Pre-war America After split in Republican Party due to Roosevelt and Taft’s “outbreak” over Republican nomination in Chicago, Democrats, who haven’t had office since 1897, had an excellent chance to win with their new reformist leader, Woodrow Wilson Wilson wins the election of 1912 as a result of Roosevelt’s split; has less votes than Taft/Roosevelt combined
Woodrow Wilson Nominated for governor by New Jersey political bosses because he was respectable Once he became governor, his incredible leadership power made him immediately popular, people spoke of making him president Promoted “New Freedom” which favored small enterprise, entrepreneurship, and free functioning of unregulated and unmonopolized markets. Focused on economic reform to fix social issues
Wilson in Office Even before arriving in office, Wilson already knew what he wanted to do Focused on an all out assault on “the triple wall of privilege”: the tariff, the banks, and the trusts First focused on tariff by passing the Underwood Tariff Bill to reduce tariff rates substantially. Reduced import fees drastically
Wilson in Office The recent 16 th Amendment allowed Congress to pass a graduated income tax, which, by 1917, generated more revenue than tariffs. Wilson next focused on the inadequate banking system still based on the Civil War era National Banking Act Wilson, in 1913, signed the Federal Reserve Act which revolutionized the banking system by enacting a series of government controlled banks called “Federal Reserves” which existed to fix any possible issues which come up by increasing money in circulation
Wilson in Office Finally Wilson focused on taming the trusts. Wilson’s work against trusts started with the Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 which empowered a commission to randomly search various commerce based companies such as meatpackers Wilson also passed the the Clayton Anti-Trust Act which extended the Sherman Act’s list of acts deemed “trustworthy.”
Wilson’s Progressivism Wilson also focused on progressivism like the last few presidents had been. Influenced by the Populists, he made credit available to farmers at low interest rates through the Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916 The Warehouse Act of 1916 authorized loans on the staple crops, also influenced by the Populists Wilson knew that, in order to win the election of 1916, he needed to be the “Progressive Candidate.”
Wilson’s Foreign Policy Wilson hated both Roosevelt’s “Big Stick” ideology and Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy.” He immediately proclaimed that the government would no longer provide Latin America and China with special support He also repealed the Panama Canal Tolls Act which had previously exempted America from shipping tolls in the Canal Wilson’s attempts at neutrality was threatened as he was forced to send American troops to Haiti when American property there was threatened by Haitian revolutionaries
Meanwhile… Revolutions in Mexico were taking place as well Wilson tried to keep us out, but was forced into it when a group of American sailors was arrested in Mexico. Even though they immediately apologized, Wilson was determined to eliminate the Mexican leader. Recklessly ordering the navy to attack Vera Cruz, Wilson was saved from war when Huerta collapsed due to pressure from Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. Ruined relationship with Mexico for a long time.
Shots Fired in Europe Meanwhile, while Wilson was focused on taming the dominant trusts, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was assassinated by a Serbian patriot. The result was a huge chain reaction, starting with Russia backing Serbia, and Germany attacking France through Belgium. The English, scared that the assault on Belgium opened them up to an invasion from Germany, was forced to back up France
Shots Fired in Europe Almost overnight, Europe was locked into a huge war, pitting the Central Powers: Germany Austria-Hungary, and later Turkey and Bulgaria, against the Allies: France, Britain, Russia, and later Japan and Italy Americans were extremely thankful that they were out of Europe and separated by an ocean. Wilson, whose wife had also recently died, issued neutrality and called for Americans to stay neutral in thought.
American Thoughts on War Most Americans were anti-German, due to their autocratic styles They were against Kaiser Wilhelm II’s bellicose invasion through the neutral state of Belgium. Many Germans and Austrians in America sabotaged industry work and fought against America. Even though most Americans were pro-Ally, they almost all wanted to stay out of the horrid war.
American Recession When Europe first broke into fighting, America was broke America was free to trade with both sides of the war, and would have if not for English blockades on Atlantic German ports American trade with the desperate English and French helped boost us out of recession Germans were angry about getting the short end of the stick from supposedly America, so they sent deadly U-Boats, or submarines, at American ships
American Neutrality Threatened German U-boats succeeded in angering the Americans. The ship ignored previous rules of naval warfare by sinking ships without warning The Lusitania, a British passenger ship carrying 1200 people and 128 Americans, was sunk, leaving all of them dead. After the Lusitania was sunk by Germans, Americans started considering fighting back, but Wilson stood by neutrality, instead settling with a deal made with Germany which forced them to stop sinking innocent ships without warning
Election of 1916 Teddy Roosevelt was again nominated by the Progressives, but refused to run for president due to his pure hatred of Wilson The Republicans nominated Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans. Had a bad habit of flipping his views based on the views of the people he was speaking to The Democrats nominated Wilson again, who fought on an anti-war campaign. Wilson won the election barely, with the electoral college votes tallying 277/254
Americans Forced to Fight On January 31, 1917, the Germans declared they would sink all ships, including American ones, in the war zone. Germans couldn’t afford to have to make the distinction between combatants and noncombatants Americans also intercepted the Zimmerman note, a note written by German foreign secretary Andrew Zimmerman, proposing a secret Mexican-German Alliance in hopes of taking back Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
Americans Forced to Fight One last reason America was hesitant to fight was Russia Americans didn’t want to fight alongside Russia, as fighting for democracy alongside the czars of Russia would be hypocritical When the Bolsheviks overthrew the cruel czars, America felt more comfortable fighting with the Allies Americans finally forced to declare war on April 6, 1917
Neutrality Overthrown American people were still very anti-war even though Wilson felt it was necessary This resulted in a lot of pro-war propaganda by the government and by a man named George Creel Creel organized closed to 150,000 people, half of which who were sent around the nation delivering speeches about the war, to generate support for the war Extremely successful
Wilson’s Fourteen Points Wilson organized 14 points which he delivered enthusiastically to Congress The first 5, the most relevant, involved abolition of secret treaties, freedom of the seas, removal of economic barriers post-war, armament reductions, and colonial readjustment Wilson’s last point foreshadowed his planned League of Nations, an international organization for peace
American Factories Americans were, even though notified heavily, not fully prepared for war Shipbuilding factories and other attempts at growing the American army, relatively small compared to the other powers of the war, grew extremely relevant American labor unions also effected the war drastically While AF of L, the largest labor union of the time, supported the war, others didn’t, and acted extremely radically
American Workers In 1919, the greatest strike in American history rocked the steel industry Over 250,000 American steelworkers went on strike in hopes of forcing employers to recognize the right of workers to organize and bargain as a group Steel companies resisted and hired cheap labor, African Americans, to replace the workers After the strike collapsed, the union movement was ruined for decades
Suffrage Fights Women were also ferociously active during the war time Many progressive-era women were pacifists, and thus, anti- war by nature The women were seemingly successful as Wilson proclaimed suffrage for women a “vitally necessary war measure.” In 1920, women were given the right to vote through the 19 th Amendment
War Economy at Home Families at home were encouraged to help the war effort by partaking in “heatless Mondays, lightless nights, and gasless Sundays” to preserve fuel Herbert Hoover, the leader of the Food Administration and the war effort at home, preferred to take an approach asking for voluntary aid rather than forcing Americans to help
War Censorship The war also prompted a time of extreme government censorship Random German-Americans were occasionally beaten The Espionage Act of 1917, and the Sedition Act of 1918, were used to justify picking out Socialist Americans and prosecuting them In the case of Schenck v. United States, the Supreme Court affirmed the legality of these acts by arguing that freedom of speech could be revoked when the speech posed a threat to the nation
Bulking up our army Wilson was very anti-draft, and was extremely hesitant to submit to one but did eventually send a bill proposing one through Congress when he realized it was necessary. The draft was extremely effective in bulking up America in time for fights For the first time in American history, women served in the war. African Americans were also accepted to fight, but only in segregated units under white leaders
Fighting in France The Germans predicted accurately how unready America was for war They knew how small our military was, and that if we were able to make one, it would take forever to get it to Europe Once American troops made it to France, they helped fight back German invasions American troops also fought in Belgium, Italy, and Russia, in order to keep these states from falling to Germany Germany’s invasion into France was a huge threat, as it was 40 miles from Paris, the capital. American soldiers, having finally arrived, were able to help the French hold off the Germans.
Victory in Sight With the help of the Americans, Europe was able to hold down the seemingly unstoppable German Juggernaut Even though the Americans did help fight on the battlefield, the main role of Wilson was to be a moral leader for the world Germans were ready to surrender as blockades led to food shortages and their allies were limiting On November 11 th, 1918, the Germans officially surrendered The Americans main role was sending supplies, such as oil, food, and ammunition to the Allies in need, as well as fighting alongside the Allies as a secondary
The Paris Peace Conference Wilson’s decision to go to Paris angered Republicans and neglected to include a single Republican Senator in his peace delegation, even though Congress was mainly Republican Henry Cabot Lodge was put on the team by angry Republicans, and he and Wilson were immediate enemies A treaty needed to be decided upon quickly, as Bolshevik Russia was leaking communism into the rest of Europe and was causing Europeans to break out into anarchy Wilson’s ultimate goal was a world peace group known as the League of Nations
Territorial Issues An issue that came with making peace was the issue of territories Wilson’s 14 points were very anti-colonization, but lots of conquered territory is to come out of any war, especially one as large as this one Territories on the borders of France and Germany were highly contested, as well as Middle Eastern state that had managed to get involved in the war Wilson’s self-determination ideals angered other leaders. Leaders weren’t able to keep territories that were “rightfully” theirs due to Wilson’s attempts at compromise
The Finished Result The finished Treaty of Versailles was sent to the Germans in June of 1919 Germans were outraged at the sanctions placed on them as a result of their failures, and Hitler would soon meet the demands of the German people, whether or not it obeyed the treaty. When Wilson returned, views were very split on the treaty Some thought it too harsh, while others thought it not harsh enough. Regardless, Wilson’s treaty dealings lowered his popularity amongst the people drastically
League of Nations Issues Wilson’s propositions were immediately shot down by Republicans While most of Senate, Republican or Democrat, agreed that the League of Nations was a good idea, it was simply too hard to come up with an agreement on the terms of the proposal The main issue was that the League of Nations forced the US into a binding agreement that, if any other country committed an act of aggression, the US would help fight against the aggressor. This pact took away Congress’ power to declare war The League of Nations eventually failed to pass, as Wilson was too stubborn to let the League of Nations pass with the edits and told all the Democrats in Congress to vote no, and Lodge was too stubborn to let it pass without
The Election of 1920 Senator Warren G. Harding was nominated by the Republicans with Calvin Coolidge Governor James M. Cox of Ohio is nominated by the Democrats with Franklin Delano Roosevelt Eugene V Debs nominated by Socialist Party Harding easily wins the election, Debs wins most votes ever for Socialist leader
Prejudice in America The Red Scare began in America around 1919-1920, and many labor strikes were viewed as Russian anarchy Communists were arrested by General A. Mitchell Palmer, saw red too easily Two men arrested for murder, are electrocuted due to their race, religion, and history as draft dodgers. Expressed prejudice in court systems A new KKK spawned, against Catholicism, blacks, and Communism, and Judaism. They committed many violent acts against these groups of people, which influenced Americans greatly
Immigration Restrictions Immigrants coming from war-torn countries, close to 400,000 a year The Emergency Quota Act of 1921, which halted immigration from Europe Replaced by the Immigration Act of 1924, which made quotas country by country to freeze the current racial composition of America Completely cut off Japanese, and exempted Canada and most of Latin America
Prohibition Last motion of progressive movement, passed in 1919 under the 18 th Amendment Didn’t actually ban possession of alcohol, just purchasing or selling of alcohol Actually increased alcoholism, liquor bootlegging Not a complete failure as it discouraged absenteeism and increased bank savings Caused lots of crime/gangs Al Capone, a murderous liquor dealer, ran a huge gang in Chicago and later Brooklyn Gangsters moved to prostitution, gambling, and narcotics Prohibition ended in 1933
Evolution Issues Teachers are getting yelled at for teaching evolution around the country Famous case called Scopes Trial, where teacher named John T. Scopes is indicted in Tennessee for teaching evolution Fights between theology and biology prove to go nowhere, but Fundamentalists look foolish for the absurd trial
Cars As prosperity roared in the 20s, people bought more and more cars until it became a necessity to own one The car, once a luxury reserved for the wealthy, was now owned by everyone Henry Ford’s Model T was put introduced in 1908, but was too expensive for an average citizen By 1920, most workers were able to own one, and in 1929, 26 million cars were registered in the US
Airplanes Cars brought along a big push for gasoline, and gasoline allowed for more advanced transportation technologies While the first airplane was flown in 1903, five years before the Model T was released, the technology was able to take off in the 20s when oil became very commonplace Charles A. Lindbergh flew his plane, The Spirit of St. Louis, across the Atlantic, from NY to Paris By the 1930s and 40s, travel on air became common for many Americans, and safe enough as well
Radio Even faster than airplanes were radio waves. Radio waves first were used for communication in 1890, but weren’t used avidly until WW1 when radio was necessary for long-range communication Radio knitted the nation together through captivating shows and important news broadcasts
Movies Hollywood first came into existence in 1903, when the first movie, The Great Train Robbery, was released In 1915, a movie which glorified the KKK of the Reconstruction days was released, known as, The Birth of a Nation. These two movies, two of the first major story movies, are classic movies
Lifestyle Changes A major lifestyle change was shown through women A sexual freedom came about Women cut their hair, wore one-piece bathing suits and dresses Dr. Sigmund Freud argued that sexual repression caused emotional ills, and that this sexual freedom was doing a good for society Racial pride emerges Marcus Garvey found UNIA to promote blacks to resettle their African homelands
Foreshadowing the Depression Even during the boom of the 20s, banks were failing daily Speculation ran wild Debt skyrockets under Wilson from 1.2 million in 1914 to 24 million in 1921 Burdensome wartime taxes still an issue on many
President Harding Harding, like Ulysses S. Grant, couldn’t tell when people were being dishonest His gang of friends that he appointed, called the Ohio Gang, was very corrupt Harding, as a friend of theirs, didn’t want to disappoint them Harding was a good guy, but a bad president Harding appointed 4 of the 9 Supreme Court Justices Most of them were bad choices except for ex-president Taft who helped keep the rest in line The Supreme Court killed landmark labor laws, child-labor laws, and stripped women of their special protection in the workplace Corporations had the power to expand under Harding’s lax rules and ignoring of anti-trust laws
Foreign Issues Disarmament Conference of 1921-1922: Invitations to all the Naval Powers, except Bolshevik Russia who the US refused to officially recognize as a government Secretary Hughes proposed that England/America/Japan scale down their navies at a 5:5:3 ratio respectively. The Five-Power Naval Treaty of 1922 embodied Hughes’ ideas on ship ratios Pact between Japan, France, Britain, and the US made to preserve the status quo of the pacific. Known as the Four- Power Treaty
Tariffs In 1922, Congress passed the comprehensive Fordney- McCumber Tariff boosted the average tariff rate from 27% to 39% Harding was much more friendly to tariff increases than reductions, authorizing 32 upward changes on various commodities The high tariff resulted in high European tariffs lowering global trade The whole circle of raising tariffs to compete internationally helped Hitler get to power
Scandals The loose morality of the Harding Era manifested itself quickly through many scandals In 1923, Colonel Charles R. Forbes, was caught stealing money from the government, close to $200 million stolen by him and accomplices Teapot Dome Scandal, involved the president receiving a bribe to help transfer invaluable oil to the wrong hands for money The president dies to pneumonia and thrombosis before the scandals could catch up to him
Calvin Coolidge Takes over upon Harding’s death Extremely shy, gave boring speeches Slowly gave the Harding regime a badly needed moral fumigation His honesty helped get rid of the dishonesty of Harding and the scandals of his time
Election of 1924 Calvin Coolidge nominated by the Republicans La Follette for the Progressive Party John W. Davis for the Democrats Coolidge and the Republicans easily win the election, with 250 electoral votes over Davis
Foreign Policy Under Coolidge Senate wanted to remain isolationist, in contrast to Coolidge who wanted to purse naval disarmament further Ended up not getting much done Sent military expedition to Mexico when Mexico began to take its own oil resources back Coolidge defused the crisis skillfully Many countries in debt to us from WW1, America focused on getting it back Germany, in huge amounts of debt, allowed its currency to inflate drastically Dawes Plan of 1924, rescheduled German reparation payments and opened the way for American loans to Germany
Election of 1928 Coolidge bows out, Herbert Hoover succeeds him for the Republicans Governor of New York Alfred E. Smith nominated for the Democrats Hoover wins in a landslide, and Congress also remains Republican
President Herbert Hoover President Hoover was previously a successful mining engineer and later businessman He had never been in public office before in his life, and was bad at taking criticism He did, however, have great integrity and humanitarianism which benefitted him in foreign policy as well as public speaking
Hoover in Office Prosperity comes back, people have money in their pockets for a little in the late 20s Soaring stocks Riches benefitting everyone except farmers The Agricultural Marketing Act, passed by Congress in June 1929, was designed to help farmers help themselves by setting up a large farm board with money to loan to farmers as they needed Hawley-Smoot Tariff passed in order to help farmers, but went through so many changes in Congress while people went through it, it ended up being the largest protective tariff in our nation’s peacetime history
Black Tuesday and the Crash When Hoover was first elected into office, the economy seemed very bright However in October of 1929, a great crash came triggered partially by the British increase in interest rates On October 29, 1929, 16.4 million stocks sold in a panic, Wall Street is ruined By the end of 1929, stockholders lost 40 BILLION dollars, and foreclosures are everywhere
Causes? One major cause is overproduction in both farm and factory Too much supply results in no demand, and low costs, meaning the farmers and factory workers aren’t getting paid what they need International trade ruined by extremely high protective tariffs like the Hawley-Smoot Tariff The Dust Bowl also ruined tons of farms in the Midwest, which spawned from a bad drought
Hoover’s Plans Initially, he believed in rugged individualism, which was the idea that every man is for himself, and it is not the job of the government to provide welfare for struggling people However, when he realized that this wouldn’t work, he developed a plan to help combat the Depression by assisting railroads, banks, rural credit corporations and other large companies in the hopes that if the top of financial pyramid was healthy, the rest would become healthy Known as “Trickle Down Economics” Hoover was unfairly criticized for his theories. Critics complained that his ideas only kept us in the depression, however instead, Hoover’s philosophies saved us from even worse crashes and paved the way for FDR’s New Deal
Execution of Plans In line with trickle down economics, Hoover received 2.25 billion dollars to spend on these projects He dammed the Colorado River, which created a huge man made lake used for electricity, irrigation, and flood control Hoover also created the RFC, which provided indirect relief to big companies by priming loans. Widespread benefit, but made slightly too late to be perfect
Great Depression Effects Worldwide Japan, across the world, took our depression as an opportunity to go on the aggressive by jumping into Manchuria and overrunning the province The League of Nations was handicapped in fighting back, especially without America After Japan bombs Shanghai, America makes informal boycotts of Japanese goods, mainly various knickknacks No one wanted to fight yet during the Great Depression Hoover also issued the Good Neighbor Policy to Latin America His pact provided for complete withdrawal of American platoons by 1934
Election of 1932 During the campaign, the Democrats appealed to the common man and exuded confidence. They took the theme song of "Happy Days are Here Again" and one of his buzzwords was "confidence,“ while the Republicans used slogans like “The Worst is Past” and “It might have been Worse” Franklin D. Roosevelt won against Hoover in a landslide of 472 votes to 59 notes in the electoral vote Until this election, African American voters had been Republican. Now, it seems that Democratic party has appealed to these people, as most switched parties in this election During Hoover’s lame duck period, unemployment was at 25%
Roosevelt’s Three R’s Relief- To aid with food and shelter Recovery- To get out of the Great Depression Reform- To ensure that the Depression would never happen again
The New Deal FDR’s plan for fighting the Great Depression Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)- Built dams for flood control and hydroelectric power in the Tennessee valley, created projects to combat erosion and deforestation Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)- Established state and federal parks projects, planting trees to combat erosion Works Progress Administration (WPA)- Built roads, bridges, buildings, even provided money for art projects Federal Relief Administration (FERA)- sought relief in the form of the dole (government hand-outs) Home Owner’s Loan Corporation (HOLC)- refinanced people's home loans at lower interest rates
The New Deal Emergency Banking Act- To help cut the panic in banks, FDR quickly issued a "bank holiday" which closed banks for one week Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act- set up the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). It insured people's money in the bankup to $5,000. There was no need to fear losing one's money in the banks anymore FDR took the nation’s dollar off the gold standard in order to create some inflation. By 1934, he reverted the nation back to the gold standard Works Progress Administration (WPA)- $11 billion was spent building public facilities like bridges, public buildings, and roads
Nat. Recovery Admin. (NRA) Set codes of "fair competition“ and set maximum work hours and minimum wages Labor unions were given the right to organize and collectively bargain. Antiunion yellow-dog contracts were forbidden; child- labor was curbed The NRA soon fell to unpopularity. Businesses hate running themselves in any way other than what's best for them (not with artificial restrictions) Fell in 1935 when the Schnechtner case ruled that the NRA was unconstitutional Led to the Public Works Admin. (PWA), which sought to build public works and infrastructure.
The New Deal on the Farm Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)- tried to help farmers by creating "artificial scarcity." It paid farmers to not farm, therefore reducing the supply. The Act was declared unconstitutional in 1936 Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act- paid farmers to plant crops that preserved and reinvigorated the soil, like soybeans Second Agricultural Adjustment Act- Farmers were encouraged to plant less acreage in exchange for payments. Also paid farmers to not farm
The Dust Bowl of 1933 Caused by drought, wind, and dry-farming techniques Affected mostly Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas Resettlement Administration- tried to resettle farmers onto better soil The CCC planted 200 million trees Bureau of Indian Affairs- Tried to change the policies of the old Dawes Act (1887). It had tried to end tribes and the old ways of the Indians—to force Indians to become "white.” Once again worsened relations with Native Americans
Election of 1936 The Republicans nominated Alfred M. Landon, governor of Kansas, as candidate for president Some Democrats joined Republicans to form the American Liberty League. It didn't like the "socialist" direction the New Deal was taking America FDR was still very popular nonetheless, winning the election with 523 to 8 in the electoral vote
FDR escalates things quickly… The London Conference was held in order to organize a coordinated international attack on the global depression as well as stabilize the values of various nations currencies and exchange rates FDR was afraid that this agenda would tie his hands so in an effort not to jeopardize domestic recovery for the sake of international recovery he has the US withdraw from the negotiations Due to this withdrawal an extreme trend toward nationalism began, this played nicely into the hands of DICTATORS
FDR’s Trade Efforts In order to create good relations FDR creates the GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY This was meant to renounce armed intervention, thus resulting in the removal of he marines from Haiti, a more relaxed hold on Panama and the release of Cuba from the Platt Amendment The Reciprocal trade agreements act of 1934 was put in place based off the notion that trade was a “two way street”. These acts aimed at relief and recovery. This movement towards trade was headed by Sec of State Hull
Dictators USSR-Joseph Stalin (communism) Italy-Benito Mussolini (fascist) Germany-Adolf Hitler (NAZI) Hitler posed the largest threat out of these men, and like Japan, was able to feed off of the country’s resentment of the Treaty of Versailles 1941-In response to doctorial power the US passes the Atlantic Charter which states that no territorial changes contrary to inhabitants wishes can be made, people should choose their own government, and disarmament and peace security
Isolationism Due to the prevalent domestic issues during this time (stock market crash, debt, etc), the citizens of American chose to look inward rather than outward and began to head down a path of isolationism. The Hawley-Smoot Tariff further endorsed this behavior by making the topic of trade moot. Although this treaty took the eyes off of what was going on outside of the American Bubble, FDR did realize that it was forestalling economic recovery. Eventually it worked out so that individual nations could negotiate tariff rates (Reciprocal Trade Agreement) As tensions grew in Europe and Asia the US sunk deeper into its isolated pit. The creation of the Johnson Debt Default Act fostered this ideal by preventing nations from borrowing further from the US During the civil war in Spain the US refused to aid its military in fear of involvement In an effort to maintain good relations FDR declared the GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY. This was the first step to us intervention, even though it did pull troops out of central America and he Caribbean. When Britain became under attack of Hitler the American mindset finally began to change.
Neutrality Congress became eager to create legislation that would keep the nation out of war, the solutions to this appeared to be the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, an 1937 The conditions of these were no American on belligerent ships, the prohibition of selling/transporting munitions to belligerents as well as the prohibition of loans to belligerents Due to the Neutrality act, the US was unable to supply Britain and France necessary weaponry once they had entered the war against Hitler and the Soviets CASH-AND-CARRY- the acts were revised under this basis
Japan In 1934 Japan ended the Washington Naval Treaty and began to build up its military. In 1937 Japan invaded China In response to this FDR was insistent upon the fact that this was “not officially a war” thus not calling for the neutrality acts to be invoked, allowing the Japanese to continue to buy weapons from the US Japanese sank the American Panay in China but quickly apologized and paid the reparations, allowing FDR to continue with his course of non involvement. 1940- Washington finally imposed an embargo on supplies to Japan 1941-US froze all Japanese assets in US, Negotiations began between he US and Japan, the US demanded that Japan withdraw from China FDR had “cracked the code” and found that Japan did plan to attack but assumed it would be on the Philippines The attack came while negotiations were still in progress, Pearl Harbor was destroyed with 3000 casualties and much destruction of munitions. WAR
Spain From 1936-1939 the Spanish Civil War ensued Headed by General Francisco Franco and was aided by Hitler and Mussolini The US stuck to its isolationism tendencies and watched as Franco strangled the republic of Spain Still insistent upon not getting involved, the US refused to help them build up their military
Germany In 1935 Hitler began to build up the military and began his prosecution of the Jewish and other “”undesirables”. Eventually Hitler began his conquest towards world power by taking Austria, this made Britain and France eager to appease Hitler. In !938 Britain and France offered Hitler the Sudetenland in exchange for him to cease his advances Or nah In 1939 Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia This same year the Nazi-Soviet pact was made, this meant that they would not attack each other and also allowed Hitler to invade Poland WAR (Britain and France declare war on Germany) Hitler then attacks Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium and France In Response to American Aid germany torpedoed the americna merchant ship Robin Moor 1941- Germany attacked the Soviet Union Hitler is stopped at the gates of Moscow
Britain and France Britain and France began trying to appease Hitler early on Eventually they were forced to enter the war 1940- France was forced to surrender to Germany but luckily the British were able to salvage the majority of their army After France collapsed the US became worried that Britain would be next, the idea of entering the war now becoming very real In response FDR called for build of military, congress passed a conscription law (1 st peace-time draft), and at the Havana Conference the Us agreed to join Latin America and uphold the Monroe Doctrine 1940-Hitler began to launch attacks against Britain, radio broadcasts caused American sympathy, slowly pulling them out of isolationism.
Election of 1940 Republican – Wendell L. Willkie: condemned FDR’s alleged dictatorship & the costly New Deal Programs Democrat – FDR: Shattered the 2 term tradition, Believed experience was needed in troubled times FRD WINS AGAIN
Bystander to Belligerent Committee to Defend American by Aiding the Allies produced propaganda that appealed to both interventionist and isolationist American First Committee thought that the US should focus more so on how to defend their own shores 1940- FDR agreed to give Britain 50 old modeled destroyers that were left over from WWI, in exchange the British promised 8 bases to the US for 99 years “Send guns not sons” The lend-lease bill sent a limitless supply of arms to the victims of aggression and in return the war would stay across the ocean, weapons were to be returned at the wars close. When Germany invades the Soviet Union the US aides them 1941-after the destruction of ships carrying aid to Britain congress voted to end the Neutrality Act of 1939 After the attack on Pearl Harbor the US was done playing nice, war had officially begun.
The Thirst is Real After the attack on pearl harbor the American people were jarred out of their isolationist mind sets an thirsty for revenge on Japan. FDR held off immediate attacks on Japan, stating that Germany should be their primary focus. Although the American People were not overly pleased with the decision to place revenge on Japan below handling the problem with Germany, their thirst for revenge would have to hold off.
The Plan The primary goal the the US was to not allow Britain to fall into the hands of Germany while still putting enough effort into keeping Japan at bay This plan called for time, time to prepare for war. They needed to organize large scale military, ship their munitions to the other half of the globe, doing all of this while still aiding their allies.
Nationalism and Distrust After the attack on Pearl Harbor the unity within the country was at a high. With exception to the Japanese-Americans the American people were rather civil to one another. The Japanese Americans were sent to internment camps as a precautionary measure. Major trust issue had developed between Americans and Japanese-Americans. The camps were not only to prevent spies but also to protect, the American people were angry, and could take it out on a nearby Japanese American In the Korematsu vs. US court case the internment camps were upheld.
Economy When the war began the new deal came to and end. Jobs were now primarily war jobs. The war was actually helpful to the economy of the US, war- time economy bring in money and stimulating the economy. People began working in ship building instead of cars. Critical items had to be rationed so that consumption would stay low, not that industry had other focuses. Wage ceilings were set in an effort to lower prices Labor unions vowed not to strike during the war (not all agreed to this Congress was forced to pass the Smith-Connally Anti-Stike Act which gave the government the power to seize and run industries that were suffering due to strikes. This resulted in the government taking over the coal mines and railways for a short period of time By the time that the war ended the GNP had nearly doubled as well as corporate profits and disposable income The new importance placed on war time production is was truly pulled the US out of the depression
Come Together During this time men that could be at war, were at war. Even women where away to fight. Due to this lacking of people the industries needed workers, the Bracero Program was the solution to this. What this program did was bring workers from Mexico in to harvest the crops. Women also took a role in the industry field during this time, building planes, shells, and tanks. ROSIE The war proved not only to be helpful for the economy but also for new citizens, and women searching for roles to play in society. When the war ended he BABY BOOM began
The South Before the war the south had been in economic pain so as the economy started to boom FDR started sending money to the south in defense contracts African Americans began to migrate out of the south toward the north and the west
African Americans During this time the African Americans poured out of the south. They prepared a March on Washington to ask or defense jobs which worked to their benefit when FDR reacted by banning discrimination in defense industries The units that blacks were allowed to serve in within the military were segregated, they were given menial positions and (insert word for not as nice) materials. The war effort did allow African Americans to take large leaps towards equality, their organizations had increased membership (NAACP and CORE) Another life changing technological advancement for the blacks was the mechanical cotton picker, this allowed them to leave their previous jobs and move into the industries
Bring it on Japan The Japanese began their conquest for power by taking islands such as Guam, Wake Island, The Philippines, Hong Kong, British Malaya, Burma, DEIs and a large majority of coastal china At the Battle of the Coral sea both parties suffered large losses Adm. Chester Nimitz sent a US fleet to Midway island after intercepting messages and this proved to be a wise call. At the battle of midway the US surprised the Japanese, creating a turning point in the war “Island Hopping” became a fun pass-time during the war, the military going from island to island and building bases The island hopping started with the victories at Guadalcanal and reached to New Guinea, working back towards the Philippines Slowly the US gained control of island after island, but the fights were long, hard, and costly.
D-Day On June 6, 1944, the Allied Powers stormed the French beach of Normandy to take back France from Germany The invasion, one of the most famous moments in war history, was huge in weakening the German Juggernaut Huge preparations for the invasion, 3 leaders, Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin meet and plan for a week Invasion was successful, France was liberated Hitler’s days as European God are numbered
War Comes to Close After the retaking of France, Hitler quickly fell He killed himself on April 30, 1945 With Germany dealt with, everything was sent to Japan to fight Things were grim for Japan, but they refused to surrender Roosevelt dies of a massive hemorrhage, Harry S. Truman is to take over As Japan never surrendered, America was forced to go all out on the Japanese Americans dropped two atomic bombs on Japan The first on August 6, 1945 on Hiroshima, and the second on Nagasaki on August 9, 1645 Japan officially surrendered and the war was over
Tensions with Russia Even though Russia fought with us in the war, tensions grew as Russia wanted to spread Communism American deals to help European nations generally ignored Russia, as we did not want to strengthen them to the point where they are comfortable with going aggressive