2Chapter 5 Biodiversity and Conservation Section 1: BiodiversitySection 2: Threats to BiodiversitySection 3: Conserving Biodiversity
3Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.1 BiodiversityWhat is biodiversity?Biodiversity is the variety of life in an area that is determined by the number of different species in that area.Biodiversity increases the stability of an ecosystem and contributes to the health of the biosphere.
4Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.1 BiodiversityThe variety of genes or inheritable characteristics that are present in a population comprises its genetic diversity.Genetic diversity increases the chances that some species will survive during changing environmental conditions or during the outbreak of disease.
5Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.1 BiodiversityThe number of different species and the relative abundance of each species in a biological community is called species diversity.
6Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.1 BiodiversityThe variety of ecosystems that are present in the biosphere is called ecosystem diversity.An ecosystem is made up of interacting populations and the abiotic factors that support them.
7The Importance of Biodiversity Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.1 BiodiversityThe Importance of BiodiversityMost of the world’s food crops come from just a few species.Wild species serve as reservoirsof desirable genetictraits that might beneeded to improvedomestic cropspecies.Teosinte plantDomestic corn plant
8Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.1 BiodiversityScientists continue to find new extracts from plants and other organisms that help in the treatment of human diseases.Madagascar periwinkle
9oxygen to the atmosphere and remove carbon dioxide. Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.1 BiodiversityA healthy biosphere provides many services to humans and other organisms that live on Earth.Green plants provideoxygen to the atmosphere and removecarbon dioxide.Natural processes provide drinking water that is safe for human use.
10Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.2 Threats to BiodiversityExtinction RatesThe gradual process of species becoming extinct is known as background extinction.Mass extinction is an event in which a large percentage of all living species become extinct in a relatively short period of time.
14Factors that Threaten Biodiversity Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.2 Threats to BiodiversityFactors that Threaten BiodiversityThe current high rate of extinction is due to the activities of a single species—Homo sapiens.Humans are changing conditions on Earth faster than new traits can evolve to cope with the new conditions.
15Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.2 Threats to BiodiversityOverexploitationOverexploitation, or excessive use, of species that have economic value is a factor increasing the current rate of extinction.BisonPassenger pigeonsOcelotRhinocerosRhinocerosOcelot
16Destruction of Habitat Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.2 Threats to BiodiversityHabitat LossIf a habitat is destroyed or disrupted, the native species might have to relocate or they will die.Destruction of HabitatThe destruction of habitat, such as the clearing of tropical rain forests, has a direct impact on global biodiversity.
17Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.2 Threats to BiodiversityDisruption of HabitatThe declining population of one species can affect an entire ecosystem.
185.2 Threats to Biodiversity Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.2 Threats to BiodiversityFragmentation of HabitatThe separation of an ecosystem into small pieces of land is called habitat fragmentation.The smaller the parcel of land, the fewer species it can support.Fragmentation reduces the opportunities for individuals in one area to reproduce with individuals from another area.Carving the large ecosystem into small parcels increases the number of edges—creating edge effects.
19Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.2 Threats to BiodiversityPollutionPollution and atmospheric changes threaten biodiversity and global stability.Biological magnification is the increasing concentration of toxic substances in organisms as trophic levels increase in a food chain or food web.
20Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.2 Threats to BiodiversityAcid PrecipitationSulfur and nitrogen compounds react with water and other substances in the air to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid.Acid precipitation removes calcium, potassium, and other nutrients from the soil, depriving plants of these nutrients.Assessing Water Quality
21Other organisms in the water suffocate. Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.2 Threats to BiodiversityEutrophicationEutrophication occurs when substances rich in nitrogen and phosphorus flow into waterways, causing extensive algae growth.The algae use up the oxygen supply during their rapid growth and after their deaths during the decaying process.Other organisms in the water suffocate.
225.2 Threats to Biodiversity Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.2 Threats to BiodiversityIntroduced SpeciesNonnative species that are either intentionally orunintentionallytransported to anew habitat areknown asintroducedspecies.Introduced species often reproduce in large numbers because of a lack of predators, and become invasive species in their new habitat.
23The consumption rate of natural resources is not evenly distributed. Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.3 Conserving BiodiversityNatural ResourcesThe consumption rate of natural resources is not evenly distributed.
24Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.3 Conserving BiodiversityResources that are replaced by natural processes faster than they are consumed are called renewable resources.Resources that are found on Earth in limited amounts or those that are replaced by natural processes over extremely long periods of time are called nonrenewable resources.
25Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.3 Conserving BiodiversitySustainable use means using resources at a rate in which they can be replaced or recycled while preserving the long-term environmental health of the biosphere.
26Protecting Biodiversity Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.3 Conserving BiodiversityProtecting BiodiversityCurrently, about seven percent of the world’s land is set aside as some type of reserve.The United Nations supports a system of Biosphere Reserves and World Heritage sites.
275.3 Conserving Biodiversity Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.3 Conserving BiodiversityBiodiversity HotspotsAt least 1500 species of vascular plants are endemic.The region must have lost at least 70 percent of its original habitat.These hot spots originally covered 15.7 percent of Earth’s surface, however, only about a tenth of that habitat remains.
29Corridors Between Habitat Fragments Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.3 Conserving BiodiversityCorridors Between Habitat FragmentsImprove the survival of biodiversity by providing corridors, or passageways, between habitat fragmentsCreates a larger piece of land that can sustain a wider variety of species and a wider variety of genetic variation
30Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.3 Conserving BiodiversityRestoring EcosystemsThe larger the affected area, the longer it takes for the biological community to recover.
31The use of living organisms, such as prokaryotes, fungi, or Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.3 Conserving BiodiversityBioremediationThe use of living organisms, such as prokaryotes, fungi, orplants, to detoxify a polluted area is calledbioremediation.
32Biological Augmentation Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.3 Conserving BiodiversityBiological AugmentationAdding natural predators to a degraded ecosystem is called biological augmentation.Ladybugs help control aphid populations.Photo courtesy of Nature’s Control
33Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Biodiversity and ConservationChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practicebiologygmh.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.
34Which factor is most responsible for the Chapter 5Biodiversity and ConservationChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich factor is most responsible for thelack of plants in polar regions?heavy grazing by herbivoreslittle precipitationno soil for plants to take rootnot enough sunlightABCDCDQ 1
35What form of pollution is caused by Chapter 5Biodiversity and ConservationChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhat form of pollution is caused byextensive algae growth in waterways?acid precipitationeutrophicationbiological magnificationedge effectsABCDCDQ 2
36Which is not a renewable resource? Chapter 5Biodiversity and ConservationChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich is not a renewable resource?solar energyfossil fuelsagricultural plantsclean waterABCDCDQ 3
37Which has indirect economic value? Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.1 Formative QuestionsWhich has indirect economic value?ecosystems that decompose wastesorganisms that provide food and shelterplants that contain medicinal substancesspecies that have desirable genetic traitsABCDFQ 1
38Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.1 Formative QuestionsIt is likely that some of the world’s unidentified species will have economic value.truefalseABFQ 2
39When does the aesthetic value of an ecosystem become most apparent? Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.1 Formative QuestionsWhen does the aesthetic value of an ecosystembecome most apparent?when scientists begin to study the ecosystemwhen the ecosystem has been destroyedwhen the ecosystem is given economic valueABCFQ 3
40Which describes the current rate of species disappearance? Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.2 Formative QuestionsWhich describes the current rate of speciesdisappearance?background extinctionmass extinctionnatural extinctionprogressive extinctionABCDFQ 4
41Where are most extinctions likely to occur in the near future? Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.2 Formative QuestionsWhere are most extinctions likely to occurin the near future?desertsgrasslandstropical foreststemperate forestsABCDFQ 5
42What is the primary factor that has endangered Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.2 Formative QuestionsWhat is the primary factor that has endangeredthe North American bison and the whiterhinoceros?habitat losseutrophicationoverexploitationnonnative predatorsABCDFQ 6
43What is the number one cause of species extinction today? Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.2 Formative QuestionsWhat is the number one cause of speciesextinction today?habitat losshuman predatorstransported diseasesbackground exterminationABCDFQ 7
44Which resource is nonrenewable? Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.3 Formative QuestionsWhich resource is nonrenewable?agricultural plantsclean waterforest timbermineral depositsABCDFQ 8
45For which human activity is sustainable use not possible? Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.3 Formative QuestionsFor which human activity is sustainableuse not possible?farmingloggingoil drillingcommercial fishingABCDFQ 9
46Which is an example of bioremediation? Chapter 5Biodiversity and Conservation5.3 Formative QuestionsWhich is an example of bioremediation?replanting trees in an area affected by acid rainusing microorganisms to detoxify an oil spillenacting a law that protects endangered amphibiansintroducing natural predators to control a crop pestABCDFQ 10
47biological magnification habitat fragmentation Chapter 5Biodiversity and ConservationChapter Assessment QuestionsLook at the figure. Name the process that is occurring with the increasing concentration of DDT.pollutionextinctionbiological magnificationhabitat fragmentationABCDCAQ 1
48Chapter 5Biodiversity and ConservationChapter Assessment QuestionsUse the graph to determine the approximate recovery time for a volcanic eruption.1–10 years10–100 years100–1000 years1000 years ormoreABCDCAQ 2
49Explain how killer whales adapted to their Chapter 5Biodiversity and ConservationChapter Assessment QuestionsExplain how killer whales adapted to theirenvironment when their primary food sourcebegan to disappear.Answer: Killer whales started to prey onsea otters instead of sea lionsand harbor seals.CAQ 3
50Which type of biodiversity increases as you Chapter 5Biodiversity and ConservationStandardized Test PracticeWhich type of biodiversity increases as youmove geographically from the polar regionsto the equator?ecosystem diversitygenetic diversitysocial diversityspecies diversityABCDSTP 1
51Standardized Test Practice Chapter 5Biodiversity and ConservationStandardized Test PracticeHow does genetic diversity increase a species’chance of survival?It increases the number of organisms that have useful genes.It increases the ability of a species to adapt to environmental changes.It produces a variety of species within a biological community.It randomly distributes members of a species throughout an ecosystem.ABCDSTP 2
52fishes killer whales sea otters sea urchins Standardized Test Practice Chapter 5Biodiversity and ConservationStandardized Test PracticeIf a toxic substance enters this food web, which animals will have the highest concentration of the toxic substance in their tissues?fisheskiller whalessea otterssea urchinsABCDSTP 3
53What type of substances causes eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems? Chapter 5Biodiversity and ConservationStandardized Test PracticeWhat type of substances causeseutrophication of aquatic ecosystems?acid rainfertilizersPCBspesticidesABCDSTP 4
54Chapter 5Biodiversity and ConservationStandardized Test PracticeWhich factor has the greatest impact on a country’s rate of natural resource consumption?land areapopulationindustrializationavailability ofresourcesABCDSTP 5
55Which event has the greatest potential to cause irreversible Chapter 5Biodiversity and ConservationStandardized Test PracticeWhich event has the greatest potential to cause irreversibledamage to biodiversity?oil spillurbanizationindustrial pollutionmodern agricultureABCDSTP 6
56Glencoe Biology Transparencies Chapter 5Biodiversity and ConservationGlencoe Biology Transparencies
57Chapter 5Biodiversity and ConservationImage Bank