Presentation on theme: "Ojaghi Haghighi MD. It’s 3:00 AM now and you are very tired after an exhausting shift Suddenly a pregnant patient is transferred in to ED by EMTs You."— Presentation transcript:
Ojaghi Haghighi MD
It’s 3:00 AM now and you are very tired after an exhausting shift Suddenly a pregnant patient is transferred in to ED by EMTs You evaluate the patient quickly you are shocked, the patient is unresponsive without any respiratory effort
So What are you going to do?
Perspective overall maternal mortality rate: deaths per maternities 1 Cardiac arrest in pregnancy: 1: in : in Survival Rate: 6.9% (poorer than others) 3 1 Lewis G, ed. The Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health(CEMACH). Saving mothers’ lives: reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer—2003–2005. The Seventh Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. London: CEMACH Department of Health, Welsh Office, Scottish Office Department of Health, Department of Health and Social Services, Northern Ireland. Why mothers die. Report on confidential enquiries into maternal deathsin the United Kingdom 2000–2002. London (UK): The Stationery Office; Dijkman A, Huisman CM, Smit M, Schutte JM, Zwart JJ, vanRoosmalen JJ, Oepkes D. Cardiac arrest in pregnancy: increasing use of perimortem caesarean section due to emergency skills training? BJOG. 2010;117:282–287.
Ethiology Cardiac disease * : Acute MI Aortic dissection Congenital Heart Disease & Pulmonary HTN Mg toxicity Preeclampsia/ Eclampsia PTE Amniotic fluid embolism Anesthetic complications * Lewis G, ed. The Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health(CEMACH). Saving mothers’ lives: reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer—2003–2005. The Seventh Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. London: CEMACH
Critical elements when you face with critically ill pregnant patients You faced with two patient Best hope of fetal survival is maternal survival Pregnancy caused physiologic changes Identify critical patients and try to prevent cardiac arrest
How can we prevent the doom event? Place the patient in the full left-lateral position Give 100% oxygen IV access above the diaphragm Assess for hypotension Consider reversible cause of critical illness
But we can’t prevent cardiac arrest every time So You must start CPR immediately
Call for Help Activate maternal cardiac arrest team immediately Do not forget documentation event onset time
Patient positioning??? Place patient in supine position!! With manual Lt uterine displacement for obviously gravid uterus
Start chest compression immediately with high quality 30:2 Place hands slightly higher on the sternum Assess quality with waveform capnography If your try is unsuccessful Place patient in Lt lateral tilt position degree
But if chest compression remain inadequate? Consider immediate emergency C/S
Airway You face with: Potentially difficult airway Increased risk of aspiration Rapid desaturation This is critical to use: BMV and suctioning optimally Prepare for advanced airway management
Breathing The facts: Rapid hypoxemia ↓FRC and ↑O 2 Demand ↑ Intrapulmonary shunt ↓ Ventilation volumes Elevated diaphragm Support Oxygenation/ Ventilation Monitor SPO 2 Closely But How?
Do not forget: You should look for visible chest rise
Defibrillation The Facts: It is safe Concern about arcing around external & internal fetal monitors?? There is no evidence But reasonable to remove them Defibrillation dose?? An AED * should be apply as soon as possible * Automated external defibrillator
Do Not Forget!! BLS is cornerstone of ACLS All activities(CAB) should keep on What’s your Idea about ABCD of ACLS??
Airway You faced with an difficult airway, Why?? You should insert an advanced airway Experienced provider
Breathing Ventilation with O 2 100% What is Compression/Ventilation ratio? 100 Compressions/ min / 8-10 breathes/min without synchronization Do avoid hyperventilation plz!!! Continuous pulseoximetry Continuous wave capnography
Circulation Large bore IV lines Drugs?? According to ACLS recommendations Defibrillation? According to ACLS protocol
4 min after cardiac arrest ROSC * has not been achieved So what’s are you going to do? * Return of spontaneous circulation
Decision to C/S Performance?? Facts: The primary importance is mother life Aortocaval compression by gravid uterus?? Fetal viability No ROSC after 4 min of cardiac arrest Despite good BLS & ACLS an correction of reversible causes Unsuccessful chest compression Obvious nonsurvivable mother injury with viable fetus
So this is called Emergency C/S Do not forget continuing BLS & ACLS before and after Emergency C/S
How? Activation of emergency C/S team at the onset of arrest If there is an obvious gravid uterus Emergency C/S may be considered at 4 min: If there is no ROSC Goal: The actual delivery takes no longer 5 min This needs institutional preparation with multidisciplinary approach
Intensive care Correction of causes Therapeutic hypothermia??