6 Tree Species Characteristics Shade ToleranceTypical LongevityDurabilityWestern HemlockVery TolerantyearsIntermediateWestern Redcedar1000+ yearsVery DurableGrand FirTolerantyearsVulnerableDouglas FiryearsDurableBig Leaf MapleyearsRed AlderIntolerantyearsBlack CottonwoodVery Intolerantyears
7 Evidence of root rot infestation Evidence of root rot infestation. Root wads appear incomplete, or “fist-like“, due to root decay.Fallen trees are “jack-strawed” and do not appear directionally felled, as in windthrow.
8 Later evidence of bark beetle infestation Later evidence of bark beetle infestation. The first signs of attack are pitch tubes marking wherefemale beetles have entered the tree. Secondary evidence is dry boring dust, similar to fine sawdust,found in bark crevices and around the tree base.
9 Crown type classifications of trees in even-age stands Crown type classifications of trees in even-age stands. D= dominant, C= codominant, I= intermediate, W= wolf, S= suppressed, M= mortality. The “crown ratio” is the proportion of total tree height that is occupied by live crown. In this illustration, the dominants have a 50 percent crown ratio; the wolf tree has an 80 percent crown ratio.
10 Silvicultural Systems Simplified Cultivation of forests through comprehensive programs of stand treatments, commonly classified by reproduction method.Even-Aged Reproduction MethodsClearcuttingSeed-TreeShelterwoodUneven-Aged Reproduction MethodsSelection
12 A heavily thinned stand at age 50 – 30 years after the first thinning. This is a highly productivesite where thinnings have reduced stand density toa low number of large trees. The open conditionhas allowed the development of understory plants.A portion of the same stand, un-thinned, at age 50.The stand has developed to a high density withmany smaller trees and few plants growing in theunderstory because of a lack of light reaching theground.
13 Logging EquipmentCable yarding systemsGround-based yarding systems
14 A small cable yarding system equipped with a motorized, clamping carriage is commonly employed to selectively harvest timber on steep slopes or over vulnerable soils. Use ofintermediate supports can extend yarding distances, thereby reducing the costs and impactsof road construction.
16 Left and right sides of the graph represent traction under the best conditions, but soil and weather conditions may reduce gradability.
17 The typical rubber-tired skidder will provide very economical yarding in a variety of silvicultureprescriptions. The use of a cable winch and chokers,as shown in this picture, increases machine versatilityand reduces soil compaction compared with using thesame machine equipped with a grapple.A crawler tractor is among the most versatile ofmachines. When equipped with winch and chokers ora grapple, as shown in this picture, it can be used foryarding. Wide, low ground pressure tracks reduce soilcompaction.
18 A method of commercial thinning now common is the use of a harvester-forwardercombination in what is called a cut-to-lengthsystem. The harvester moves through thestand felling, delimbing, bucking, andbunching trees selected for harvest;meanwhile a forwarder loads and movesthese processed logs to the truck road whereit then unloads and sorts the logs into decksfor log truck pickup.
19 Roads, Landings, and Skid Trails Avoid Wetlands and DrainagesLocate Skid Trails To Minimize ImpactsPlan to Recycle Skid TrailsProtect Leave Trees
20 Ground disturbance comparison between designated skid trails and random skid trails. In this example, random skid trails result in about 25% moreground disturbance that designated skid trails.
21 A rub tree is left intentionally to protect selected leave trees during harvest operations. Rub trees should be removed, from back to front, after all other logs have been removed.
22 Tree SelectionFormVigorCrown RatiosSpacingWildlife Trees
23 Height/Diameter Ratio Intolerant species - Less than or equal to 85Tolerant species - Less than or equal to 95
24 The gradual decay of wildlife reserve trees into snags.
25 Tree and Boundary Marking Clearly Mark BoundariesProperty Line SurveyTree Marking
26 Harvest Timing Dry Soil Conditions to Minimize Compaction Avoid Spring Sap Flow (mid-March to mid-June) to Minimize Bark Slippage
27 Graphics, Tables, and Pictures Shamelessly Borrowed From: Useful Web SitesWashington State University Cooperative ExtensionOregon State University ExtensionUSDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research StationGraphics, Tables, and Pictures Shamelessly Borrowed From:Creighton, J.H. and D.M. Baumgartner Wildlife ecology and forest habitat. EC1866, WSU Cooperative Extension, Pullman, WADuncan, S Volume, value, and thinning: logs for the future. Science Findings Issue 48, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.Garland, J.J Designated skid trails minimize soil compaction. EC1110, OSU Extension Service, Corvallis, OR.Greulich, F.R., D.P. Hanley, J.F. McNeel, and D.M. Baumgartner A primer for timber harvesting. EB1316, WSU Cooperative Extension, Pullman, WA.Schlosser, W., D.M. Baumgartner, D.P. Hanley, S. Gibbs, and V. Corraro Managing your timber sale. EB1818, WSU Cooperative Extension, Pullman, WA.Stathers, R.J., T.P. Rollerson, and S.J. Mitchell Windthrow handbook for British Columbia forests. Working Paper 9401, British Columbia Ministry of Forestry, Victoria, B.C.