncooperative, socially inept, less (5) in marriage, and so on. But none of this is necessarily true. Only children often grow (6) to be happy and well adjusted. In fact, being an only child has some (7) : ago _____ list ____ claiming __________ successful ____________ up ____ advantages _____________ Consolidation Activities- Hints Here you can use a word meaning “reputation”. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar name ______

139 Consolidation Activities- Hints Here you need a word to indicate the past tense. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Traditionally, so-called only children have gotten a bad (1). Not many years (2) it was common for people to assume that an only child was sure to be hopelessly selfish and spoiled. Experts added to the (3) of only-child woes,(4) that they were apt to be more aggressive, uncooperative, socially inept, less (5) in marriage, and so on. But none of this is necessarily true. Only children often grow (6) to be happy and well adjusted. In fact, being an only child has some (7) : name ______ ago _____ list ____ claiming __________ successful ____________ up ____ advantages _____________

140 Consolidation Activities- Hints If you want to express a set of things which all belong to a particular category, what word can you use? VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Traditionally, so-called only children have gotten a bad (1). Not many years (2) it was common for people to assume that an only child was sure to be hopelessly selfish and spoiled. Experts added to the (3) of only-child woes,(4) that they were apt to be more aggressive, uncooperative, socially inept, less (5) in marriage, and so on. But none of this is necessarily true. Only children often grow (6) to be happy and well adjusted. In fact, being an only child has some (7) : name ______ ago _____ list ____ claiming __________ successful ____________ up ____ advantages _____________

141 Consolidation Activities- Hints Here you can use a word meaning “say.” VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Traditionally, so-called only children have gotten a bad (1). Not many years (2) it was common for people to assume that an only child was sure to be hopelessly selfish and spoiled. Experts added to the (3) of only-child woes,(4) that they were apt to be more aggressive, uncooperative, socially inept, less (5) in marriage, and so on. But none of this is necessarily true. Only children often grow (6) to be happy and well adjusted. In fact, being an only child has some (7) : name ______ ago _____ list ____ claiming __________ successful ____________ up ____ advantages _____________

142 Consolidation Activities- Hints How can we describe a person who achieves what he or she is intended to achieve? VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Traditionally, so-called only children have gotten a bad (1). Not many years (2) it was common for people to assume that an only child was sure to be hopelessly selfish and spoiled. Experts added to the (3) of only-child woes,(4) that they were apt to be more aggressive, uncooperative, socially inept, less (5) in marriage, and so on. But none of this is necessarily true. Only children often grow (6) to be happy and well adjusted. In fact, being an only child has some (7) : name ______ ago _____ list ____ claiming __________ successful ____________ up ____ advantages _____________

143 Consolidation Activities- Hints Here you need a word to collocate with “grow”. It means a gradual change from being a child into being an adult VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Traditionally, so-called only children have gotten a bad (1). Not many years (2) it was common for people to assume that an only child was sure to be hopelessly selfish and spoiled. Experts added to the (3) of only-child woes,(4) that they were apt to be more aggressive, uncooperative, socially inept, less (5) in marriage, and so on. But none of this is necessarily true. Only children often grow (6) to be happy and well adjusted. In fact, being an only child has some (7) : name ______ ago _____ list ____ claiming __________ successful ____________ up ____ advantages _____________

144 Consolidation Activities- Hints What are the good points of being the only child? VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Traditionally, so-called only children have gotten a bad (1). Not many years (2) it was common for people to assume that an only child was sure to be hopelessly selfish and spoiled. Experts added to the (3) of only-child woes,(4) that they were apt to be more aggressive, uncooperative, socially inept, less (5) in marriage, and so on. But none of this is necessarily true. Only children often grow (6) to be happy and well adjusted. In fact, being an only child has some (7) : name ______ ago _____ list ____ claiming __________ successful ____________ up ____ advantages _____________

145 Consolidation Activities- Hints What kind of skill you need when you want to talk to others? VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar They spend a lot of time interacting with adults, so they develop strong (8) skills, which serve them well in school and later in life. They enjoy their parents’ undivided (9), and never have to suffer the pain of sibling jealousy. And they often enjoy educational, cultural, and travel (10) that children from large families might miss out on. language __________ attention ___________ opportunities ______________

146 Consolidation Activities- Hints VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar They spend a lot of time interacting with adults, so they develop strong (8) skills, which serve them well in school and later in life. They enjoy their parents’ undivided (9), and never have to suffer the pain of sibling jealousy. And they often enjoy educational, cultural, and travel (10) that children from large families might miss out on. language __________ attention ___________ opportunities ______________ What word can you use when you look at, listen to and think of someone carefully?

147 Consolidation Activities- Hints Here you can use a word meaning “chance.” VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar They spend a lot of time interacting with adults, so they develop strong (8) skills, which serve them well in school and later in life. They enjoy their parents’ undivided (9), and never have to suffer the pain of sibling jealousy. And they often enjoy educational, cultural, and travel (10) that children from large families might miss out on. language __________ attention ___________ opportunities ______________

148 Consolidation Activities- Oral activities VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Giving a talk Having a discussion

149 Consolidation Activities- Oral activities Giving a talk Ever since the adoption of the “One Couple, One Child” policy, China has succeeded in slowing down the rapid expansion of her population. But every coin has two sides, and so does China’s population policy. Probably you are the only child of your family. Tell your fellow classmates, on the basis of your own life experience, the advantages and disadvantages of being the only child at home. Probably you could begin your talk with “As the only child of my parents, I have suffered a lot from their tyrannical control and pressure despite their love and care for me. Now let me tell you some of my experiences with them.” VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

150 Child may get good education even more opportunities to success. Consolidation Activities- For your reference1 1) You may use the following words or expressions in your talk: For your reference VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar one-child policy, family planning, get more love and attention, spoil, “little emperors”, good education and training, opportunity, self-center, dependence, lonely, arrogant, burden 2) You may want to introduce the advantages of being the only child at home as follows: Child can get more nutrition. Child can get more love and attention.

151 Consolidation Activities- For your reference2 You may want to introduce the disadvantages of being the only child at home as follows: VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar — Child may be self-centered and arrogant. Child may be lonely. Child may show a lack of independence. Child has big burden in supporting not only his parents but also his grandparents.

152 Consolidation Activities- Oral activities Having a discussion It is generally believed that the only child in the family tends to be spoiled as too much love and care are lavished on him. Most of those born in the 80s and 90s of the 20th century are the only child in their families. People tend to think they are selfish, self-centred, and lacking in the ability to communicate and negotiate with others. You may not agree with them. Now hold a discussion, in a group of four or five students, on how to demonstrate to society that you, the only child in your respective families, can prove useful, valuable, and trustworthy. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

153 Consolidation Activities- For your reference1 For your reference VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening I think the only child in a family can prove useful and valuable. As long as he grows up in a healthy, democratic and harmonious family, he can be independent and trustworthy. Remember the kids in Sichuan earthquake in 2008. Quite a lot of them are the only child at home, but they are very strong and helpful.

154 Consolidation Activities- For your reference2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar I think the only child in a family can be more confident and brave. They were born in such an open world that they can be more open-minded and confident. Meanwhile, in living such a world with fierce competition, they should learn how to fight with pressure at their early age, and that is why they become stronger. Without brothers and sisters, they should learn how to communicate with classmates or even strangers well. In doing so, they cultivate their open-mindedness.

155 Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Parallelism Practice

156 Consolidation Activities- Writing Parallelism Parallelism is a balance of two or more grammatically and semantically similar words, phrases, or clauses. The application of parallelism in sentence construction improves writing style and readability — to give the sentence rhythm, balance and force. Generally, there are five ways to achieve parallelism. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

157 Consolidation Activities- Writing e.g. B. Arrange parallel elements in climactic order This is a cause that means something to thousands, to a people, to a nation, to humanity, to God. e.g. C. Use parallel forms with coordinating conjunctions This government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth. e.g. A. Express similar ideas in similar grammatical forms The strikers had tried pleading, threatening, and shouting. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

158 Consolidation Activities- Writing e.g. E. Repeat certain words to begin parallel elements For the handicapped, getting an education is often a tribulation, a necessity, and a victory. e.g. D. Use parallel forms with correlative conjunctions This is a time not for words, but for actions. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

159 Consolidation Activities- Writing Practice Rewrite the following sentences in a parallel form. 1. Faith sees the invisible, feels the intangible and achieves the impossibility. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Faith sees the invisible, feels the intangible and achieves the impossible. [Use similar adjective form: invisible, intangible and impossible to achieve parallelism.]

160 Consolidation Activities- Writing 2. Dream what you want to dream; go wherever you like; be what you want to be. 3. What you say reflects your mind; what you do reflects how able you are. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Dream what you want to dream; go where you want to go; be what you want to be. [Use similar infinitive form: to dream, to go and to be to achieve parallelism.] What you say reflects your mind; what you do reflects your ability. [Use similar grammatical form — personal pronoun: your+ noun: mind and ability to achieve parallelism.]

161 Consolidation Activities- Writing 4. A single dollar could save a man’s life, and a thousand dollars could better it, while a man’s life could be ended by a million. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening A single dollar could save a man’s life, and a thousand dollars could better it, while a million dollars could end it. [Arrange parallel elements — a single dollar, a thousand dollars and a million dollars in climactic order to achieve parallelism.]

162 Consolidation Activities- Writing 5. Endeavor, being confident and opportunity are the basic elements of one’s success. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Endeavor, confidence and opportunity are the basic elements of one’s success. [Use similar noun form — endeavor, confidence and opportunity to achieve parallelism.]

163 Consolidation Activities- Listening Titles Other than Mother A. While “housewife” can be an occupation, why can’t “mother” be? Listen to a speech made by a young mother of four girls. What high-sounding titles has she created for the following? VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

164 Consolidation Activities- Listening 1. Herself (mother): 2. Her three elder daughters: 3. Her youngest daughter: Research Associate in the field of Child Development and Human Relations _____________________________________ _____________________________________________ lab assistants ________________ new experimental model in the child-development program ______________________________ ___________________________________ VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening 4. Grandmothers: 5. Great grandmothers: 6. Aunts: Senior Research Associates in the field of Child Development and Human R elations __________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Executive Senior Research Associates _______________________________ ____________ Associate Research Assistants in the field of Child Development and Human Relations _______________________________________________

165 Consolidation Activities- Listening B. When the speaker describes her job as a “mother,” she uses quite a few big words. What do they refer to? Listen again. Explain in your own words the real meaning of the following paragraph. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

166 Consolidation Activities- Listening I have a list of endless things to do, both indoors and outdoors. I’m working for my whole family, and already have four daughters. Of course, every mother would agree that being a mother is one of the most time- consuming thing in the world, and I often have to work 14 hours a day. ______________________________________________________________ VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening I have a continuing program of research, in the laboratory and in the field. I’m working for my Masters, and already have four credits. Of course, the job is one of the most demanding in the humanities, and I often work 14 hours a day.

167 Consolidation Activities- Script Titles Other than Mother A woman named Emily renewing her driver’s license at the County Clerk’s office was asked by the woman recorder to state her occupation. She hesitated, uncertain how to classify herself. “What I mean is,” explained the recorder, “do you have a job, or are you just a...” “Of course I have a job,” snapped Emily. “I’m a mother.” “We don’t list ‘mother’ as an occupation... ‘Housewife’ covers it,” said the recorder emphatically. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

168 Consolidation Activities- Script I forgot all about her story until one day I found myself in the same situation, this time at our own Town Hall. The clerk was obviously a career woman, poised, efficient, and possessed of a high-sounding title like “Official Interrogator” or “Town Registrar.” “What is your occupation?” she probed. What made me say it, I do not know... The words simply popped out. “I’m a Research Associate in the field of Child Development and Human Relations.” The clerk paused, ballpoint pen frozen in midair, and looked up as though she had not heard right. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

169 Consolidation Activities- Script I repeated the title slowly, emphasizing the most significant words. Then I stared with wonder as my pronouncement was written in bold, black ink on the official questionnaire. “Might I ask,” said the clerk with new interest, “just what you do in your field?” Coolly, without any trace of fluster in my voice, I heard myself reply, “I have a continuing program of research, (what mother doesn’t), in the laboratory and in the field, (normally I would have said indoors and out). I’m working for my Masters, (the whole family), and already have four credits, (all daughters). Of course, the VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

170 Consolidation Activities- Script job is one of the most demanding in the humanities, (any mother cares to disagree?) and I often work 14 hours a day, (24 is more like it). But the job is more challenging than most run-of-the-mill careers and the rewards are more of a satisfaction rather than just money.” There was an increasing note of respect in the clerk’s voice as she completed the form, stood up, and personally ushered me to the door. As I drove into our driveway, buoyed up by my glamorous new career, I was greeted by my lab assistants – ages 13, 7, and 3. Upstairs I could hear our new experimental model, (a 6-month-old baby), in the child- development program, testing out a new vocal pattern. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

171 Consolidation Activities- Script I felt triumphant! I had scored a beat on bureaucracy! And I had gone on the official records as someone more distinguished and indispensable to mankind than “just another mother.” Motherhood... What a glorious career! Especially when there’s a title on the door. Does this make grandmothers “Senior Research Associates in the field of Child Development and Human Relations” and great grandmothers “Executive Senior Research Associates”? I think so!!! I also think it makes aunts “Associate Research Assistants.” VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

172 Section Five Further Enhancement Text IIMemorable quotes Lead-in questions Text Questions for discussion

173 Lead-in questions 1. Is it the father or mother who plays a more important role in building up a child? 2. What do you think are the benefits of having one parent stay at home to care for the children? Lead-in questions Text IIMemorable quotes

174 Changing Roles: Stay-at-Home Dads British mechanic Neil Walkingshaw was looking for a way to care for his newborn child when he approached his boss with a proposal in early 2000. Reluctant to hire a babysitter once his wife’s maternity leave ended and she returned to work, Walkingshaw asked if he could switch to part-time hours in order to spend half of each day at home looking after his son. His employer refused, saying the paperwork would be “to messy” and that it would be difficult to get anyone to share Walkingshaw’s job. Text1 Text IIMemorable quotes 1.

175 Knowing that the company he worked for had granted similar requests to female employees, Walkingshaw sued on the grounds of sex discrimination. On November 20, 2001, an industrial tribunal ruled that Walkingshaw had been discriminated against and awarded him £ 3,600. The ruling is believed to be the first of its kind, and demonstrates just how much views on parental roles have changed over the years. Text2 Text IIMemorable quotes

176 As little as thirty years ago, few people questioned the gender roles that had prevailed for centuries. The conventional wisdom was that a woman’s place was in the home and that a man’s main responsibility was to put food on the table. In the 1970s and 1980s, however, greater numbers of working women meant that men were no longer the sole breadwinner. A father’s emothinal involvement with his family also became more important. Fifty years ago, almost no husbands were present in the delivery room when their wives gave birth. Today, it is generally expected for male partners to attend childbirth classes, be there for the delivery, and to make more responsibility for child rearing than their fathers or grandfathers did. Text3 Text IIMemorable quotes 2.

177 In addition to society the role men play in relation to childcare, social scientists are also re-examining the contribution a father makes to his child’s welfare and development. Researchers have found evidence to suggest that a father plays a role in child development that is quite different from that of the mother. According to the research, fathers tend to be more playful, thus encouraging children to develop in a different way emotionally and physically than a child might under a mother’s exclusive care. Text4 Text IIMemorable quotes 3.

178 Studies have also found that the presence of the father in the home can contribute to lower juvenile crime rates, a decrease in child poverty, and lower rates of teenage pregnancy. Differences in parenting styles between men and women are also believed to contribute to children’s ability to understand and communicate emotions in different ways. The research supports claims by some groups that the absence of a father in the family is the single biggest social problem in modern society. Text5 Text IIMemorable quotes 4.

179 In recent years, organizations like the US-based National Fatherhood Initiative have begun to argue that the presence of the father is vital to a child’s development. These organizations aim to encourage fathers to take a more active role in their children’s lives. The movement also calls for the creation of a new image of fatherhood, one that goes beyond the traditional view of the father solely as provider, and also includes the equally crucial roles of nurturer, moral example, disciplinarian, and teacher. Text6 Text IIMemorable quotes 5.

180 Many family experts believe that the ability of a family to raise well-adjusted children has much to do with a society promoting healthy families. If this theory is true, and if the father’s role is as important as mother’s in raising children, it’s possible to imagine a day when society will value the role of the father more, and when all men will learn to take their paternal duties as seriously as Neil Walkingshaw. Text7 Text IIMemorable quotes 6.

181 babysitter (Paragraph 1): a babysitter is one who temporarily takes care of a child on behalf of the child’s parents Text1 – babysitter Text IIMemorable quotes

182 maternity leave (Paragraph 1): time that a mother is allowed to spend away from work when she has a baby Text1 – maternity leave Text IIMemorable quotes

183 part-time hours (Paragraph 1): working less than the normal hours, perhaps by working fewer days per week Text1 –part-time hours Text IIMemorable quotes

184 ... the paperwork would be “too messy”… (Paragraph 1): … switching to part-time hours would involve tasks such as filling in forms, keeping files up to date, or writing reports and letters which are complicated and unpleasant to deal with … Text1 –the paperwork would Text IIMemorable quotes

185 ...Walkingshaw sued on the grounds of sex discrimination. (Paragraph 1): … Walkingshaw took legal action against the company for treating him differently because of prejudice. Text2– Walkingshaw Text IIMemorable quotes

186 an industrial tribunal (Paragraph 1): a court which judges disagreements between workers and their employers Text2–an industrial tribunal Text IIMemorable quotes

187 The ruling is believed to be the first of its kind, and demonstrates just how much views on parental roles have changed over the years. (Paragraph 1): This official decision is said to be the first case of its category, and shows how greatly opinions of parental roles have altered in recent years. Attention should be paid to that fact that the word much in the sentence is not an adjective modifying the noun views, but an adverb in the meaning of a great deal modifying the verb changed. Text2- The ruling is Text IIMemorable quotes

188 As little as thirty years ago, few people questioned the gender roles that had prevailed for centuries. (Paragraph 2): Only thirty years ago, few people expressed doubts about general beliefs of the social functions performed by males and females that had been widely held for centuries. Text3- As little as Text IIMemorable quotes

189 The conventional wisdom was that a woman responsibility to his family was to put food on the table. (Paragraph 2): A belief most people held was that a woman should play the role of a housewife or homemaker, and a man a bread- earner. Text3- The conventional Text IIMemorable quotes

190 A father’s emotional involvement with his family also became more important. (Paragraph 2): It was also getting more important that a father should have stronger emotional links with his family. Text3 - A father’s emotional Text IIMemorable quotes

191 … fathers tend to be more playful, … (Paragraph 3): … fathers tend to be active, and more capable of providing fun for the child, … Text4 - fathers tend to Text IIMemorable quotes

192 ... under a mother’s exclusive care: taken care of by the mother only Text4 - under a Text IIMemorable quotes

193 ... the presence of the father in the home can contribute to lower juvenile crime rates, a decrease in child poverty, and lower rates of teenage pregnancy. (Paragraph 4): With the father in the home, young people can be helped to prevent against legal offense and sexual misbehavior that might result in chance pregnancy. Text5 - the presence of Text IIMemorable quotes

194 National Fatherhood Initiative (Paragraph 5): The National Fatherhood Initiative is a US-based non-profit, non-partisan organization that aims to improve the well-being of children through the promotion of responsible fatherhood. It was launched on 7th March, 1994 by Don Eberly, a former George H.W. Bush advisor and civil society scholar and Wade F. Horn, a child psychologist. Text6 - National Fatherhood Initiative Text IIMemorable quotes

195 The movement also calls for the creation of a new image of fatherhood, one that goes beyond the traditional view of the father solely as provider, and also includes the equally crucial roles of nurturer, moral example, disciplinarian, and teacher. (Paragraph 5): According to the movement, the traditional view on the role of the father should change. He should support his family, devote his time to child rearing, set an example for his children, discipline them and teach them knowledge and skills. Text6 - The movement also Text IIMemorable quotes

196 well-adjusted children (Paragraph 6): children who are emotionally healthy and able to deal well with the problems of life Text7 - well-adjusted children Text IIMemorable quotes

197 Questions for discussion Questions for discussion1 1.What was the traditional view on the roles of men and women? Traditionally, Western civilization viewed a woman as a wife and mother whose place should be in the home and a man the sole wage-earner of the family. Text IIMemorable quotes

198 Questions for discussion Questions for discussion2 Many women decide to get jobs because of financial need or to achieve freedom from women’s traditional roles of child rearing and housework. As more and more women have begun working outside the home, many families no longer have an adult at home during the day, and the demand for childcare has risen. 2. What does Walkingshaw’s case imply about the problem with children? Text IIMemorable quotes

199 Questions for discussion Questions for discussion3 3. What are society’s changing views of the role of men play in relation to childcare? People are re-thinking men’s values and their role in family life. Today, male parents are generally expected to attend childbirth classes, be there for the delivery, and to take more responsibility for child rearing than their fathers or grandfathers did. In other words, they should be more active in the care of children and the home. Text IIMemorable quotes

200 Questions for discussion Questions for discussion4 4. According to the passage, what do children need most from their fathers? What kids need most from their father is probably his simple presence. Often the two most important things a father should give his children are love and time. Fathers need to make a special point of devoting their home hours and energy to their children. Mutual trust and unconditional love are still the keys to successful child rearing. Text IIMemorable quotes

201 Questions for discussion Questions for discussion5 5. What can we conclude from the passage about the father’s role in child rearing? Open to discussion. Text IIMemorable quotes

202 Memorable Quotes Read the following quotes and identify the relationship between blessing and bother, childhood and man, morning and day. Text IIMemorable quotes

203 Memorable Quotes inestimable: impossible to estimate or calculate 1. A baby is an inestimable blessing and bother. – Mark Twain e.g. What he said at my birthday party serves as an inestimable gift for all my life. Text IIMemorable quotes Bringing up a baby takes very great efforts, which will bring enormous happiness at the same time.

204 An anticipation of the adult’s future features can be discerned with the present character of a child. The same is true with the anticipation of the day which can be told by what the morning is like. as: used as conjunction here to say the way in which sth. happens. 2. The childhood shows the man, as morning shows the day. — John Milton Books are important to the mind, as water is to the fish. Memorable Quotes e.g. Text IIMemorable quotes

205 Notation type here


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