What is Noise, How is it Controlled, and How Does it Affect Our Lives
Doubling Traffic adds 3dBA
How Is It Controlled At the Source –Vehicle & Tire Emissions Through Distance –3 dBA Reduction for Each Doubling of Distance –25ft=70dBA, 50ft=67dBA, 100 ft=64 Through Obstructions –Berms, Walls, And Combination of both
Controlled At the Source
Controlled Through Obstructions 1 dBA for each 2 ft of Wall Above
Ways of Measuring Sound Wayside (Far Field) Close Proximity (Near Field) Noise Intensity (Near Field)
ADOT Uses ARFC to Provide Quiet Pavements ADOT is Spending $34M to Overlay PCCP in the Phoenix Metropolitan The ARFC is Minus 9.5mm & 9-9.5% Binder 12.5 mm Thick When Used on Flexible Pavement 25 mm Thick When Used on PCCP ADOT Uses Pavement Type (ARFC) as a Noise Mitigation Strategy (4 dBA)
How Did We Get Here? The Technical Journey Begins!
OGFC GradationOGFC Gradation
The Technical Journey? Development of Improved OGFC for Use in Snow Country (1970s-80s) Improved OGFC Used to Resist Reflective Cracking (1980s-90s) Improved OGFC Used as PCCP Overlay (1980s-2000s) Benefit For Smoothness (1990s) Benefit for Noise (1990s-2000s)
The Social Journey Begins 1990 Industry Study 1995 ADOT initiates first formal research 2002 ISO Noise Trailer Constructed 2002 Collaborative Research with Caltran’s & NCAT 2002 Network Level Evaluation of ARFC 2002 PCCP Surface Texture Experiments 2002 ADOT Elects to Use ARFC for Noise 2003 ADOT’s Quiet Pavement Pilot Program
Population Growth of Arizona The Social Journey Continues
The March to the Arizona Quiet Pavement Pilot Program
(1) Network Level Evaluation of ARFC Surfaces
(2) Evaluation of PCCP Tining Methods Longitudinal Uniform Transverse Random Transverse
(3) Comparison of Different Mixes Wearing Course Surface Type CPX Noise Level (dBA) SMA95.9 AR-ACFC95.0 PEM96.0
Quiet Pavement Pilot Program
Lessons Learned To Date Comparison of Various Surface Types Comparison of Measurement Systems Environmental Effects We Have Only Just Begun the JOURNEY!
Noise Levels By Surface Type 104.9Random Transverse (Wisconsin) 102.5Uniform Transverse (ADOT-3/4”) 99.1Longitudinal (ADOT-3/4”) 95.5Whisper Grind 91.8ARFC
Mix Design Procedures
Laboratory Tests Impedance Tube (Mobile) Complex Modulus Test-Loss Function Permeability/Infiltration Air Flow
In Summary Surface Type Does Matter-Noise Should be Controlled at the Source Noise Should be Managed Just Like Friction, Roughness, Rutting, and Cracking People Do Care How They Live- It’s a Quality of Life Issue!!!