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Motion Motion Motion

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**Section 2.1 – Describing Motion**

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Motion and Position A reference point is needed to determine the position of an object. Motion occurs when an object changes position relative to its reference point. Motion depends on its point of reference. Question – are you moving right now?

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**Distance and Displacement**

Distance – how far an object has moved Displacement – the distance and direction of an object’s change in position from the starting point The SI unit for distance and displacement is the meter (m).

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**Distance and Displacement**

Example: A runner runs from the start line 50 m north plus 30 m in the opposite direction. What is the distance? What is the displacement? 50 m N 30 m S START

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**Speed Speed – the distance an object travels per unit of time**

Average speed – total distance traveled divided by the total time of travel Instantaneous speed – speed at a given point in time Remember to use the metric system! m/s (meters/second) or kilometers/hour km/h

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**Velocity Velocity – includes the speed of an object and the direction**

of its motion Because velocity depends on direction as well as speed, the velocity of an object can change even when its speed does not! Car is driving 30 km/hr but it’s velocity is constantly changing!

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Equation to Find Speed Speed (in meters per second) = distance (in meters) / time (in seconds) s = d/t Units – meters/second (m/s) or kilometers/hour (km/h)

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**Graphing Motion Motion can be shown on a distance vs. time graph**

Time on x-axis Distance on y-axis On a distance vs. time graph the slope describes the speed Steeper slope = faster speed Horizontal line = zero speed = object at rest

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**Section 2.2 - Acceleration**

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**What Is Acceleration? Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.**

When the velocity of an object changes, the object is accelerating. A change in velocity can be either a change in how fast something is moving or a change in the direction it is moving. So acceleration occurs when an object changes its speed, its direction, or both.

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**Speeding Up and Slowing Down**

When you think of acceleration, you probably think of something speeding up. However, an object that is slowing down also is accelerating. Acceleration also has direction, just as velocity does.

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Speeding Up… If the acceleration is in the same direction as the velocity, the speed increases and the acceleration is positive.

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Slowing Down… If the speed decreases, the acceleration is in the opposite direction from the velocity, and the acceleration is negative.

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**Changing Direction… Any time a moving object changes**

direction, its velocity changes and it is accelerating. The speed of the horses in this carousel is constant, but the horses are accelerating because their direction is changing constantly.

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**Calculating Acceleration**

Vf = final velocity Vi = initial velocity t = time Units = m/s2

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**Example with Positive Acceleration**

Suppose a jet airliner starts at rest at the end of a runway and reaches a speed of 80 m/s in 20 s.

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**Example with Positive Acceleration**

The airliner is speeding up, so the final speed is greater than the initial speed and the acceleration is positive.

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**Example with Negative Acceleration**

Imagine that a skateboarder is moving in a straight line at a constant speed of 3 m/s and comes to a stop in 2 s.

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**Example with Negative Acceleration**

The skateboarder is slowing down, so the final speed is less than the initial speed and the acceleration is negative.

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**Section 2.3 – Motion and Forces**

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**Force Force – a push or pull**

Sometimes it is obvious a force is being applied and sometimes it is not Forces cause the motion of an object to change Forces are measured in Newtons (N)

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Net Force Net force – the sum of the forces acting upon an object

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Balanced Forces Balanced forces - occurs when the forces acting upon an object are equal in size but opposite in direction

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Unbalanced Forces Unbalanced forces – when unequal forces act on the same object; the object moves in the direction of the larger force

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Inertia and Mass Inertia - tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion The greater the mass of an object, the greater its inertia. Think about playing ping pong with a bowling bowl… what’s the problem? Newton’s First Law of Motion (aka Law of Inertia) An object moving at a constant velocity keeps moving at that velocity unless an unbalanced net force acts upon it. How does this apply to a car crash? Why can a seat belt prevent serious injury?

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