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Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 5 Biodiversity and Conservation Section 1: Biodiversity Section 2: Threats to Biodiversity Section 3: Conserving.

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Presentation on theme: "Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 5 Biodiversity and Conservation Section 1: Biodiversity Section 2: Threats to Biodiversity Section 3: Conserving."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 5 Biodiversity and Conservation Section 1: Biodiversity Section 2: Threats to Biodiversity Section 3: Conserving Biodiversity

4 What is biodiversity? 5.1 Biodiversity Biodiversity is the variety of life in an area that is determined by the number of different species in that area. Chapter 5 Biodiversity and Conservation Biodiversity increases the stability of an ecosystem and contributes to the health of the biosphere.

5 The variety of genes or inheritable characteristics that are present in a population comprises its genetic diversity. Genetic diversity increases the chances that some species will survive during changing environmental conditions or during the outbreak of disease. Biodiversity and Conservation 5.1 Biodiversity Chapter 5

6 The number of different species and the relative abundance of each species in a biological community is called species diversity. 5.1 Biodiversity Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5

7 The variety of ecosystems that are present in the biosphere is called ecosystem diversity. Biodiversity and Conservation An ecosystem is made up of interacting populations and the abiotic factors that support them. 5.1 Biodiversity Chapter 5

8 The Importance of Biodiversity Biodiversity and Conservation Most of the worlds food crops come from just a few species. Domestic corn plant Teosinte plant Wild species serve as reservoirs of desirable genetic traits that might be needed to improve domestic crop species. 5.1 Biodiversity Chapter 5

9 Biodiversity and Conservation Scientists continue to find new extracts from plants and other organisms that help in the treatment of human diseases. Madagascar periwinkle 5.1 Biodiversity Chapter 5

10 A healthy biosphere provides many services to humans and other organisms that live on Earth. Biodiversity and Conservation Natural processes provide drinking water that is safe for human use. Green plants provide oxygen to the atmosphere and remove carbon dioxide. 5.1 Biodiversity Chapter 5

11 Extinction Rates The gradual process of species becoming extinct is known as background extinction. 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Biodiversity and Conservation Mass extinction is an event in which a large percentage of all living species become extinct in a relatively short period of time. Chapter 5

12 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5

13 Biodiversity and Conservation 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Chapter 5

14 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5

15 Biodiversity and Conservation Factors that Threaten Biodiversity Humans are changing conditions on Earth faster than new traits can evolve to cope with the new conditions. The current high rate of extinction is due to the activities of a single speciesHomo sapiens. 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Chapter 5

16 Biodiversity and Conservation Overexploitation Bison Passenger pigeons Ocelot Rhinoceros Overexploitation, or excessive use, of species that have economic value is a factor increasing the current rate of extinction. Ocelot 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Chapter 5

17 Biodiversity and Conservation Habitat Loss If a habitat is destroyed or disrupted, the native species might have to relocate or they will die. Destruction of Habitat The destruction of habitat, such as the clearing of tropical rain forests, has a direct impact on global biodiversity. 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Chapter 5

18 Biodiversity and Conservation Disruption of Habitat The declining population of one species can affect an entire ecosystem. 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Chapter 5

19 Biodiversity and Conservation Fragmentation of Habitat The separation of an ecosystem into small pieces of land is called habitat fragmentation. The smaller the parcel of land, the fewer species it can support. Fragmentation reduces the opportunities for individuals in one area to reproduce with individuals from another area. Carving the large ecosystem into small parcels increases the number of edgescreating edge effects. 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Chapter 5

20 Biodiversity and Conservation Pollution Pollution and atmospheric changes threaten biodiversity and global stability. Biological magnification is the increasing concentration of toxic substances in organisms as trophic levels increase in a food chain or food web. 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Chapter 5

21 Biodiversity and Conservation Acid Precipitation Sulfur and nitrogen compounds react with water and other substances in the air to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Acid precipitation removes calcium, potassium, and other nutrients from the soil, depriving plants of these nutrients. 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Chapter 5 Assessing Water Quality

22 Biodiversity and Conservation Eutrophication Eutrophication occurs when substances rich in nitrogen and phosphorus flow into waterways, causing extensive algae growth. The algae use up the oxygen supply during their rapid growth and after their deaths during the decaying process. Other organisms in the water suffocate. 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Chapter 5

23 Biodiversity and Conservation Introduced Species Nonnative species that are either intentionally or unintentionally transported to a new habitat are known as introduced species. Introduced species often reproduce in large numbers because of a lack of predators, and become invasive species in their new habitat. 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Chapter 5

24 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity Biodiversity and Conservation Natural Resources The consumption rate of natural resources is not evenly distributed. Chapter 5

25 Resources that are replaced by natural processes faster than they are consumed are called renewable resources. Biodiversity and Conservation Resources that are found on Earth in limited amounts or those that are replaced by natural processes over extremely long periods of time are called nonrenewable resources. 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity Chapter 5

26 Biodiversity and Conservation Sustainable use means using resources at a rate in which they can be replaced or recycled while preserving the long-term environmental health of the biosphere. 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity Chapter 5

27 Protecting Biodiversity Biodiversity and Conservation Currently, about seven percent of the worlds land is set aside as some type of reserve. The United Nations supports a system of Biosphere Reserves and World Heritage sites. 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity Chapter 5

28 Biodiversity Hotspots Biodiversity and Conservation At least 1500 species of vascular plants are endemic. The region must have lost at least 70 percent of its original habitat. These hot spots originally covered 15.7 percent of Earths surface, however, only about a tenth of that habitat remains. 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity Chapter 5

29 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5

30 Corridors Between Habitat Fragments Biodiversity and Conservation Improve the survival of biodiversity by providing corridors, or passageways, between habitat fragments Creates a larger piece of land that can sustain a wider variety of species and a wider variety of genetic variation 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity Chapter 5

31 Biodiversity and Conservation The larger the affected area, the longer it takes for the biological community to recover. Restoring Ecosystems 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity Chapter 5

32 Biodiversity and Conservation Bioremediation The use of living organisms, such as prokaryotes, fungi, or plants, to detoxify a polluted area is called bioremediation. 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity Chapter 5

33 Biological Augmentation Biodiversity and Conservation Ladybugs help control aphid populations. Photo courtesy of Natures Control Adding natural predators to a degraded ecosystem is called biological augmentation. 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity Chapter 5

34 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Formative Test Questions Chapter Assessment Questions Standardized Test Practice biologygmh.com Glencoe Biology Transparencies Image Bank Vocabulary Animation Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature. Chapter 5

35 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 1 Which factor is most responsible for the lack of plants in polar regions? A. heavy grazing by herbivores B. little precipitation C. no soil for plants to take root D. not enough sunlight Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Chapter Diagnostic Questions

36 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 2 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Chapter Diagnostic Questions What form of pollution is caused by extensive algae growth in waterways? A. acid precipitation B. eutrophication C. biological magnification D. edge effects

37 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 3 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Chapter Diagnostic Questions Which is not a renewable resource? A. solar energy B. fossil fuels C. agricultural plants D. clean water

38 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 1 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Which has indirect economic value? A. ecosystems that decompose wastes B. organisms that provide food and shelter C. plants that contain medicinal substances D. species that have desirable genetic traits 5.1 Formative Questions

39 1.A 2.B FQ 2 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter Formative Questions It is likely that some of the worlds unidentified species will have economic value. A. true B. false

40 1.A 2.B 3.C FQ 3 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter Formative Questions When does the aesthetic value of an ecosystem become most apparent? A. when scientists begin to study the ecosystem B. when the ecosystem has been destroyed C. when the ecosystem is given economic value

41 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 4 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 A. background extinction B. mass extinction C. natural extinction D. progressive extinction Which describes the current rate of species disappearance? 5.2 Formative Questions

42 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 5 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 A. deserts B. grasslands C. tropical forests D. temperate forests Where are most extinctions likely to occur in the near future? 5.2 Formative Questions

43 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 6 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 A. habitat loss B. eutrophication C. overexploitation D. nonnative predators What is the primary factor that has endangered the North American bison and the white rhinoceros? 5.2 Formative Questions

44 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 7 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 A. habitat loss B. human predators C. transported diseases D. background extermination What is the number one cause of species extinction today? 5.2 Formative Questions

45 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 8 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 A. agricultural plants B. clean water C. forest timber D. mineral deposits Which resource is nonrenewable? 5.3 Formative Questions

46 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 9 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 A. farming B. logging C. oil drilling D. commercial fishing For which human activity is sustainable use not possible? 5.3 Formative Questions

47 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 10 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Which is an example of bioremediation? A. replanting trees in an area affected by acid rain B. using microorganisms to detoxify an oil spill C. enacting a law that protects endangered amphibians D. introducing natural predators to control a crop pest 5.3 Formative Questions

48 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CAQ 1 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Look at the figure. Name the process that is occurring with the increasing concentration of DDT. A. pollution B. extinction C. biological magnification D. habitat fragmentation Chapter Assessment Questions

49 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CAQ 2 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Use the graph to determine the approximate recovery time for a volcanic eruption. A. 1–10 years B. 10–100 years C. 100–1000 years D years or more Chapter Assessment Questions

50 Biodiversity and Conservation Explain how killer whales adapted to their environment when their primary food source began to disappear. Answer: Killer whales started to prey on sea otters instead of sea lions and harbor seals. Chapter 5 CAQ 3 Chapter Assessment Questions

51 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 1 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 A. ecosystem diversity B. genetic diversity C. social diversity D. species diversity Which type of biodiversity increases as you move geographically from the polar regions to the equator? Standardized Test Practice

52 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 2 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Standardized Test Practice A. It increases the number of organisms that have useful genes. B. It increases the ability of a species to adapt to environmental changes. C. It produces a variety of species within a biological community. D. It randomly distributes members of a species throughout an ecosystem. How does genetic diversity increase a species chance of survival?

53 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 3 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Standardized Test Practice If a toxic substance enters this food web, which animals will have the highest concentration of the toxic substance in their tissues? A. fishes B. killer whales C. sea otters D. sea urchins

54 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 4 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Standardized Test Practice A. acid rain B. fertilizers C. PCBs D. pesticides What type of substances causes eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems?

55 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 5 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Standardized Test Practice Which factor has the greatest impact on a countrys rate of natural resource consumption? A. land area B. population C. industrialization D. availability of resources

56 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 6 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Standardized Test Practice Which event has the greatest potential to cause irreversible damage to biodiversity? A. oil spill B. urbanization C. industrial pollution D. modern agriculture

57 Biodiversity and Conservation Glencoe Biology Transparencies Chapter 5

58 Biodiversity and Conservation Image Bank Chapter 5

59 extinction biodiversity genetic diversity species diversity ecosystem diversity Biodiversity and Conservation Vocabulary Section 1 Chapter 5

60 background extinction mass extinction natural resource overexploitation habitat fragmentation edge effect biological magnification eutrophication introduced species Biodiversity and Conservation Vocabulary Section 2 Chapter 5

61 renewable resource nonrenewable resource sustainable use endemic bioremediation biological augmentation Biodiversity and Conservation Vocabulary Section 3 Chapter 5

62 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Visualizing Biodiversity Hot Spots Animation

63 Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5


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