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What does the future hold for improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle? Matt Lucy Animal Reproductive Biology Group Division of Animal Sciences.

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Presentation on theme: "What does the future hold for improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle? Matt Lucy Animal Reproductive Biology Group Division of Animal Sciences."— Presentation transcript:

1 What does the future hold for improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle? Matt Lucy Animal Reproductive Biology Group Division of Animal Sciences University of Missouri-Columbia, USA

2 Highlights from the past Methods and application of artificial insemination. Products and programs for synchronization of estrus and timed AI. Ultrasound and PAGs (blood test) for pregnancy diagnosis. Genetic testing and genetic selection for fertility. Methods and application of advanced embryo technologies.

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5 2012

6 Ever-Green-View My 1326-ET Waldo, Wisconsin USA February ,805 kg of milk* 1,267 kg fat 974 kg protein 365 d lactation *3-times average US cow in 2010

7 Innovations of the past decade Highly Effective Synch Programs for Cows –Presynch Ovsynch –G6G –5 day Cosynch 72 –Double Ovsynch Highly effective Resynch Programs for cows

8 Innovations of the past decade: CIDR approval for lactating dairy cows July 29, 2003

9 Innovations of the past decade: Improved systems for automated estrus detection

10 Innovations of the past decade: Gender selected semen

11 Innovations of the past decade: Better and more portable ultrasounds

12 Innovations of the past decade: Blood pregnancy tests

13 Förster Technik: FT Multilyser DeLaval: Herd Navigator Innovations of the past decade: Automated Milk Progesterone Testing

14 Innovations of the past decade: Introduction of Daughter Pregnancy Rate

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16 Innovations of the past decade: Sequencing of the bovine genome

17 Fertility markers on chromosome 18 Price et al. (2010) Innovations of the past decade: Bovine SNP chips and the identification of fertility markers

18 Innovations of the past decade: DNA marker based genetics

19 The Microbiome 9 out of 10 cells in the body are microbial The gut contains at least 1000 species Most are commensal (not pathogenic) Differences between cows and herds may be explained by differences in their microbiomes. Science December 17, 2010

20 What about the future? Climate change and air pollution Water depletion and pollution Biodiversity Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

21 What about the future? Artificial insemination More units per sire –Sperm production –Sperm dilution On-farm storage Lifespan inside the female tract Gender selected sperm

22 Presynch-Ovsynch-Resynch PP G P G AI G P G PD What about the future? Return to estrus

23 Time to confront the monster!

24 What about the future? Return to estrus

25 Figure 1 from Senger (1994) J. Dairy Sci. 77: Electronic methods for estrus detection (Senger 1994) Continuous surveillance Automatic ID Lifetime operation Minimal labor Accurate in identifying cows in estrus

26 Is there another way? Detection of estrous behavior Detection of approaching ovulation in the absence of estrous behavior (biochemical test)

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28 What about the future? Time for some new tools! Progesterone (Trimberger and Hansel, 1955) 55 T-bird

29 What about the future? Time for some new tools! PGF2α (Lauderdale, 1972)

30 What about the future? Time for some new tools! GnRH (Cystorelin approved, 1986) 86 Mustang

31 What about the future? Recombinant gonadotropins (LH and FSH) hCG pFSH

32 Human Genome Project 10 th anniversary – billion base pairs 10 years draft sequence 13 years completed sequence $2.7 billion

33 Commercial Whole Genomic DNA Sequencing Complete Genomics, Mountain View, CA, USA

34 Bovine Genome Project

35 What about the future? DNA marker based genetics

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37 Redefining high fertility

38 Now is the time to define “high fertility”! Pregnant after an observed in estrus and AI Pregnant after a timed AI

39 Now is the time to define “high fertility”! Pregnant after an observed in estrus and AI Cycling before breeding period Uterus released PGF2α Follicle grew; produced adequate estradiol Behavioral centers responded to estradiol and cow expressed detectable estrus. Pituitary released an LH surge. Artificial insemination Follicle ovulated, CL formed. Pregnancy!

40 Now is the time to define “high fertility”! Pregnant after a timed AI Cycling before breeding period Uterus released PGF2α Follicle grew; produced adequate estradiol Behavioral centers responded to estradiol and cow expressed detectable estrus. Pituitary released an LH surge. Artificial insemination Follicle ovulated, CL formed. Pregnancy!

41 Which cow scores better for DPR? Pregnant after an observed in estrus and AI Pregnant after a timed AI

42 Which cow is the best cow for the future? Pregnant after an observed in estrus and AI Pregnant after a timed AI

43 Which cow is the best cow for the future? Pregnant after an observed in estrus and AI Pregnant after a timed AI

44 Thank you!


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