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Science, Technology, Society and You

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1 Science, Technology, Society and You
Choose to view chapter section with a click on the section heading. Life on an Ocean Planet Defining Your Study Science, Technology, Society and You How to Learn Marine Science Most Efficiently Chapter Topic Menu

2 The Scientist in You What is a scientist?
Someone who uses the processes of science to find answers about how and why things work… …in the world. …in the observable universe. This is what makes science an adventure full of discovery and wonder. Science is about facts and how you analyze those facts. Doing this analysis is called the “scientific process” and when you use it, you are a scientist. Life on an Ocean Planet Chapter 1 Page 1-3

3 The Ocean Planet The oceans produce two influences vital to life on Earth. Weather and world climate patterns dictate how warm, cold, wet, or dry it will be. This largely determines where humans live on land. In addition, the oceans provide three important marine resources: Food • Oxygen • Natural Resources (such as oil) Humans have seen all of the Earth’s surface, but there’s far more to discover below than on it. Humans increasingly change the oceans; pollution and overfishing have caused serious damage, coral reefs are dying off, and there’s more. What you learn here about the science of investigation and problem-solving, regardless of your final career choice, benefits you by making you a more capable person who contributes to society. Life on an Ocean Planet Chapter 1 Pages 1-3 to 1-5

4 Thinking About the Process of Science in a Concept Map
Life on an Ocean Planet Chapter 1 Pages 1-6 & 1-7

5 Marine Science Marine Science – the process of discovering the facts, processes, and unifying principles that explain the nature of the oceans and their associated life forms. Oceanography – the science of recording and describing the ocean’s contents and processes. There are four main branches of oceanography. Biological oceanography – studies life in the ocean. Chemical oceanography – studies the chemistry of seawater. Geological oceanography – studies the geology of the ocean. Physical oceanography – studies the physics within the marine environment. Technology has made marine exploration and its associated careers possible. It is through technology that true marine exploration has become possible. Defining Your Study Chapter 1 Pages 1-8 to 1-10

6 Integrating the Sciences
Marine Science – draws on research from all three of the traditional sciences to understand what is observed in the ocean. Marine science is truly an interdisciplinary course of study. Most marine scientists have training in all three of the traditional science disciplines. 1. Physical Science – study of matter and energy and their interactions. 2. Life Science – study of living things and their interactions with their environments. 3. Earth and Space Science – study of the physical Earth, the solar system, the universe and their interrelationships. Studying Science Itself Marine science involves four study areas beyond traditional science disciplines: 1. Science as Inquiry – applying science as a way of solving problems, answering questions. 2. Science and Technology – learning how science advances technology and vice-versa. 3. Science in Personal and Social Perspectives – how science affects you and society. 4. Historical Nature of Science – understanding how science evolved as a discipline. Situatedness is the explanation of when, where, and why a concept came about. It is important to marine scientists because in oceanography, they may apply established scientific concepts that they will never personally demonstrate or observe. Situatedness gives scientists some basis for judging the validity of scientific concepts. Defining Your Study Chapter 1 Pages 1-11 to 1-14

7 Cross-Disciplinary Nature of Marine Science
Many sciences, professions, and careers draw on basic marine science. These disciplines include: atmospheric science, astronomy, ecology, biomedical research, environmental science, etc. Cross-discipline areas of study include: Math - Mathematics is the universal “language” that helps you explain the physical nature of the oceans. History – A historical review provides insight to the past, present, and future of our oceans. A historical background provides a context of how and why the study of oceanography has changed over time. Technology - Some say technology causes problems, some say it increases our knowledge. It is really the advances in technology that has made modern oceanography possible. Social Sciences - Decisions about the environment may affect the life of others on the planet. Literature - Announcing scientific findings to others requires using literary and artistic forms. Arts - The method of experimentation may be in the form of videography or ethnography rather than the typical experiment. Defining Your Study Chapter 1 Pages 1-15 & 1-16

8 What is Science – a Definition…
Science is a body of knowledge and an organized method used to gain knowledge about the observable universe. …Technology – A Benefit and a Burden A technology is a material system that produces intended results or in a general sense, knowledge of those systems. Technology has both improved and threatened daily life. Benefit - health care, transportation, communication, agriculture and exploration. Burden - issues such as pollution spills and global warming. There are three broad actions that society can take with respect to the effects of science and technology on the environment: 1. Consider the environment a lost cause and disregard the effects. 2. Dismiss the effect as overstated by scientists and inconsequential. 3. Prioritize the consequences in developing and applying technologies. Without a doubt, the last broad action appears the most logical. Science, Technology, Society , and You Chapter 1 Pages 1-19 to 1-21

9 The Five Basic Steps to the scientific method include:
The formal, organized steps scientists follow in proposing explanations for their observations and then testing their explanations are called the scientific method. When you apply the scientific method, you apply scientific process skills (identifying the problem, classifying data, communicating findings, interpreting measurements, predicting outcomes, and recording data). The Five Basic Steps to the scientific method include: 1. Identify the problem (or question) 2. Make a hypothesis – making an educated guess you can test about the answer. You use inductive reasoning to propose a process that explains the facts you observe. You use deductive reasoning to propose what you would observe should a known process take place. 3. Test the hypothesis 4. Interpret and analyze results – if the data support your hypothesis, you have a theory. 5. Report results, procedures and conclusions – Reporting results is important because it allows other scientists to verify your work and conclusions, and It allows other scientists to build on what you’ve learned. Science, Technology, Society, and You Chapter 1 Pages 1-22 to 1-30

10 The Progress of Science
Because science is a process, it changes. Science progresses through the revision of theories in the light of new evidence or better explanations of existing evidence. Just because there is a new theory and new evidence it does not mean things change overnight. Scientific progress also has social and scientific influences. Often, it takes acceptance by prominent scientists with noted credibility before the new theory replaces the old. Staying Current with Science Keeping up with current trends, findings, and developments benefit you: You can anticipate changes caused by science and technology, prepare, and advance your career with them or …. you can disregard them and spend time trying to catch up with those who don’t. By being current you can help society handle the effects of science. You can base your ethical evaluations, estimates, and other potential effects on accurate information. You can then vote and voice opinions based on reality rather than on misconceptions. Science, Technology, Society, and You Chapter 1 Pages 1-30 to 1-32

11 Study Elements and Visual References
There are six basic study elements (units) in Life on an Ocean Planet that divide marine science into meaningful segments. These units are: Unit 1: Importance of Ocean Exploration Unit 2: The Foundation of Life in the Ocean Unit 3: A Water World Unit 4: The Motion of the Ocean Unit 5: Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea Unit 6: The Present and Future of the Marine Environment These units cover a broad spectrum of marine science fundamentals, which helps you prepare for a career in or related to marine science. The six units show you the various marine sciences. This covers what related careers involve. One goal being to help you find what areas of marine science fit best with your interests and desires. Most important, however, is your desire, passion, and interest in that career. How to Learn Marine Science Most Efficiently Chapter 1 Pages 1-34 to 1-36

12 Visual References to Focus Study
Headings (black) and subheadings (blue) divide each chapter. Paying attention to these helps to organize the materials. Learning Objectives are green: found under subheadings. IMPORTANT: as you read, find the answers to each of the learning objective questions. Relevant supplement information: found in the purple-boxed sidebars. Photos and illustrations are red. These provide important visual information to illustrate what you’re reading. Quick Quiz is found at the end of a main subject division. IMPORTANT: Review the materials until you understand any questions missed before moving on. Review questions are found at the end of each chapter. How to Learn Marine Science Most Effectively Chapter 1 Pages 1-35 & 1-36

13 Learning Effectively with Life on an Ocean Planet
The first thing to do is survey this book. You do this by: First, read the table of contents; note chapter titles and subheadings. Next, go through from cover to cover. Pay attention to style and how it’s laid out. Look for the pattern in identifying elements; the marine scientist profiles, quizzes, and reviews. Skim the glossary, index, and references. Surveying before reading makes learning more efficient and effective. It does this by establishing your mental framework about marine science. After surveying the book there are five study steps to follow as you learn. How to Learn Marine Science Most Efficiently Chapter 1 Pages to 1-38

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