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© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 9-1 Chapter 9 Database Information and Management Chapter 9 Database and Information Management
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 9-2 Presentation Overview Database Basics Databases and Information Systems Database Management System Software Types of Databases Planning and Designing Database Systems Using Databases Database Administration
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 9-3 Database Basics What is a database? –A database is a computerized system for storing information in an organized manner so that it can be searched for and retrieved when needed. How does a database organize information? –Information is stored in the form of fields, records, and files.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 9-4 Database Basics Data vs. Information –Data is a collection of raw, unorganized (unprocessed) content in the form of words, numbers, sounds, or images. –Information is data associated with other useful data on the same topic.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 9-5 Database Basics Levels of Data within a Database –An entity is a person, place, thing, or event. –A field is a single value, such as a name, address, or dollar amount. A field generally has three attributes. Data type: usually numeric or text Name: assigned by the person developing the database Size: the number of characters that can be entered
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 9-6 Database Basics Level of Data within a Database –A record is a collection of related fields describing an event or situation. –A database file is a collection of records of the same type.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 9-7 Database Basics Traditional Database Hierarchy A traditional database organizes data in a hierarchy. Fields are the smallest elements. Fields make up records. Records make up data files. The database is a collection of data files.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 9-8 Database Basics Common Field Data Types
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 9-9 Databases and Information Systems The most common database application is an information system, which is a system of computer hardware, software, and operating procedures. –Information systems are designed to meet the needs of a company. –A variety of information systems has evolved with software capabilities and market needs.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Databases and Information Systems Management Information Systems –A management information system (MIS) is used to track and control every transaction through a database. –A transaction is a business activity central to the nature of an enterprise.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Databases and Information Systems Office Information Systems –First popularized in the 1960s, the concept of an office information system (OIS) was billed as a replacement for paper-based information systems. –An electronic office is one that implements an OIS. The electronic office today is the norm rather than the exception.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Databases and Information Systems Decision Support Systems –A decision support system (DSS) is designed to help management make decisions about an operation. –A DSS helps managers to work with “what if” situations.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Databases and Information Systems Factory Automation Systems Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) are information systems that support factory automation. CAM refers to systems that run an assembly line directly. CAM systems form a portion of a complete CIM system, a higher-level system that controls a manufacturing process from beginning to end.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Database Management System Software Software that allows a user to create and manage a computerized database is called database management system (DBMS) software. DBMS software also allows a user to create reports from stored data.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Database Management System Software Database Keys –A key is an attribute that can be used to identify a set of information and therefore provide a means to search a database. The most important field in a record is the primary key, which must be unique so that it can be used to locate a record quickly. –Data browsing is moving through a database file and looking for information.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Database Management System Software Query Tools –Query tools help users help users narrow down large amounts of data to just the information that needs to be searched. –A query allows users to ask questions designed to retrieve needed information.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Database Management System Software The most popular database query language is Structured Query Language (SQL). –The SELECT command asks a database to return records that match specified criteria. –This SQL statement could be used to search for the top students in a college, with “top” defined as those students with a GPA above 3.49.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Database Management System Software A process called joining matches data from fields in various database files. Here, both records files would have a common Student ID number field, allowing the information in both of them to be returned in a single query.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Database Management System Software Information about data is called metadata. It often describes the significance of various elements of a database. A data dictionary is a body of metadata. A legacy database is a database that runs using languages, platforms, or models that are no longer supported by an organization’s current database system.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Types of Databases Databases Classified by Data Model A flat file database is a traditional data file storage system that cannot interrelate data in an organizational structure. It is called “flat” because it contains only one file. These databases are easy to use but consume more disk space and are slow to respond.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Types of Databases Databases Classified by Data Model In a relational database, fields can be shared among all the files in the database, making it possible to connect them. In this type of database, a file is called a table, a record is called a tuple, and a field is called an attribute. A single change to an attribute will change that attribute in all the tables at once.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Types of Databases Databases Classified by Data Model An object-oriented database stores data in the form of objects. Each object contains both the data related to the object and the actions a user might want to perform on that object. These databases allow for faster development and access time.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Types of Databases Databases Classified by Data Model –A multimedia database allows the storage of pictures, movies, sounds, and hyperlinked fields. –A hybrid database employs multiple data models. A combination of relational and object-oriented models is a popular hybrid database.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Types of Databases Databases Classified by Function –An operational database offers a snapshot of a fluid situation. These databases are usually used to track an operation or situation, i.e. inventory. –A distributed database is spread across multiple networked computers. These databases can hold more information, but don’t operate as quickly as mainframe or supercomputer databases.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Types of Databases Databases Classified by Function A data warehouse is used to store data gathered from one or more databases. They do not change, delete, or manipulate the information they store. Law enforcement records are an example of a data warehouse.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Planning and Designing Database Systems How are databases designed? Using the database management approach, systems analysts follow three steps. 1.Create an organizational structure for the data. 2.Design an interface that makes the database user- friendly. 3.Set up reporting capabilities to allow for inquiry and response.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Planning and Designing Database Systems Accessing a Database –The user requests and enters data through the front-end interface program. –The database management system manages the retrieval and update of the database itself.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Planning and Designing Database Systems Database Objects: Tools in the DBMS –A database object is an element within an object-oriented database. –A form is a template that allows users to enter data into the database. –A report is a formatted body of output from a database. –A data filter is made up of filtering criteria that cause only a subset of the data to be presented.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Using Databases The activities performed with a database are referred to as data processing. –Batch processing occurs at a scheduled time or when a critical point has been reached. –Transactional processing is more continuous. In a real-time system, data is constantly updated. E-commerce transactions use online transactional processing, which is in business 24 hours a day. –Transactional and batch processing are often mixed in the same system.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Using Databases Data Entry Operator –Types data into databases and makes sure that it is accurate. –He or she Adds records Modifies records Deletes records Sorts records
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Database Administration A database administrator is responsible for maintaining and updating the database and the DBMS software. –Any changes in company policy often result in changes to the company database. Database administrators are also responsible for preventing computer downtime—time in which the system is unavailable.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Database Administration Data Loss or Corruption –Data loss occurs when data input can no longer be retrieved. –Data corruption occurs when data is unreadable, incomplete, or damaged. –A key part of any DBMS is a backup and recovery plan. Tape backups are a commonly used backup method. Backups must be stored separately from original material to lessen accidental data loss.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Database Administration The lag time between a user issuing a command and the database system taking action is called database response time.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Database Administration When users attempt to edit existing records in a multi-user system, record locking occurs. The system automatically checks to see if anyone else is working on the same record and only allows one user at a time to edit or delete the record.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Database Administration Data Integrity The accuracy of the information provided to database users. Redundancy –The duplication of data in several fields. –An enemy of data integrity because it creates opportunities for error. Normalization A process intended to eliminate redundancy.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Database Administration Data Contamination –The spread of incorrect information. –Can have serious consequences. –Preventing it is one of the goals of data validation.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Database Administration Data Validation The process of making certain that data entered into the system is both correct and complete. Referential Integrity Involves a check to make sure that deleting a record in one table will not affect other tables.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc Database Administration Data Validation –A range check only allows a certain range of numbers to be entered. –An alphanumeric check allows only letters of the alphabet and digits to be entered. –A consistency check is made against previously entered data that has been validated. –A completeness check ensures that every required field is filled out.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc On the Horizon Based on the information presented in this chapter and your own experience, what do you think is on the horizon?
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