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Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Pregnancy Chapter 36 David Thompson, Howard Berger, Denice Feig, Robert Gagnon, Tina Kader,

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Presentation on theme: "Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Pregnancy Chapter 36 David Thompson, Howard Berger, Denice Feig, Robert Gagnon, Tina Kader,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Pregnancy Chapter 36 David Thompson, Howard Berger, Denice Feig, Robert Gagnon, Tina Kader, Erin Keely, Sharon Kozak, Edmond Ryan, Mathew Sermer, Christina Vinokuroff

2 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association In collaboration with …

3 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Diabetes in Pregnancy: 2 Categories Pregestational diabetesGestational diabetes Pregnancy in pre-existing diabetes Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Diabetes diagnosed in pregnancy

4 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Diabetes in Pregnancy: Consider Phases Pregestational diabetesGestational diabetes 1. Preconception counseling1. Screening 2. Glycemic control during pregnancy 3. Management in labour 4. Postpartum considerations

5 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Pregestational diabetesGestational diabetes 1. Preconception counseling1. Screening 2. Glycemic control during pregnancy 3. Management in labour 4. Postpartum considerations Diabetes in Pregnancy: Consider Phases

6 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Dysglycemia in Pregnancy can Result in Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Elevated glucose levels can have adverse effects on the fetus – 1 st trimester  ↑ fetal malformations – 2 nd and 3 rd trimester: ↑ risk of macrosomia and metabolic complications

7 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Risk of Fetal Anomaly Relative to Periconceptional A1C Guerin A et al. Diabetes Care 2007;30:1-6. Glycemic control pre-conception = essential

8 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Need a Preconception Checklist for Women with Pre-existing Diabetes 1. Attain a preconception A1C of ≤7.0% (if safe) 2. Assess for and manage any complications 3. Switch to insulin if on oral agents 4. Folic Acid 5 mg/d: 3 months pre-conception to 12 weeks post-conception 5. Discontinue potential embryopathic meds: Ace-inhibitors/ARB (prior to or upon detection of pregnancy) Statin therapy 2013

9 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Preconception Counseling for Pregestational Diabetes Advise reproductive age women with diabetes about reliable birth control – NOTE: Metformin in PCOS may improve fertility  need to warn about possible pregnancy – Metformin safe for ovulation induction in PCOS Achieving a healthy weight is essential – obesity associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes

10 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Screen for Complications: Pre-pregnancy and Intrapartum Screening for: 1.Retinopathy: Need ophthalmological evaluation 2.Nephropathy: Assess creatinine + urine microalbumin / creatinine ratio (ACR) – Women with microalbuminuria or overt nephropathy are at ↑ risk for hypertension and preeclampsia

11 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendations 1-2: Preconception Care 1.All women of reproductive age with type 1 or type 2 diabetes should receive advice on reliable birth control, the importance of glycemic control prior to pregnancy, impact of BMI on pregnancy outcomes, need for folic acid and the need to stop potentially embyropathic drugs prior to pregnancy [Grade D, Level 4]. 2.Women with type 2 diabetes and irregular menses/PCOS who are started on metformin or a thiazolidinedione should be advised that fertility may improve and be warned about possible pregnancy [Grade D, Consensus]. 2013

12 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 3: Preconception Care 3. Before attempting to become pregnant, women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes should: a)Receive preconception counseling that includes optimal diabetes management and nutrition, preferably in consultation with an interdisciplinary pregnancy team to optimize maternal and neonatal outcomes [Grade C, Level 3]

13 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 3: Preconception Care (continued) b)Strive to attain a preconception A1C of ≤7.0% (or A1C as close to normal as can safely be achieved) to decrease the risk of: – Spontaneous abortion [Grade C, Level 3] – Congenital anomalies [Grade C, Level 3] – Pre-eclampsia [Grade C, Level 3] – Progression of retinopathy in pregnancy [Grade A, level 1 for type 1 diabetes (23); Grade D, Consensus for type 2 diabetes]

14 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association c) Supplement their diet with multivitamins containing 5 mg of folic acid at least 3 months pre- conception and continuing until at least 12 weeks post-conception [Grade D, Level 4]. Supplementation should continue with a multivitamin containing mg of folic acid from 12 weeks postconception through to 6 weeks postpartum or as long as breastfeeding continues [Grade D, Consensus]. Recommendation 3: Preconception Care (continued)

15 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association d) Discontinue medications that are potentially embryopathic, including any from the following classes: ACE inhibitors and ARBs prior to conception or upon detection of pregnancy [Grade C, Level 3] Statins [Grade D, Level 4] 2013 Recommendation 3: Preconception Care (continued)

16 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association 4.Women with type 2 diabetes who are planning a pregnancy should switch from non-insulin antihyperglycemic agents to insulin for glycemic control [Grade D, Consensus]. Women with pregestational diabetes who also have PCOS may continue metformin for ovulation induction [Grade D, Consensus]. Recommendation 4: Preconception Care

17 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendations 5 and 6: Preconception and Complications 5.Women should undergo an ophthalmological evaluation by an eye care specialist [Grade A, Level 1, for type 1; Grade D, Level 4 for type 2]. 6.Women should be screened for chronic kidney disease prior to pregnancy [Grade D level 4 for type 1 diabetes Grade D, consensus for type 2 diabetes]. Women with microalbuminuria or overt nephropathy are at increased risk for the development of HTN and preeclampsia [Grade A level 1]; and should be followed closely for these conditions [Grade D, Consensus]

18 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Diabetes in Pregnancy: Consider Phases Pregestational diabetesGestational diabetes 1. Preconception counseling1. Screening 2. Glycemic control during pregnancy 3. Management in labour 4. Postpartum considerations

19 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Need Optimal Glycemic Control in Pregnancy for Pre-existing Diabetes Individualized insulin therapy with close monitoring – Bolus insulin: May use aspart or lispro instead of regular insulin – Basal insulin: May use detemir or glargine as alternative to NPH Encourage patients to SMBG pre- and postprandially Target glucose values Fasting PG <5.3 mmol/L 1h postprandial PG <7.8 mmol/L 2h postprandial PG <6.7 mmol/L

20 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Diabetes in Pregnancy: Consider Phases Pregestational diabetesGestational diabetes 1. Preconception counseling1. Screening 2. Glycemic control during pregnancy 3. Management in labour 4. Postpartum considerations

21 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Maternal blood glucose levels should be kept between mmol/L  ↓ neonatal hypoglycemia Women should receive adequate glucose during labour in order to meet the high energy requirements – IV Dextrose + IV insulin protocols may be helpful Glucose Management During Labour and Delivery 2013

22 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Postpartum care for pre-existing diabetes 1. Adjust insulin  at risk of hypoglycemia 2. Encourage women to breastfeed 3.Metformin and glyburide may be used during breast- feeding  no long term data but appears safe 4.Screen for postpartum thyroiditis in T1DM  check TSH at 6-8 weeks postpartum

23 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 7: Management in Pregnancy for Pregestational Diabetes 7.Pregnant women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes should: a)Receive an individualized insulin regimen and glycemic targets typically using intensive insulin therapy [Grade A, Level 1B for type 1; Grade A, Level 1 for type 2] b) Strive for target glucose values [Grade D consensus]: Fasting PG below 5.3 mmol/L 1h postprandial below 7.8 mmol/L 2h postprandial below 6.7 mmol/L

24 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 7: Management in Pregnancy for Pre-gestational Diabetes (continued) c) Be prepared to raise these targets if need be because of the increased risk of severe hypoglycemia during pregnancy [Grade D, Consensus] d) Perform SMBG, both pre- and postprandially to achieve glycemic targets and improve pregnancy outcomes [Grade C, Level 3] 2013

25 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association 8.Women with pregestational diabetes may use aspart or lispro in pregnancy instead of regular insulin to improve glycemic control and reduce hypoglycemia [Grade C level 2 for aspart, Grade C, Level 3 for lispro]. 9.Detemir [Grade C, Level 2] or glargine [Grade C, Level 3 ] may be used in women with pregestational diabetes as an alternative to NPH. Recommendations 8-9: Management in Pregnancy for Pre-gestational Diabetes 2013

26 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association 10.Women should be closely monitored during labour and delivery and maternal blood glucose levels should be kept between 4.0 and 7.0 mmol/L in order to minimize the risk of neonatal hypoglycemia [Grade D, Consensus] 11.Women should receive adequate glucose during labour in order to meet the high energy requirements [Grade D, Consensus] Recommendation 10 and 11: Intrapartum Glucose Management 2013

27 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendations 12 and 13: Postpartum Glucose Management 12.Women with pregestational diabetes should be carefully monitored postpartum as they have a high risk of hypoglycemia [Grade D, Consensus]. 13.Metformin and glyburide may be used during breast-feeding [Grade C, Level 3 for metformin; Grade D, Level 4 for glyburide]. 2013

28 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 14 and 15: Postpartum Glucose Management 14.Women with type 1 diabetes in pregnancy should be screened for postpartum thyroiditis with a TSH test at 6-8 weeks postpartum [Grade D, Consensus]. 15.All women should be encouraged to breast-feed, since this may reduce offspring obesity, especially in the setting of maternal obesity [Grade C level 3-]

29 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Diabetes in Pregnancy: Consider Phases Pregestational diabetesGestational diabetes 1. Preconception counseling1. Screening & diagnosis 2. Glycemic control during pregnancy 3. Management in labour 4. Postpartum considerations

30 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Gestational Diabetes (GDM) Diagnosis Universal screening for weeks Gestational Age (GA) Screen earlier if risk factors for GDM:

31 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Why Diagnose and Treat GDM? Macrosomia Shoulder dystocia and nerve injury Neonatal hypoglycemia Preterm delivery Hyperbilirubinemia Caesarian section Offspring obesity (?) Offspring diabetes (?)

32 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association HAPO: Incidence of Adverse Outcomes Increases Along Continuum Metzger BE, et al. Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. NEJM 2008;358(19):

33 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Benefits of Treatment of GDM

34 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Benefits of Treatment of GDM Horvath K et al. BMJ 2010;340:c1935

35 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Are there clear threshold glucose levels above which the risk of adverse neonatal or maternal outcomes increases? Diagnosis of GDM

36 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Diabetes Care 2010;22: IADPSG

37 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association HAPO: Incidence of Adverse Outcomes Increases Along Continuum – No Threshold Metzger BE, et al. HAPO. NEJM 2008;358(19):

38 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Are there clear threshold glucose levels above which the risk of adverse neonatal or maternal outcomes increases?

39 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association IADPSG Consensus Threshold Values for Diagnosis of GDM (≥1 Value is Diagnostic) Based on odds ratio (OR) of 1.75 for primary outcome OGTT = Oral Glucose Tolerance Test HAPO = Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes study IADPSG. Diabetes Care 2010;22:

40 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Threshold glucose levels (mmol/L) after a 75g OGTT OR 1.75OR 2.0 Fasting plasma glucose h plasma glucose h plasma glucose % of cohort that met ≥ 1 threshold above 16.1%8.8% Odds Ratio (OR) of 1.75 vs. 2.0 for Primary Outcome in HAPO OGTT = Oral Glucose Tolerance Test HAPO = Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes study IADPSG. Diabetes Care 2010;22:

41 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association HAPO: Incidence of Adverse Outcomes for Glucose Categories (OR 1.75 or 2.0 ) Metzger BE, et al. HAPO. NEJM 2008;358(19):

42 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Remains a Controversial Topic …

43 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Considerations for the CDA Adopting the IADPSG Thresholds How can we select an odds ratio threshold in the absence of a true threshold in the data? What is the impact on the patient and workload of increasing the prevalence of GDM? Do we have sufficient evidence with respect to treatment benefit at the various thresholds to make an informed decision? In the absence of clear benefit, should the diagnostic criteria be changed from 2008?

44 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 CDA Diagnostic Criteria for GDM PREFERRED APPROACH (2 steps) 1.50 gram glucose challenge test 2.75 gram oral glucose tolerance test –Using thresholds of OR 2.0 ALTERNATIVE APPROACH (1 step) 1.75 gram oral glucose tolerance test –Using thresholds of OR

45 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 GDM Diagnosis: Two Approaches 2013

46 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 GDM Diagnosis: Preferred Approach 2013

47 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 GDM Diagnosis: Preferred Approach 2013

48 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 GDM Diagnosis: Preferred Approach 2013

49 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 GDM Diagnosis: Preferred Approach 2013

50 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 GDM Diagnosis: Preferred Approach 2013

51 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 GDM Diagnosis: Preferred Approach 2013

52 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 GDM diagnosis: Alternative Approach 2013

53 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 GDM diagnosis: Alternative Approach 2013

54 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendations 16-17: Diagnosis of GDM 16.All pregnant women should be screened for GDM at weeks of gestation [Grade C, Level 3]. 17.If there is a high risk of GDM based on multiple clinical factors, screening should be offered at any stage in the pregnancy [Grade D, Consensus]. If the initial screening is performed before 24 weeks of gestation and is negative, rescreen between weeks of gestation. (see next slide)

55 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 17: Risk Factors for GDM (continued) Age ≥35 years Previous GDM Prediabetes High risk population – Aboriginal, Hispanic, South Asian, Asian, African BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 Polycystic ovarian syndrome Acanthosis nigricans Corticosteroid use History of macrosomic infant Current fetal macrosomia or polyhydramnios [Grade D, Consensus]

56 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 18: Diagnosis of GDM 18.The preferred approach for the screening and diagnosis of GDM is the following [Grade D, Consensus]: a)Screening for GDM should be conducted using the 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) administered in the non- fasting state with plasma glucose measured one hour later [Grade D, Level 4]. A plasma glucose value ≥7.8 mmol/L at one hour will be considered a positive screen and will be an indication to proceed to the 75 gram OGTT [Grade C, Level 2]. A plasma glucose value >11.1 mmol/L can be considered to be diagnostic of gestational diabetes and does not require a 75 gram OGTT for confirmation [Grade C, Level 3]. 2013

57 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 18: Diagnosis of GDM (continued) b)If the GCT screen is positive, a 75 gram OGTT should be performed as the diagnostic test for GDM using the following criteria: >1 of the following values: – Fasting >5.3 mmol/L, – 1h >10.6 mmol/L, – 2h >9.0 mmol/L [Grade B, Level 1] 2013

58 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 19: Diagnosis of GDM 19.An alternative approach that may be used to screen and diagnose GDM is the one-step approach [Grade D, Consensus]: a)A 75 gram OGTT should be performed (with no prior screening 50g GCT) as the diagnostic test for GDM using the following criteria [Grade D, Consensus]: ≥1 of the following values: –Fasting > 5.1 mmol/L, –1h > 10.0 mmol/L, –2h > 8.5 mmol/L [Grade B, Level 1 (4)] 2013

59 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Diabetes in Pregnancy: Consider Phases Pregestational diabetesGestational diabetes 1. Preconception counseling1. Screening & diagnosis 2. Glycemic control during pregnancy 3. Management in labour 4. Postpartum considerations

60 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association GDM: Glycemic Management During Pregnancy Perform SMBG, both fasting and postprandially Glycemic Targets during pregnancy: Receive nutrition counseling – Moderate carbohydrate restriction: 3 meals + 3 snacks – Targets not met within 2 weeks  start insulin – Avoid hypocaloric diet  weight loss + ketosis Target glucose values Fasting PG <5.3 mmol/L 1h postprandial PG <7.8 mmol/L 2h postprandial PG <6.7 mmol/L

61 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Pre-Pregnancy BMIRecommended range of total weight gain (Kg) Recommended range of total weight gain (lb) BMI < – – 40 BMI – – 35 BMI – – 23 BMI > or = – – 20 Recommended rate of weight gain and total weight gain for singleton Pregnancies according to pre-pregnancy BMI IOM Guidelines for Gestational Weight Gain Institute of Medicine. Weight gain during pregnancy: reexamining the guidelines. Consensus Report. May The National Academies Press. Washington, DC.

62 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association What About Insulin Analogues and Oral Agents Among Patients with GDM? May use rapid-acting analog insulin for postprandial glucose control – no difference in perinatal outcomes May use glyburide or metformin for women who are non-adherent to or who refuse insulin – Likely safe BUT it is OFF-Label  no long-term data, need discussion with patient

63 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association GDM: Glycemic Management During Labour and Delivery Keep maternal blood glucose l between 4.0 and 7.0 mmol/L  reduce risk of neonatal hypoglycemia Women should receive adequate glucose during labour in order to meet the high energy requirements 2013

64 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Postpartum GDM Management Checklist 1.Encourage Breastfeeding 2.75g OGTT between 6 weeks - 6 months postpartum to detect prediabetes or diabetes 3.Discuss increased long-term risk of diabetes – Importance of returning to pre-pregnancy weight

65 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 20: Management During Pregnancy (GDM) 20.Women with GDM should: a.Strive for target glucose values: – Fasting PG below 5.3 mmol/L [Grade B, Level 2] – 1h postprandial below 7.8 mmol/L [Grade B, Level 2] – 2h postprandial below 6.7 mmol/L [Grade B, Level 2] b.Perform SMBG, both fasting and postprandially to achieve glycemic targets and improve pregnancy outcomes [Grade B, Level 2] c. Avoid ketosis during pregnancy [Grade C, Level 3]

66 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 21: Management During Pregnancy (GDM) 21.Receive nutrition counseling from a registered dietitian during pregnancy [Grade C, Level 3] and postpartum [Grade D, Consensus]. Recommendations for weight gain during pregnancy should be based on pregravid BMI [Grade D, Consensus].

67 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 22 and 24: Management During Pregnancy (GDM) 22.If women with GDM do not achieve glycemic targets within 2 weeks from nutritional therapy alone, insulin therapy should be initiated [Grade D, Consensus]. 23.Insulin therapy in the form of multiple injections should be used [Grade A, Level 1]. 24.Rapid-acting bolus analog insulin may be used over regular insulin for postprandial glucose control although perinatal outcomes are similar [Grade B, Level 2]. 2013

68 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 25: Management During Pregnancy (GDM) 25.For women who are non-adherent to or who refuse insulin, glyburide [Grade B, Level 2] or metformin [Grade B, Level 2] may be used as alternative agents for glycemic control. Use of oral agents in pregnancy is off-label and this should be discussed with the patient [Grade D, Consensus].

69 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 26: Intrapartum Management (GDM) 26.Women should be closely monitored during labour and delivery and maternal blood glucose levels should be kept between 4.0 and 7.0 mmol/L in order to minimize the risk of neonatal hypoglycemia. [Grade D, Consensus] 26.Women should receive adequate glucose during labour in order to meet the high energy requirements [Grade D, Consensus]. 2013

70 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 28: Postpartum (GDM) 28.Women with GDM should be encouraged to breastfeed immediately after delivery in order to avoid neonatal hypoglycemia [Grade D, Level 4] and to continue for at least three months postpartum in order to prevent childhood obesity [Grade C, Level 3] and reduce risk of maternal hyperglycemia [Grade C, Level 3]. 29.Women should be screened with a 75g OGTT between 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum to detect prediabetes and diabetes [Grade D, Consensus]. 2013

71 guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association CDA Clinical Practice Guidelines – for professionals BANTING ( ) – for patients


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