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Building Methods Types of Structure. SOLID WALLS Traditional solid walls were popular up until the 1920’s. Traditional solid walls were popular up until.

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Presentation on theme: "Building Methods Types of Structure. SOLID WALLS Traditional solid walls were popular up until the 1920’s. Traditional solid walls were popular up until."— Presentation transcript:

1 Building Methods Types of Structure

2 SOLID WALLS Traditional solid walls were popular up until the 1920’s. Traditional solid walls were popular up until the 1920’s. Walls would be constructed in one single solid wall up to 500mm thick. Walls would be constructed in one single solid wall up to 500mm thick.

3 Solid wall This single wall design has to : This single wall design has to : Support the roof and upper floors. Support the roof and upper floors. Prevent water ingress into the living areas. Prevent water ingress into the living areas. Keep the inside of the house warm. Keep the inside of the house warm.

4 Disadvantages of solid wall A solid wall performs badly at keeping moisture out of a property. A solid wall is not very good at keeping heat in. This lack of insulation means that in winter the houses are often drafty, very cold and costly to keep warm.

5 Benefits of a solid wall Its MASS. Its MASS. The greater depth of a solid wall offers a natural insulation to keep a property cool in summer. The greater depth of a solid wall offers a natural insulation to keep a property cool in summer. WIDE LOAD SPREAD. WIDE LOAD SPREAD. The wider spread of the wall loading makes the property stronger and it is less likely the foundations will fail. The wider spread of the wall loading makes the property stronger and it is less likely the foundations will fail.

6 CAVITY WALLS Houses generally built after the 1930’s should have cavity walls. Houses generally built after the 1930’s should have cavity walls. A cavity wall has an inner and outer layer with a small air gap or cavity in between A cavity wall has an inner and outer layer with a small air gap or cavity in between

7 Cavity wall construction Cavity’s are usually between 50 and 75mm wide. Cavity’s are usually between 50 and 75mm wide. Cavity wall ties are used to hold the inner and outer leafs together. Cavity wall ties are used to hold the inner and outer leafs together.

8 Cavity construction Wall ties are usually stainless steel or plastic with a drip in the middle to prevent water passing across them. Wall ties are usually stainless steel or plastic with a drip in the middle to prevent water passing across them. They are built with a high thermal block to the inside. They are built with a high thermal block to the inside.

9 Benefits of a cavity wall The cavity prevents water passing into the interior of the property which solves the problem of damp walls. The cavity prevents water passing into the interior of the property which solves the problem of damp walls. Insulation can be added to the cavity which helps retain heat to the interior of the property. Insulation can be added to the cavity which helps retain heat to the interior of the property.

10 Timber Frame Construction This construction relies on a timber frame as a basic means of structural support. This construction relies on a timber frame as a basic means of structural support.

11 Timber frame construction The open panel frame is covered internally with plasterboard. The open panel frame is covered internally with plasterboard. It is filled with high performance insulation. It is filled with high performance insulation.

12 Timber frame construction A vapour control barrier is added to the inside to limit water vapour entering the wall panel. A vapour control barrier is added to the inside to limit water vapour entering the wall panel. To the outside face of the panel is a sheathing onto which is a breather membrane To the outside face of the panel is a sheathing onto which is a breather membrane

13 Timber frame construction There is a 50mm cavity from panel to external wall. There is a 50mm cavity from panel to external wall. An outer cladding of brick or render completes the structure. An outer cladding of brick or render completes the structure.

14 Disadvantages of timber frame Transporting the panels to site can be a problem. Transporting the panels to site can be a problem. Generally the longest can be 12 metres and the tallest panel can be 3 metres. Generally the longest can be 12 metres and the tallest panel can be 3 metres. The combustible nature of timber requires vigilant quality control on site to achieve the required fire rating. The combustible nature of timber requires vigilant quality control on site to achieve the required fire rating.

15 disadvantages If the timber is not treated correctly in the first instance there is the slight chance of rot or woodworm. If the timber is not treated correctly in the first instance there is the slight chance of rot or woodworm. Sound transfer can be a problem if the units are not designed well. Sound transfer can be a problem if the units are not designed well. Timber frames are designed and manufactured to a tight tolerance and as such require accurate setting out. Timber frames are designed and manufactured to a tight tolerance and as such require accurate setting out. If wet timber is used in new construction this could cause excessive shrinkage and structural faults If wet timber is used in new construction this could cause excessive shrinkage and structural faults

16 Advantages of timber frame Timber frame is the only renewable construction material and the softwoods used can be sourced from sustainable forests. Timber frame is the only renewable construction material and the softwoods used can be sourced from sustainable forests. Timber frame can incorporate the highest levels of thermal insulation, reducing heating costs and conserving energy. Timber frame can incorporate the highest levels of thermal insulation, reducing heating costs and conserving energy.

17 Advantages The dry construction along with the pre built panels means a much faster build time. The dry construction along with the pre built panels means a much faster build time. This dry construction means decorations can be carried out soon after completion of the building without risk of cracking and deterioration of finishes. This dry construction means decorations can be carried out soon after completion of the building without risk of cracking and deterioration of finishes.

18 Insulation. The best type of construction to provide the most thermal insulation is a Timber frame construction. The best type of construction to provide the most thermal insulation is a Timber frame construction. The best position for insulation in a house with a pitched roof is directly over the ceiling. The best position for insulation in a house with a pitched roof is directly over the ceiling. Glass Fibre, Polyurethane and Polystyrene can all be used as thermal insulation. Glass Fibre, Polyurethane and Polystyrene can all be used as thermal insulation.

19 Water based paints. Water based eggshell paint is the best product to use for high traffic areas. It is easy to apply and can cover surfaces in one coat. Stains can be washed off easily. Water borne paints are low odour and low in solvents.

20 Solvent based paints These usually contain Volatile Organic Compounds which evaporate rapidly contributing to atmospheric pollution. These usually contain Volatile Organic Compounds which evaporate rapidly contributing to atmospheric pollution. Solvent based paints are petroleum based and are a fire hazard. Solvent based paints are petroleum based and are a fire hazard. The strippers and cleansers such as meths and white spirit are highly toxic to the environment and the sewage system. The strippers and cleansers such as meths and white spirit are highly toxic to the environment and the sewage system. They should not be used in large internal areas because they are a fire hazard. They should not be used in large internal areas because they are a fire hazard.


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