Presentation on theme: "FOREST MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS “It is a certainty that demands on the world’s forest lands will become greater while the area available for forest production."— Presentation transcript:
FOREST MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS “It is a certainty that demands on the world’s forest lands will become greater while the area available for forest production will decrease … The question facing us is not whether to use the forest resource but how to use it wisely for the greatest benefit to man in the long term.” -Bruce Zobel, 1978
FIVE ERRONEOUS BELIEFS ABOUT FORESTS & FOREST MANAGEMENT 1. Ecosystems are inherently stable if people would simply leave them alone. 2. Diversity and stability are closely linked. 3. Evolution has finely tuned ecosystems, with genotypes perfectly matched to their site of origin. Therefore, all genetic diversity is important and should be preserved. 4. Any manipulation of the forest results in a severe loss of diversity. 5. “Natural” is always “best”. - L. Fins, 1993, Forest Geneticist
SILVICULTURE “The art and science of reproducing and growing trees and forests in a sustainable manner based on principles of forest ecology for the benefit of society.”
SILVICULTURAL SYSTEMS A silvicultural system is a series of forestry practices using natural strategies designed to regenerate specific forest types according to landowner objectives. Even-aged vs. Uneven-aged Clearcutting Shelterwood Selection Intermediate Treatments Artificial Regeneration
NATURAL REGENERATION SeedsSproutsSuckersLayering Most of our forests in the U.P. are regenerated using natural strategies in silvicultural systems. Planting is not necessary. Adapted from Baughman, et al., 1993. Woodland Stewardship. P. 30.
CLEARCUTTING An even-aged system where all or nearly all of the trees are harvested at one time. Forest Types: Pines, Spruces, Aspen, Oaks ClearcutSeed-Tree Adapted from Baughman, et al., 1993. Woodland Stewardship. P. 34-35.
SHELTERWOOD An even-aged system where one or two cuts are used prior to the final harvest. The first two cuts stimulate and establish advanced regeneration before the final harvest cut. Final Crop Should Be: Windfirm Non-Epicormic Good Seeders Undamaged by Logging Forest Types: Northern Hardwoods, Spruce-Fir, White Pine, Oak, Paper Birch UniformGroupStrip Adapted from Baughman, et al., 1993. Woodland Stewardship. P. 36.
SELECTION Forest Types: Northern Hardwoods, Spruce-Fir, Black Ash on Good Sites A selection harvest IS NOT a diameter-limit cut! An uneven-aged system where trees of all sizes are harvested on a cycle of about 10-15 years. Single-TreeGroup Adapted from Baughman, et al., 1993. Woodland Stewardship. P. 37.
HARVEST SYSTEM CONTRAST Clearcut Low Early Lowest Irregular Good Poor High Selection High Late Highest Steady Poor-Medium High Low Factors Shade Tolerance Succession Stage Harvest Cost Revenue Flow Game Habitat Visual Quality Disturbance
INTERMEDIATE TREATMENTS Nearly any forestry practice not connected with regeneration or harvest can be considered an intermediate treatment. Timber Stand Improvement (TSI) Weeding, Cleaning, & Release Salvage & Sanitation Cutting Protection Pruning
TIMBER STAND IMPROVEMENT TSI thinnings are intended to improve the quality of a timber stand. They can be commercial or non-commercial. Low Fork Crooked Limby Crowded Unwanted Species Before TSI After TSI Adapted from Baughman, et al., 1993.Woodland Stewardship. P. 41.
ARTIFICIAL REGENERATION We usually think only of the physical act of planting trees, but there is much more to consider in order to achieve success. Species Selection Site Selection Site Preparation Planting Methods Competition Control Direct Seeding Underplanting
TREE PLANTING “Bare-root” stock must be handled carefully. Open root exposure can kill a seedling in under five minutes. 1245673 1243 Planting Heeling Adapted from Baughman, et al., 1993. Woodland Stewardship. P. 32-33.
CROP TREE RELEASE The idea is to allow the better quality trees more crown room, which translates to faster DBH growth and value. After Before View Above Side View Adapted from Baughman, et al., 1993. Woodland Stewardship. P. 42.