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Computer Science 103 Chapter 1 History of Computing.

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Presentation on theme: "Computer Science 103 Chapter 1 History of Computing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Computer Science 103 Chapter 1 History of Computing

2 Initial Generation Computing First Generation Computing Second Generation Computing Third Generation Computing Fourth Generation Computing

3 Initial Generation Computing The Babylonians used the abacus first as an aid to simple arithmetic around 500 B.C. In 1623 Wilhelm Schickard made a "Calculating Clock". – Capable of adding and subtracting up to 6 digit numbers; warned of overflow with the ringing of a bell – The operations were carried out by wheels

4 Initial Generation Computing Cont ’ d A French mathematician named Blaise Pascal invented the “ Pascaline ” in 1642 – Was more popular than Calculating Clock and copied up to 8 digits Joseph-Maire Jacquard developed an automatic loom Charles Babbage invented the Analytical Engine and the Difference Engine

5 Initial Generation Computing Cont ’ d 1890 U.S. Census Herman Hollerith found the Tabulating Machine Company, later known as IBM in 1896 The Electronic Tube was developed by Lee De Forest in America in 1906 – Without this tube it would have been impossible to make digital electronic computers

6 Initial Generation Computing Cont ’ d In 1935, International Business Machines introduces the “ IBM 601 ” – a punch card machine with an arithmetic unit based on relays – capable of doing a multiplication in 1 second In 1937 Alan M. Turing publishes a paper on "computable numbers" – the mathematical theory of computation

7 Initial Generation Computing Cont ’ d David Hewlett and William Packard formed Hewlett-Packard in a garage in California in 1939 Also in 1939, WWII begins which sparks many improvements in technology leading to the development of machines such as the Colossus

8 First Generation Computing Computers between 1943 and 1959 are considered 'first generation' computers. – Based on valves and wire circuits – Characterized by the use of punched cards and vacuum valves – All programming was done in machine code.

9 First Generation Computing Cont ’ d The Harvard Mark I - Partially financed by IBM - Became the first program controlled calculator feet long, weighs 5 tons, and incorporates 750,000 parts. “ Heath Robinson ” - Specialized machine for cipher-breaking Colossus - Earliest programmable electronic computer

10 First Generation Computing Cont ’ d Colossus (cont ’ d) – Used to crack the German code used by the 'Enigma' machines – It translated an amazing 5000 characters a second, and used punched tape for input ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) – Invented by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert – Calculated Ballistic trajectories and testing theories behind the Hydrogen bomb – Recognized as first Universal Electronic Computer

11 First Generation Computing Cont ’ d William B. Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter H. Brattain invent the transistor at The Bell Laboratories. The Floppy Disk is invented by Doctor Yoshiro Nakamats. UNIVAC I – First general purpose computer – Designed to handle both numeric and textual information

12 First Generation Computing Cont ’ d Estimates say that there are around 100 computers in the world in Development of the FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation) programming language begins. The integrated circuit is invented by Jack St Clair Kilby at Texas Instruments.

13 Second Generation Computing Computers built between 1959 and 1964 are often regarded as 'Second Generation' computers – Based on transistors and printed circuits (resulting in much smaller computers) – Could handle interpreters such as FORTRAN (for science) or COBOL (for business – Much more flexible in their applications

14 Second Generation Computing Cont ’ d COBOL (COmmon Business-Orientated Language) developed by Grace Murray Hopper. IBM 7030 ("Stretch") – Data was organized as bytes and utilized magnetic disks. – The machine was slower than anticipated, far more expensive, and completed way past the deadline. – Strech was perceived as a failure but it contributed to the development of other IBM machines later to come.

15 Computers built between 1964 and 1972 are often regarded as 'Third Generation' computers – Based upon first integrated circuits, which allowed for smaller machines In 1965 BASIC (Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) was developed at Dartmouth College by Thomas E. Kurtz and John Kemeny Third Generation Computing

16 Also in 1965, the first mouse was invented by Douglas Englebart, but did not become popular until the mid 80 ’ s by Apple Intel was was founded by Robert Noyce and company in 1968 Third Generation Computing Cont ’ d

17 In 1969 ARPANET was started by the US Dept. of Defense for research into networking – It was the original basis for what we now call the internet – It was open to all non-military users in the 70 ’ s; primarily used by universities and large businesses – Al Gore was the first to call it the information superhighway Third Generation Computing Cont ’ d

18 Intel produced the first RAM chip in 1970 – capacity of 1 K-bit, 1024 bits. Also in 1970, the UNIX operating system was started In 1971 the first microprocessor, the 4004, was developed by Marcian E. Hoff for Intel Third Generation Computing Cont ’ d

19 Microprocessors cont ’ d – is a single chip (integrated circuit) that contains the entire central processing unit of a computer – It contains the equivalent of 2300 transistors and was a 4 bit processor In 1972 Nolan Bushnell founded Atari and Pong – Pong is widely recognized as the first popular arcade video game Third Generation Computing Cont ’ d

20 Fourth Generation Computing Computers built after 1972 considered fourth generation computers. – based on LSI (Large Scale Integration) of circuits. – typically with 500 or more components on a chip. C programming language developed – C++, which allowed for Object-Orientated Programming, was introduced in early 1980s.

21 Fourth Generation Cont ’ d First scientific calculator developed by Hewlett- Packard Original connections to ARPANET established. Microsoft is founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen (1975).

22 Fourth Generation Cont ’ d The Cray 1 is the first commercially developed Supercomputer. – It contained 200,000 integrated circuits. – Could perform 150 Million FLOPs. – It is now the basis of an informal measurement of the power of Supercomputers. – Supercomputers are used for weather forecasting, complex math and physics problems, and animation in modern films.

23 Fourth Generation Cont ’ d Introduction of the 8086 by Intel (1978). – the first commercially successful 16 bit processor. The compact disk (CD) was invented (1979). IBM started to develop their own PC. – Microsoft commissioned to write the Operating System – Released August 12, 1981.

24 Fourth Generation Cont ’ d TCP/IP Protocol established. Domain Name Server (DNS) introduced to the Internet. – Consisted of about 1000 hosts. CD-ROM, invented by Phillips, produced in collaboration with Sony.

25 Fourth Generation Cont ’ d Microsoft Windows is launched (1985). – Not complete Operating System. It required DOS to run. – Just had a Graphical User Interface (G.U.I) – Similar to Macintosh ’ s version. – So similar in fact that Apple tried to sue Microsoft for copying the 'look and feel' of their operating system. – Court case finally dropped in 1997.

26 Fourth Generation Cont ’ d World Wide Web (WWW) (1989). – The Web was a result of the integration of hypertext and the Internet. – The explosion of Internet usage started in 1993, a year in which web traffic increased by 300,000%.

27 Fourth Generation Cont ’ d Windows 3.0 Released (1990). – Allowed for true multitasking. Linux born (1991). – It now runs on many different types of computer, including the Sun SPARC.

28 Fourth Generation Cont ’ d Intel's Pentium is released (1993). – Achieved up to 100 MIPs. – Over 3.1 million transistors. Netscape 1.0 written (1994). Windows '95 was launched by Microsoft. – This is an entire operating system and does not rely on MS-DOS.

29 Fourth Generation Cont ’ d CompuServe blocked access to over 200 sexually explicit sites (1995). JavaScript development is announced by Netscape. IBM's Deep Blue is the first computer to beat a reigning World Chess Champion, Gary Kasparov, in a full chess match (1997).

30 Fourth Generation Cont ’ d Intel released their Pentium II processor. – It featured a much larger on-chip cache, as well as an increased instruction set. Microsoft invests in Apple. U.S. court bans buying of domain names.

31 Fourth Generation Cont ’ d Windows 98 released. – U.S. attorneys attempted to block release due to the Operating System interlacing with Microsoft Internet Explorer. – Attorneys claimed this blocked competition. – Microsoft claimed that delaying the release would damage the economy.

32 Fourth Generation Cont ’ d Microsoft releases Windows XP – latest version of their Windows operating systems. Microsoft releases its gaming console the `X' Box.


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