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Chapter 2: MOTION AND SPEED Section 1—DESCRIBING MOTION

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Motion occurs when an object changes its position. To know whether the position of something has changed, you need a reference point. A reference point helps you determine how far an object has moved.

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Sometimes you may want to know not only your distance, but also your direction from a reference point. Displacement is the distance and direction of an object’s change in position from a reference point.

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DISTANCE VS. DISPLACEMENT

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What is speed? Speed is the distance an object travels per unit of time. Any change over time is called a rate. Speed is the rate at which distance is traveled.

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CALCULATING SPEED Speed = distance time If s = speed, d = distance, and t = time, this relationship can be written as: s = d t Suppose you ran 2 km in 10 minutes. Your speed or rate of change of position, would be: s = d = 2 km= t 10 min 0.2 km/min

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CONSTANT SPEED If an object is in motion and neither slows down nor speeds up, the object is traveling at a constant speed. (Ex. Car traveling on a freeway—CRUISE CONTROL)

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CHANGING SPEED Much of the time, the speeds you experience are not constant. (Ex. Riding a bicycle for 5 km)

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CHANGING SPEED

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AVERAGE SPEED Describes speed of motion when speed is changing. AVERAGE SPEED is the total distance traveled divided by the total time of travel. For the bicycle trip, the total distance traveled was 5 km and the total time was 15 min. or.25 h. The AVERAGE SPEED was: s = d = 5 km = t 0.25 h 20 km/h

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INSTANTANEOUS SPEED INSTANTANEOUS SPEED is the speed at a given point in time. (Ex. CAR’S SPEEDOMETER)

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VELOCITY VELOCITY includes the speed of an object and the direction of its motion. Ex. HURRICANE— traveling at a speed of 60 km/h; located 100 km east of your location

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Velocity VELOCITY IS SPEED WITH DIRECTION!

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VELOCITY SPEED same DIRECTION different (VELOCITY = DIFFERENT)

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VELOCITY SPEED constant DIRECTION changing (VELOCITY = CHANGING)

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VELOCITY SPEED constant DIRECTION changing (VELOCITY = CHANGING)

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SPEED UNITS

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REMEMBER… VELOCITY includes the speed and direction of an object; Therefore, a change in velocity can be either a change in how fast something is moving or a change in the direction it is moving.

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CHAPTER 2: MOTION AND SPEED Section 2: ACCELERATION

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ACCELERATION is a change in velocity. Acceleration occurs when an object changes its speed, its direction, or both.

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When you think of acceleration, you probably think of something speeding up (positive acceleration);

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Calculating ACCELERATION Remember… Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity. The change in velocity or speed is divided by the length of the time interval over which the change occurred. Acceleration = change in velocity time

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How is the change in velocity calculated? Always subtract the initial velocity—(the velocity at the beginning of the time interval)—from the final velocity—(the velocity at the end of the time interval).

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Change in velocity = final vel. – initial vel. Change in velocity = v f – v i a = (v f – v i ) = (units) m/s ts

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UNITS The SI unit for velocity is meters/second (m/s), and the SI unit for time is seconds (s). So, the unit for acceleration is meters/second/second. This unit is written as m/s 2 and is read “meters per second squared.”

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CALCULATING POSITIVE ACCELERATION Suppose a jet airliner starts at rest at the end of a runway and reaches a speed of 80 m/s in 20 s. Because it started from rest, its initial speed was zero. Its acceleration can be calculated as follows: a = (v f – v i ) = (80m/s-0m/s)= 4 m/s 2 t20s

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CALCULATING NEGATIVE ACCELERATION Now imagine a skateboarder is moving at a speed of 3 m/s and comes to a stop in 2 s. The final speed is zero and the initial speed was 3 m/s. The skateboarder’s acceleration is calculated as follows: a = (v f – v i ) = (0m/s-3m/s)= -1.5 m/s 2 t2s

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ACCELERATION… Will always be positive if an object is speeding up Will always be negative if an object slowing down

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Chapter 2: MOTION AND SPEED Section 3—MOTION AND FORCES

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What is a force? A force is a push or a pull that one body exerts on another. A force can cause the motion of an object to change.

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OBVIOUS VS. NOT SO OBVIOUS Some forces are obvious…the force applied to a soccer ball as it is kicked into the goal Some forces are not so obvious…the force of the floor being exerted on your feet OR gravity pulling down on your body

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BALANCED FORCES When two or more forces act on an object at the same time, the forces combine to form the net force. What is the net force acting on this box?

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The net force on the box is zero, because the two forces cancel each other. Forces on an object that are equal in size and opposite in direction are called balanced forces.

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UNBALANCED FORCES When two students are pushing with unequal forces in opposite directions. A net force occurs in the direction of the larger force.

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UNBALANCED FORCES The students are pushing on the box in the same direction. The net force is formed by adding the two forces together.

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IT IS IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER… Students often assume that NO MOTION = NO FORCE (not true), but an object’s lack of motion is because the forces acting on it are balanced. NO MOTION = BALANCED FORCES MOTION = UNBALANCED FORCES

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What is inertia? Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist any change in motion. (NEWTON’S 1 st LAW—The Law of Inertia) QUESTION: Would a bowling ball or a table tennis ball have a greater inertia? Why?

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Remember—Mass is the amount of matter in an object, and a bowling ball has more mass than a table-tennis ball. The INERTIA of an object is related to its MASS. The greater the mass of an object, the greater its inertia. ↑ MASS = ↑ INERTIA

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British Scientist Sir Isaac Newton ( ) was able to describe the effects of forces on the motion of objects. These rules are known as Newton’s Laws of Motion. According to Newton’s first law of motion, an object moving at a constant velocity keeps moving at that velocity unless a net force acts on it (Part I—Car-CC). Also, if an object is at rest, it stays at rest, unless a net force acts on it (Part II—Soccer ball).

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SHORT VERSION—Newton’s 1 st Law An object will resist any change in motion.

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What happens in a car crash? This can be explained by the law of inertia… When a car traveling about 50 km/h collides head-on with something solid, the car crumples, slows down, and stops within appproximately 0.1s.

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A passenger without a seatbelt… Will continue to move forward at the same speed that the car was traveling Within 0.02 s after the car stops, unbelted passengers slam into the steering wheel, dashboard, etc. They are traveling at the car’s original speed of 50 km/h

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