Presentation on theme: "Energy and the Environent. Outline 1. Introduction -- What is the challenge? 2. Problems of energy 3. Impetus/context to renewable energy regime/drive."— Presentation transcript:
Outline 1. Introduction -- What is the challenge? 2. Problems of energy 3. Impetus/context to renewable energy regime/drive : 4. Energy resources 5. Conclusion
Introduction What is the challenge - Dependence on fossil fuels. vs. desire low-carbon - The problem of political will?
Energy Problems I The Environmental Dimension Transport- oil spills eg. 1989, 10 million gallons of crude oil leaked from Exxon Valdez tanker off Alaska. use -Greenhouse gas effects, from carbon dioxide produced in the burning of fuels has effect on climate change Disposal- fuel rods used in nuclear plants disposed of as radioactive wastes [high exposure to humans can cause birth defects, cancer, death]
Energy Problems II The Economic Dimension I Industrial economy, Social conveniences The National Security Dimenion Rise of militant nationalism in world’s gas stations Vulnerability among world’s leading oil consumers Impact 1973 OPEC embargo Impact 1973 OPEC embargo
Energy Problems III Depletion/supply concerns - Oil-rich nations using more energy and cutting imports - Not shortage - Political sources: energy indep.
Coal Uses: electricity, heating, cooking, industry? Advantages: abundant, cheap. Environmental impacts of Coal [the high cost of cheap coal; i.e. the politics of costing: who counts] [the high cost of cheap coal; i.e. the politics of costing: who counts] Air pollution SO2, NOx, CO2 emissions Most carbon intensive fuel High percentage of global CO2 emissions Mining impacts Safety. Health – water around the mines Disposal of byproducts “Clean coal:” technology = Carbon sequestration Issues: Cost; escape and safety, diverts resources
Natural Gas Cleanest burning of all fossil fuels Most efficient World production and reserves continue to rise Largest reservoirs: Russia [former Soviet] 31%, Mid. East 31%. Known reserves – 60 year supply at current use rates Dependence on foreign countries Environmental Impacts of Natural Gas -Pipeline construction and leaks -Emissions of greenhouse gas: - Flares
Nuclear Power About 5% global energy consumption. Problems in its development - Decline in public acceptance - High cost [U.S., govt heavy subsidy, especially insurance liability] Env. impacts of Nuclear Energy Does not emit NOx, SO2, CO2 Accidents: -Three Mile Island plant, PA (1979) - Chernobyl (1989) - Proponents: 19th C. Britain over 100,000 died in coal mines. Nuclear Waste [big debate, but also, source of revenue to some] On site storage Russia’s Far East Yucca Mountain site? Nuclear waste trade
Oil % Global world production e.g.- Saudi Arabi 25; Iraq 9; UAE 9;Iran 9 Kuwait 10; Venezuela 7; US 2.8; Mexico 4.7 Environmental Impacts of oil Gas flaring Pipeline leaks CO2 emissions Air pollution: SO2, NOx, O3 Oil spills: Exxon Valdez  - almost assured because of distributional conflicts – e.g. Niger Delta Oil
Alternative Energy Sources/Practices Demand Side: Logic of efficiency -renewable energy + energy efficiency improvements, could provide up to 50 % of U.S. electricity needs by 2030. - Energy efficiency would account for about 57 % of national emissions reductions required by 2030 (renewables would provide the rest). - 40 % of efficiency-related reductions be from buildings, -30 percent from both the industry and transportation sectors.
Energy Efficiency Constraints on Energy Efficiency Policy Failures - Subsidies and artificially low prices - Not regulating externalities: e.g. pollution - Electoral politics-special interests problem Limited access to ICT [Information, Communication, and Technology] - Income/markets, information flow Collective action problems -hence policy failures persist
Alternative Energy/practices cont. 2. Supply side: Renewable Sources - Includes - Hydropower, biomass, solar PV, Wind, Hydrogen, Tidal, geothermal, waste -Services - electricity, heat, motive power, and water pumping for millions in dev. countries. - Sectors -agriculture, small industry, homes, schools, and other community needs.
Renewable Energy in Developing Countries 40 % existing renewable power capacity, - 70 % existing solar hot water capacity, - 45 % biofuels production. Policy to promote renewable Energy growing. - At least 60 countries - 37 developed and transition countries -23 developing countries
Polices to Promote Renewable Energy Most common policies: 1.Feed-in law [producers guaranteed sale to electric network]. - By 2007, at least 37 countries and 9 states/provinces, more than half enacted since 2002. 2. Renewable portfolio standards (RPS)/ renewable obligations or quota [a % of generation sold or capacity installed is provided by renewable energy - United States, Canada, India, Australia, China, Italy, Japan, Poland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. - U. S., five states enacted new RPS policies during 2006/2007 (Illinois, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Oregon, and Washington State), total US = 25 + D.C (four states have policy goals). - 9 U.S. states revised existing RPS targets, including California, which accelerated to 2010 an existing target of 20 % by 2017.
Other Forms of Policy Support Capital investment subsidies or rebates, Tax incentives and credits, Sales tax and value-added tax exemptions, Energy production payments or tax credits, Public investment or financing. Mandates for incorporating solar hot water into new construction. Germany: All new residential buildings (2009), 14 % of household heating and hot water energy from renewables Existing German buildings be retrofitted to meet 10 % of their heating energy from renewables. A llocation of $490 million in 2008 for capital grants to homeowners. Cape Town, South Africa, - Draft 2007 bylaw undergoing review: solar hot water in new houses for middle- and high-income groups. - Draft 2007 bylaw undergoing review: solar hot water in new houses for middle- and high-income groups.
Wind - Fastest growing world’s renewable energy resource - 28 % worldwide in 2007. - Annual capacity additions increased: 40 % higher in 2007 cf to 2006. - Europe leads world in installed capacity - 1991 US DOE – three states: N. Dakota, Kansas, and Texas had enough to satisfy national electricity needs. Advance in turbine tech. suggests more [not just electricity] Issues and Impacts in Wind power - No air emissions - Impact on birds: mountain ridges - Cost competitive
Biofuels: Ethanol and Biodiesel Developing countries, small-scale power and heat production from agricultural waste is common, for example from rice or coconut husks. - - The use of bagasse (sugar cane after juice extraction) in countries with large sugar industry, [Australia, Brazil, China,Colombia, Cuba, India, the Philippines, and Thailand]. - Corn Power and heating - expanding in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the Baltic countries, and provides substantial shares (5–50 percent) of district heating fuel. - expanding in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the Baltic countries, and provides substantial shares (5–50 percent) of district heating fuel.
The United States By 2007, gasoline blended with some share of ethanol. Production of ethanol less than demand (2006). - U.S. Energy Bill. - Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS), set goals for the U.S. biofuels industry. - production of 36 million gallons of biofuels—mainly ethanol and biodiesel—annually by 2022.
Criticism/Fears of Biofuels And the environment - process of producing biofuels — cultivation, fertilisation, harvesting, transportation — could introduce parallel carbon emissions. What could a price war with fossil fuel mean? Long-term effects on agriculture.
Promising trends Provisions in US Energy Bill. - meet certain greenhouse gas emissions requirements. -emission reductions have to be based on lifecycle studies - administrator should “re-evaluate” conditions annually and adjust the fuel mandate and emissions requirements Similar views elsewhere mirror U.S. view eg. Brazil Forum consensus Other Example - Jatropha
Conclusions Question of Political will and the right policies [who is the problem?]. - Promising examples - Tanzanial Fuel briquettes. - China’s cow-dung methane power plant methane power plant What policies are needed to advance renewable energy? - reduce subsidies for conventional energy and incorporate external costs (leveling the playing field) (leveling the playing field)