2SOLID WALLS Traditional solid walls were popular up until the 1920’s. Walls would be constructed in one single solid wall up to 500mm thick.
3Solid wall This single wall design has to : Support the roof and upper floors.Prevent water ingress into the living areas.Keep the inside of the house warm.
4Disadvantages of solid wall A solid wall performs badly at keeping moisture out of a property.A solid wall is not very good at keeping heat in.This lack of insulation means that in winter the houses are often drafty, very cold and costly to keep warm.
5Benefits of a solid wall Its MASS.The greater depth of a solid wall offers a natural insulation to keep a property cool in summer.WIDE LOAD SPREAD.The wider spread of the wall loading makes the property stronger and it is less likely the foundations will fail.
6CAVITY WALLSHouses generally built after the 1930’s should have cavity walls.A cavity wall has an inner and outer layer with a small air gap or cavity in between
7Cavity wall construction Cavity’s are usually between 50 and 75mm wide.Cavity wall ties are used to hold the inner and outer leafs together.
8Cavity constructionWall ties are usually stainless steel or plastic with a drip in the middle to prevent water passing across them.They are built with a high thermal block to the inside.
9Benefits of a cavity wall The cavity prevents water passing into the interior of the property which solves the problem of damp walls.Insulation can be added to the cavity which helps retain heat to the interior of the property.
10Timber Frame Construction This construction relies on a timber frame as a basic means of structural support.
11Timber frame construction The open panel frame is covered internally with plasterboard.It is filled with high performance insulation.
12Timber frame construction A vapour control barrier is added to the inside to limit water vapour entering the wall panel.To the outside face of the panel is a sheathing onto which is a breather membrane
13Timber frame construction There is a 50mm cavity from panel to external wall.An outer cladding of brick or render completes the structure.
14Disadvantages of timber frame Transporting the panels to site can be a problem.Generally the longest can be 12 metres and the tallest panel can be 3 metres.The combustible nature of timber requires vigilant quality control on site to achieve the required fire rating.
15disadvantagesIf the timber is not treated correctly in the first instance there is the slight chance of rot or woodworm.Sound transfer can be a problem if the units are not designed well.Timber frames are designed and manufactured to a tight tolerance and as such require accurate setting out.If wet timber is used in new construction this could cause excessive shrinkage and structural faults
16Advantages of timber frame Timber frame is the only renewable construction material and the softwoods used can be sourced from sustainable forests.Timber frame can incorporate the highest levels of thermal insulation, reducing heating costs and conserving energy.
17AdvantagesThe dry construction along with the pre built panels means a much faster build time.This dry construction means decorations can be carried out soon after completion of the building without risk of cracking and deterioration of finishes.
18Insulation.The best type of construction to provide the most thermal insulation is a Timber frame construction.The best position for insulation in a house with a pitched roof is directly over the ceiling.Glass Fibre, Polyurethane and Polystyrene can all be used as thermal insulation.
19Water based paints.Water based eggshell paint is the best product to use for high traffic areas.It is easy to apply and can cover surfaces in one coat.Stains can be washed off easily.Water borne paints are low odour and low in solvents.
20Solvent based paintsThese usually contain Volatile Organic Compounds which evaporate rapidly contributing to atmospheric pollution.Solvent based paints are petroleum based and are a fire hazard.The strippers and cleansers such as meths and white spirit are highly toxic to the environment and the sewage system.They should not be used in large internal areas because they are a fire hazard.