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Biological Studies. Biodiversity maintains a healthy biosphere and provides direct and indirect value to humans.

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Presentation on theme: "Biological Studies. Biodiversity maintains a healthy biosphere and provides direct and indirect value to humans."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biological Studies

2 Biodiversity maintains a healthy biosphere and provides direct and indirect value to humans.

3 The variety of life in an area determined by the number of different species in that area Increases health and stability of biosphere Extinction – when the last member of a species dies Extinction causes a decrease in biodiversity, which decreases the health of the biosphere Levels of Biodiversity: Genetic Species Ecosystem

4 Genetic Diversity - variety of genes or inheritable characteristics present in a population increases the chances that some species will survive during changing environmental conditions Species Diversity – number of different species and the abundance of each species in a biological community Not evenly distributed over biosphere Increases closer to the equator Ecosystem Diversity – variety of ecosystems present in the biosphere

5 A healthy biosphere provides services to humans and other organisms on Earth Healthy ecosystems provide protection against floods and drought, detoxify and decompose wastes, and regulate climates BIODIVERSITY

6 Some human activities reduce biodiversity in ecosystems. This could have serious long-term effects on the biosphere.

7 Background Extinction – process of becoming extinct Scientists worried about the rate of extinction Mass Extinction – an event in which a large percentage of all living species becomes extinct in a relatively short period of time DINOSAURS!

8 Current high rate of extinction due to activity of one species – Homo sapiens Humans are changing the conditions on earth faster than new traits to can develop to cope with the new changes Evolving species do not have the natural resources they need Threats include: Overexploitation Habitat Loss Pollution Introduced Species

9 Overexploitation - excessive use of species that have economic value Rhinoceros – hunted and killed for their horns Habitat Loss Destroyed: clearing a natural rain forest Destroyed Disrupted: decline of one species in the food web disrupts other species (overfishing) Fragmented: separation of an ecosystem into smaller parts, cannot cross human barriers to get resources or reproduce, changes abiotic conditions

10 Increasing human population has lead to: Needing more space to live Loss of habitat Loss of species Loss of biodiversity

11 Changes the composition of air, soil, and water Biological magnification: increasing concentration of toxic substances in organisms as the trophic levels increase Acid Precipitation: burning fossil fuels creates sulfur and nitrogen compounds that react with other substances in the air to form sulfuric and nitric acid Removes calcium, potassium, and other nutrients from the soil, deprives plants

12 Nonnative species that are either intentionally or unintentionally introduced to a new habitat Often reproduce in large numbers because there are no predators, become invasive Responsible for 40% of extinctions since 1750 Alligator Snapping Turtle

13 People are using many approaches to slow the rate of extinctions and to preserve biodiversity

14 The biosphere supplies basic needs for 7 billion humans The growth in population is not evenly distributed, nor is the consumption of natural resources

15 Renewable Resources that are replaced by natural processes faster than they are consumed Solar energy Clean air Clean water Nonrenewable Found on Earth in limited amounts or that are replaced by natural processes over LONG periods of time Fossil fuels A species if it becomes extinct Sustainable Use – using resources at a rate in which they can be replaced or recycled while preserving the long-term environmental health of the biosphere GOING GREEN

16 Protecting Hot Spots Corridors Restoring The larger the effected area, the longer it takes to recover Bioremediation – the use of living organisms, such as prokaryotes, fungi, or plants, to detoxify a polluted area Biological augmentation – adding natural predators to a degraded ecosystem

17 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Which factor is most responsible for the lack of plants in polar regions? A. heavy grazing by herbivores B. little precipitation C. no soil for plants to take root D. not enough sunlight Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Chapter Diagnostic Questions

18 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Chapter Diagnostic Questions What form of pollution is caused by extensive algae growth in waterways? A. acid precipitation B. eutrophication C. biological magnification D. edge effects

19 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Chapter Diagnostic Questions Which is not a renewable resource? A. solar energy B. fossil fuels C. agricultural plants D. clean water

20 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Which has indirect economic value? A. ecosystems that decompose wastes B. organisms that provide food and shelter C. plants that contain medicinal substances D. species that have desirable genetic traits 5.1 Formative Questions

21 1.A 2.B Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter Formative Questions It is likely that some of the world’s unidentified species will have economic value. A. true B. false

22 1.A 2.B 3.C Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter Formative Questions When does the aesthetic value of an ecosystem become most apparent? A. when scientists begin to study the ecosystem B. when the ecosystem has been destroyed C. when the ecosystem is given economic value

23 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 A. background extinction B. mass extinction C. natural extinction D. progressive extinction Which describes the current rate of species disappearance? 5.2 Formative Questions

24 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 A. deserts B. grasslands C. tropical forests D. temperate forests Where are most extinctions likely to occur in the near future? 5.2 Formative Questions

25 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 A. habitat loss B. eutrophication C. overexploitation D. nonnative predators What is the primary factor that has endangered the North American bison and the white rhinoceros? 5.2 Formative Questions

26 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 A. habitat loss B. human predators C. transported diseases D. background extermination What is the number one cause of species extinction today? 5.2 Formative Questions

27 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 A. agricultural plants B. clean water C. forest timber D. mineral deposits Which resource is nonrenewable? 5.3 Formative Questions

28 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 A. farming B. logging C. oil drilling D. commercial fishing For which human activity is sustainable use not possible? 5.3 Formative Questions

29 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Which is an example of bioremediation? A. replanting trees in an area affected by acid rain B. using microorganisms to detoxify an oil spill C. enacting a law that protects endangered amphibians D. introducing natural predators to control a crop pest 5.3 Formative Questions

30 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Look at the figure. Name the process that is occurring with the increasing concentration of DDT. A. pollution B. extinction C. biological magnification D. habitat fragmentation Chapter Assessment Questions

31 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Use the graph to determine the approximate recovery time for a volcanic eruption. A. 1–10 years B. 10–100 years C. 100–1000 years D years or more Chapter Assessment Questions

32 Biodiversity and Conservation Explain how killer whales adapted to their environment when their primary food source began to disappear. Answer: Killer whales started to prey on sea otters instead of sea lions and harbor seals. Chapter 5 Chapter Assessment Questions

33 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 A. ecosystem diversity B. genetic diversity C. social diversity D. species diversity Which type of biodiversity increases as you move geographically from the polar regions to the equator? Standardized Test Practice

34 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Standardized Test Practice A. It increases the number of organisms that have useful genes. B. It increases the ability of a species to adapt to environmental changes. C. It produces a variety of species within a biological community. D. It randomly distributes members of a species throughout an ecosystem. How does genetic diversity increase a species’ chance of survival?

35 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Standardized Test Practice If a toxic substance enters this food web, which animals will have the highest concentration of the toxic substance in their tissues? A. fishes B. killer whales C. sea otters D. sea urchins

36 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Standardized Test Practice A. acid rain B. fertilizers C. PCBs D. pesticides What type of substances causes eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems?

37 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Standardized Test Practice Which factor has the greatest impact on a country’s rate of natural resource consumption? A. land area B. population C. industrialization D. availability of resources

38 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Standardized Test Practice Which event has the greatest potential to cause irreversible damage to biodiversity? A. oil spill B. urbanization C. industrial pollution D. modern agriculture


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