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Presentation on theme: "Boundless Lecture Slides Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Available on the Boundless Teaching Platform."— Presentation transcript:

1 Boundless Lecture Slides Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Available on the Boundless Teaching Platform

2 Using Boundless Presentations The Appendix The appendix is for you to use to add depth and breadth to your lectures. You can simply drag and drop slides from the appendix into the main presentation to make for a richer lecture experience. Free to edit, share, and copy Feel free to edit, share, and make as many copies of the Boundless presentations as you like. We encourage you to take these presentations and make them your own. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless Teaching Platform Boundless empowers educators to engage their students with affordable, customizable textbooks and intuitive teaching tools. The free Boundless Teaching Platform gives educators the ability to customize textbooks in more than 20 subjects that align to hundreds of popular titles. Get started by using high quality Boundless books, or make switching to our platform easier by building from Boundless content pre-organized to match the assigned textbook. This platform gives educators the tools they need to assign readings and assessments, monitor student activity, and lead their classes with pre-made teaching resources. Get started now at: If you have any questions or problems please

3 Boundless is an innovative technology company making education more affordable and accessible for students everywhere. The company creates the world’s best open educational content in 20+ subjects that align to more than 1,000 popular college textbooks. Boundless integrates learning technology into all its premium books to help students study more efficiently at a fraction of the cost of traditional textbooks. The company also empowers educators to engage their students more effectively through customizable books and intuitive teaching tools as part of the Boundless Teaching Platform. More than 2 million learners access Boundless free and premium content each month across the company’s wide distribution platforms, including its website, iOS apps, Kindle books, and iBooks. To get started learning or teaching with Boundless, visit boundless.com.boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at About Boundless

4 Occurrence of a Disease Severity or Duration of a Disease Extent of Host Involvement Identifications Based on Molecular Genetics Pathogen Identification Epidemiology > Pathogen Identification Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at

5 Outbreaks may also refer to endemics that affect a particular place or group, epidemics that affect a region in a country or a group of countries, or pandemics that describe global disease outbreaks. The epidemiology profession has developed a number of widely accepted steps to investigate a disease occurrence. Outbreak patterns, which can be useful in identifying the transmission method or source, and predicting the future rate of infection include common source, continuous source, point source, and propagated source. Outbreaks can be behavioral risk related (e.g., sexually transmitted diseases, increased risk due to malnutrition) or zoonotic (e.g. the infectious agent is endemic to an animal population). Occurrence of a Disease Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at disease Flu Victims View on Boundless.com Epidemiology > Pathogen Identification

6 Severity of illness is defined as the extent of organ system derangement or physiologic decompensation of a patient, and in general an illness is classified into minor, moderate, major, and extreme. In an infectious disease, the incubation period is the time between infection and the appearance of symptoms, the latency period is the time between infection and the ability to spread to another person, and the viral latency is the time the virus hides in the body in an inactive state. Disease duration can encompass one or more of the following: an acute disease, a chronic disease, a flare-up, a refractory disease is a disease, a progressive disease, or a cure. The scope of a disease, whether it is localized, disseminated, or systemic also affects its severity and duration. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is known as a health care classification system that provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. Severity or Duration of a Disease Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at of-a-disease View on Boundless.com Epidemiology > Pathogen Identification

7 All pathogens damage their host to some extent, usually resulting in an infectious disease from the interplay between the pathogens and the defenses of the hosts they infect. Clinicians classify infectious microorganisms or microbes according to the status of host defenses - either as primary pathogens or as opportunistic pathogens. Primary pathogens cause disease as a result of their presence or activity within the normal, healthy host, and their intrinsic virulence is, in part, a necessary consequence of their need to reproduce and spread. Organisms which cause an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance are classified as opportunistic pathogens. Extent of Host Involvement Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at involvement Clostridium tetani View on Boundless.com Epidemiology > Pathogen Identification

8 Nucleic acid-based detection methods are very sensitive. Molecular Koch's postulates are a set of experimental criteria that must be satisfied to show that a gene found in a pathogenic microorganism encodes a product that contributes to the disease caused by the pathogen. After virulent factors have been identified, it is possible to develop a vaccine against the factors. For many pathogenic microorganisms, it is not currently possible to apply molecular genetic techniques to a gene in question. Identifications Based on Molecular Genetics Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at on-molecular-genetics Reserve genetics View on Boundless.com Epidemiology > Pathogen Identification

9 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Appendix

10 Key terms duration an amount of time or a particular time interval epidemic A widespread disease that affects many individuals in a population. genetic Relating to genetics or genes. genetics the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics, in particular chromosomes and DNA host A cell or organism which harbors another organism or biological entity, usually a parasite. nucleic acid Any acidic, chainlike biological macromolecule consisting of repeating units of phosphoric acid, sugar, and purine and pyrimidine bases; they are involved in the preservation, replication, and expression of hereditary information in every living cell. outbreak A term used in epidemiology to describe an occurrence of disease greater than would otherwise be expected at a particular time and place. pandemic A disease that hits a wide geographical area and affects a large proportion of the population. pathogen Any organism or substance, especially a microorganism, capable of causing disease, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or fungi.Microorganisms are not considered to be pathogenic until they have reached a population size that is large enough to cause disease. severity the degree of something undesirable; badness or seriousness. virulent Highly infectious, malignant, or deadly. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Epidemiology

11 Reserve genetics Avian flu vaccine development by reverse genetics technique. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikimedia. Public domain https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/ReverseGeneticsFlu.svg View on Boundless.comPublic domainhttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/ReverseGeneticsFlu.svgView on Boundless.com Epidemiology

12 Clostridium tetani Clostridium tetani are pathogenic bacteria. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikipedia. "Clostridium tetani2." CC BY https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Clostridium_tetani2.JPG View on Boundless.comCC BYhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Clostridium_tetani2.JPGView on Boundless.com Epidemiology

13 Tracking Malarial Fever Temperature observations over four days, showing typical fever patterns in malaria infection by different Plasmodium species. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikipedia. "Malaria fever." CC BY-SA https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Malaria_fever.svg View on Boundless.comCC BY-SAhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Malaria_fever.svgView on Boundless.com Epidemiology

14 1918 Flu Victims With masks over their faces, members of the American Red Cross remove a victim of the Spanish Flu from a house at Etzel and Page Avenues, St. Louis, Missouri. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikipedia. "1918FluVictimsStLouis." Public domain https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1918FluVictimsStLouis.jpg View on Boundless.comPublic domainhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1918FluVictimsStLouis.jpgView on Boundless.com Epidemiology

15 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Epidemiology A woman has complaints of recurring joint pain, headaches and nausea every few months. She states the pain sensation is throughout her body. The clinician notes that her symptoms appear to match: A) a progressive and systemic disease B) a flare-up and disseminated disease C) a flare-up and systemic disease D) a progressive and disseminated disease

16 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Epidemiology A woman has complaints of recurring joint pain, headaches and nausea every few months. She states the pain sensation is throughout her body. The clinician notes that her symptoms appear to match: A) a progressive and systemic disease B) a flare-up and disseminated disease C) a flare-up and systemic disease D) a progressive and disseminated disease

17 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Epidemiology Which of the following is considered a criteria of Molecular Koch's postulates? A) A pathogen reisolated from a diseased host must be identical to the original pathogen isolated B) All organs, diseased or not, must test postive for pathogen specific nucleic acid sequences C) The copy number of pathogen nucleic acid sequences will remain consistent even upon resolution D) The identified nucleic acid sequences must correlate with the known biological traits of the microbe

18 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Epidemiology Which of the following is considered a criteria of Molecular Koch's postulates? A) A pathogen reisolated from a diseased host must be identical to the original pathogen isolated B) All organs, diseased or not, must test postive for pathogen specific nucleic acid sequences C) The copy number of pathogen nucleic acid sequences will remain consistent even upon resolution D) The identified nucleic acid sequences must correlate with the known biological traits of the microbe

19 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Epidemiology Specific types of bacteria and fungi, that may be considered a component of the microbiota, can cause infection upon impairment of host defenses. This characteristic categorizes these types of microbes: A) as opportunistic pathogens B) as primary pathogens C) as secondary pathogens D) as immunosuppressive pathogens

20 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Epidemiology Specific types of bacteria and fungi, that may be considered a component of the microbiota, can cause infection upon impairment of host defenses. This characteristic categorizes these types of microbes: A) as opportunistic pathogens B) as primary pathogens C) as secondary pathogens D) as immunosuppressive pathogens

21 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Epidemiology Which of the following are considered procedure by epidemiologist when investigating a disease outbreak? A) Mapping the spread of the outbreak B) Implement prevention systems C) All of the choices D) Determine the type of outbreak pattern to identify the transmission method

22 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Epidemiology Which of the following are considered procedure by epidemiologist when investigating a disease outbreak? A) Mapping the spread of the outbreak B) Implement prevention systems C) All of the choices D) Determine the type of outbreak pattern to identify the transmission method

23 Attribution Wikipedia. "Molecular Koch's postulates." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_Koch%2527s_postulatesCC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_Koch%2527s_postulates Wikipedia. "Koch's postulates." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koch%2527s_postulatesCC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koch%2527s_postulates Wiktionary. "genetics." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/genetics Wiktionary. "virulent." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/virulent Wiktionary. "nucleic acid." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/nucleic+acid Wiktionary. "genetic." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/genetic Wikipedia. "Host-pathogen interaction." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-pathogen_interactionCC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-pathogen_interaction Wikipedia. "Infectious disease." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infectious_diseaseCC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infectious_disease Wiktionary. "pathogen." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pathogen Wiktionary. "host." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/host Wikipedia. "Epidemiological method." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidemiological_methodCC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidemiological_method Wikipedia. "Outbreak." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OutbreakCC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outbreak Wiktionary. "pandemic." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pandemic Wiktionary. "epidemic." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/epidemic Wikipedia. "outbreak." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/outbreak Wikipedia. "Severity of illness." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severity_of_illnessCC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severity_of_illness Wikipedia. "ICD." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ICDCC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ICD Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Epidemiology

24 Wikipedia. "Disease." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DiseaseCC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disease Wikipedia. "duration." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/duration Wiktionary. "severity." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/severity Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Epidemiology


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