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LENNY AGUSTARIA B, SS.  PENGERTIAN: a) STRENGTH b) POWER c) ENDURANCE d) PRINSIP OVERLOAD e) PRINSIP SAID f) PRINSIP REVERSIBILITY.

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Presentation on theme: "LENNY AGUSTARIA B, SS.  PENGERTIAN: a) STRENGTH b) POWER c) ENDURANCE d) PRINSIP OVERLOAD e) PRINSIP SAID f) PRINSIP REVERSIBILITY."— Presentation transcript:

1 LENNY AGUSTARIA B, SS

2  PENGERTIAN: a) STRENGTH b) POWER c) ENDURANCE d) PRINSIP OVERLOAD e) PRINSIP SAID f) PRINSIP REVERSIBILITY

3  PENGERTIAN UMUM: KEMAMPUAN JARINGAN KONTRAKTIL UNTUK MENGHASILKAN TEGANGANG DAN GAYA RESULTAN BERDASARKAN KEBUTUHAN BAGIAN OTOT YANG MEMBUTUHKAN  PENGERTIAN SPESIFIK: KEKUATAN TERBESAR YANG TERUKUR DAN YANG DAPAT DIGUNAKAN OLEH OTOT/ KELOMPOK OTOT UNTUK MENGATASI TAHANAN DARI SUATU USAHA MAKSIMUM

4  KEMAMPUAN SISTEM NEUROMUSKULAR UNTUK MENGHASILKAN, MENGURANGI ATAU MENGONTROL GAYA (MENAHAN ATAU MELAWAN) SELAMA AKTIFITAS FUNGSIONAL UNTUK MENGHASILKAN GAYA YANG HALUS DAN TERKOORDINASI

5  SUATU PROSEDUR SISTEMATIK DARI OTOT/ KELOMPOK OTOT DALAM MENGANGKAT, MENURUNKAN ATAU MENGONTROL BEBAN BERAT (RESISTEN) PADA JUMLAH REPETISI YANG KECIL ATAU PADA WAKTU YANG SINGKAT.

6  MEMPUNYAI HUBUNGAN DENGAN STRENGTH DAN KECEPATAN GERAK  SUATU KARYA (USAHA X JARAK) YANG DIHASILKAN OLEH OTOT PER UNIT DALAM SUATU WAKTU (USAHA X JARAK/ WAKTU)  DENGAN KATA LAIN POWER= RATE DALAM MELAKUKAN USAHA

7  KEMAMPUAN UNTUK MELAKUKAN AKTIVITAS DENGAN INTENSITAS RENDAH, BERULANG- ULANG DAN TERUS MENERUS DALAM JANGKA WAKTU YANG LAMA

8  YAITU OTOT HARUS MENERIMA BEBAN YANG MELEBIHI KAPASITAS METABOLIK YANG UMUMNYA DITERIMA SEHINGGA OTOT TERTANTANG MENGHASILKAN USAHA YANG LEBIH BESAR SETELAH MASA PEMULIHAN

9  SAID  SPECIFIC ADAPTATION TO IMPOSED DEMAND  LATIHAN HARUS SECARA KHUSUS UNTUK EFEK YANG DIINGINKAN  METODE DAN BEBAN LATIHAN YANG DIBERIKAN HARUS SPESIFIK DAN TEPAT

10  PERFORMA OTOT AKAN MENURUN JIKA LATIHAN TIDAK DILANJUTKAN

11 FactorInfluence Cross-section and size of the muscle (includes muscle fiber number and size) The larger the muscle diameter, the greater its tension-producing capacity Fiber arrangement and fiber length (also relates to cross-sectional diameter of the muscle) Short fibers with pinnate and multipinnate design in high force producing muscles (ex. quadriceps, gastrocnemius, deltoid, biceps brachii) Long parallel design in muscles with high rate of shortening but less force production (ex. sartorius, lumbricals) Fiber-type distribution of muscle: type I (tonic, slow-twitch) and type IIA & IIB (phasic, fast-twitch) High percentage of type I fibers: low force production, slow rate of maximum force development, resistant to fatigue High percentage of type IIA and IIB fibers: rapid high forceproduction; rapid fatigue Length-tension relationship of muscle at time of contraction Muscle produces greatest tension when it is near or at thephysiological resting position at the time of contraction Recruitment of motor units The greater the number and synchronization of motor unitsfiring, the greater the force production Frequency of firing of motor unitsThe higher the frequency of firing, the greater the tension Type of muscle contraction Force output from greatest to least: eccentric, isometric,concentric muscle contraction Speed of muscle contraction (force-velocity relationship)Concentric contraction: ↑ speed → ↓ tension. Eccentric contraction: ↑ speed → ↑ tension Determinants and Correlates that Affect Tension Generation of Skeletal Muscl

12 CharacteristicsType IType IIAType IIB Resistance to fatigueHighIntermediateLow Capillary densityHigh Low Energy systemAerobic Anerobic DiameterSmallIntermediateLarge Twitch rateSlowFast Maximum muscle- Shortening velocity SlowFast

13 Infancy, Early Childhood, and Preadolescence At birth, muscle accounts for about 25% of body weight. Total number of muscle fibers is established prior to or early during infancy. Postnatal changes in distribution of type I and type II fibers in muscle are relatively complete by the end of the first year of life. Muscle fiber size and muscle mass increase linearly from infancy to puberty. Muscle strength and muscle endurance increase linearly with chronological age in boys and girls throughout child-hood until puberty. Muscle mass (absolute and relative) and muscle strength is just slightly greater (approximately 10%) in boys than girls from early childhood to puberty. Training-induced strength gains occur equally in both sexes during childhood without evidence of hypertrophy until puberty. Puberty Rapid acceleration in muscle fiber size and muscle mass, especially in boys. During puberty, muscle mass increases more than 30% per year. Rapid increase in muscle strength in both sexes. Marked difference in strength levels develops in boys and girls. In boys, muscle mass and body height and weight peak before muscle strength; in girls, strength peaks before body weight. Relative strength gains as the result of resistance training are comparable between the sexes, with significantly greater muscle hypertrophy in boys.

14 Young and Middle Adulthood Muscle mass peaks in women between 16 and 20 years of age; muscle mass in men peaks between 18 and 25 years of age. Decreases in muscle mass occur as early as 25 years of age. Muscle mass constitutes approximately 40% of total body weight during early adulthood, with men having slightly more muscle mass than women. Strength continues to develop into the second decade, especially in men. Muscle strength and endurance reach a peak during the second decade, earlier for women than men. By sometime in the third decade, strength declines between 8% and 10% per decade through the fifth or sixth decade. Strength and muscle endurance deteriorate less rapidly in physically active versus sedentary adults. Improvements in strength and endurance are possible with only a modest increase in physical activity. Late Adulthood Rate of decline of muscle strength accelerates to 15% to 20% per decade during the sixth and seventh decades and increases to 30% per decade thereafter. Loss of muscle mass continues; by the eighth decade, skeletal muscle mass has decreased by 50% compared to peak muscle mass during young adulthood. Muscle fiber size (cross-sectional area), type I and type II fiber numbers, and the number of alpha motoneurons all decrease. Preferential atrophy of type II muscle fibers occurs. Decrease in the speed of muscle contractions and peak power. Gradual but progressive decrease in endurance and maximum oxygen uptake. Loss of flexibility reduces the force-producing capacity of muscle. Minimal decline in performance of functional skills during the sixth decade. Significant deterioration in functional abilities by the eighth decade associated with a decline in muscular endurance. With a resistance training program, a significant improvement in muscle strength, power, and endurance is possible during late adulthood. Evidence of the impact of resistance training on the level of performance of functional motor skills is mixed but promising.

15 VariableStrength Training AdaptationsEndurance Training Adaptations Skeletal muscle structure Hypertrophy of muscle fibers; greater in type II fibers Hyperplasia (possibly) of Muscle fibers Fiber type composition: remodeling of type IIB to type IIA; no change in type I to type II distribution (i.e., no conversion) Capillary bed density: ↓ or no change Mitochondrial density and volume: ↓ Hypertrophy: minimal or no change Capillary bed density: ↑ Mitochondrial density and volume: ↑ Neural system Motor unit recruitment: ↑ # motor units firing Rate of firing: ↑ (↓ twitch contraction time) Synchronization of firing: ↑ Metabolic system ATP and CP storage: ↑ Myoglobin storage: ↑ Stored triglycerides: not known ATP and CP storage: ↑ Myoglobin storage: ↑ Stored triglycerides: ↑ Enzymes Creatine phosphokinase: ↑ Myokinase: ↑ Similar ↑ Body composition Lean body (fat-free) mass: ↑ % body fat: ↓ Lean body (fat-free) mass: no change % body fat: ↓ Connective tissueTensile strength of tendons, ligaments, and connective tissue in muscle: ↑ Bone: ↑ bone mineral density; no change or possible ↑ in bone mass Tensile strength of tendons, ligaments, and connective tissue in muscle: ↑ Bone: ↑ mineralization with weight- bearing activities

16 Alignment of segments of the body during exercise Stabilization of proximal or distal joints to prevent substitution Intensity: the exercise load (level of resistance) Volume: the total number of repetitions and sets in an exercise session multiplied by the resistance used Exercise order: the sequence in which muscle groups are exercised during an exercise session Frequency: the number of exercise sessions per day or perweek Rest interval: time allotted for recuperation between sets and sessions of exercise Duration: total time frame of a resistance training program Mode of exercise: type of muscle contraction, position of the patient, form (source) of resistance, arc of movement, or the primary energy system utilized Velocity of exercise Periodization: variation of intensity and volume during specific periods of resistance training Integration of exercises into functional activities: use of resistance exercises that approximate or replicate functional demands

17  Alignment and muscle action.  Alignment and gravity.  Stabilization: External stabilization, Internal stabilization

18  the amount of resistance (weight) imposed on the contracting muscle during each repetition of an exercise.  Submaximal loading. Exercise at moderate to low intensities  Near maximal or maximal loading. High- intensity exercise

19  Repetition Maximum : the greatest amount of weight (load) a muscle can move through the available range of motion (ROM) a specific number of times.  1 RM (the greatest amount of weight a subject can lift through the available ROM just one time) as the baseline measurement of a subject’s maximum effort  it is a frequently used, safe and reliable measurement tool method for healthy young adults and athletes as well as active older adults prior to beginning conditioning programs.

20  Use of a 1 RM as a baseline measurement of dynamic strength is inappropriate for some patient populations because it requires one maximum effort. It is not safe for patients, for example, with joint impairments, patients who are recovering from or who are at risk for soft tissue injury, or patients with known or at risk for osteoporosis or cardiovascular pathology.  10 RM (the amount of weight that could be lifted and lowered exactly 10 times) during training

21 Universal bench press: 30% body weight Universal leg extension: 20% body weight Universal leg curl: 10% to 15% body weight Universal leg press: 50% body weight

22  Training Zone  Volume: Repetitions and Sets  Exercise Order  Frequency  Duration  Rest Interval (Recovery Period)  Mode of Exercise

23  Velocity of Exercise  Periodization  Integration of Function

24  Training Zone: low (30% to 40%) for sedentary, untrained individuals or very high (80% to 95%) for Those already highly trained. For healthy but untrained adults, a typical training zone usually falls between 60% and 70% of an RM. The lower percentage of this range is safer at the beginning of a program to enable an individual to focus on learning exercise form and technique.  Volume: Repetitions and Sets  To Improve Muscle Strength? OR To Improve Muscle Endurance?

25  DeLorme’s early studies three sets of a 10 RM performed for 10 repetitions over the training period led to gains in strength. Current recommendations are to use an exercise load that causes fatigue after 6 to 12 repetitions for two to three sets (6 to 12 RM). When fatigue nolonger occurs after the target number of repetitions has been completed, the level of resistance is increased to once again overload the muscle.

26  Training to improve local endurance involves performing many repetitions of an exercise against a submaximal load, the load can be increased slightly.  Endurance training can also be accomplished by maintaining an isometric muscle contraction for incrementally longer periods of time.

27  in a single session, as is often the case in rehabilitation or conditioning programs, large muscle groups should be exercised before small muscle groups and multijoint muscles before single-joint muscles.  In addition, after an appropriate warm-up, higher intensity exercises should be performed before lower intensity exercises.

28  Initially in an exercise program, so long as the intensity and number of repetitions are low, short sessions of exercises sometimes can be performed on a daily basis several times per day. This frequency is often indicated for early postsurgical patients when the operated limb is immobilized and the extent of exercise is limited to low- intensity isometric (setting) exercises to prevent or minimize atrophy.

29  As the intensity and volume of exercise increases, every other day or up to five exercise sessions per week is common.  Frequency is again reduced for a maintenance program, usually to two times per week. With prepubescent children and the very elderly, frequency is usually limited to two to three sessions per week.  Highly trained athletes involved in body building, power lifting, and weight lifting who know their own response to exercise often train at a high intensity and volume up to 6 days per week.

30  the total number of weeks or months during which a resistance exercise program is carried out.  strength gains, observed early in a resistance training program (after 2 to 3 weeks) are the result of neural adaptation. For signiifi-cant changes to occur in muscle, such as hypertrophy or increased vascularization, at least 6 to 12 weeks of resistance training is required.

31  Purpose of Rest Intervals: necessary to allow time for the body to recuperate from the acute effects of exercise associated with muscle fatigue or to offset adverse responses, such as exercise induced, delayed-onset muscle soreness.  Only with an appropriate balance of progressive loading and adequate rest intervals can muscle performance improve.

32  In general, the higher the intensity of exercise the longer the rest interval. For moderate-intensity resistance training, a 2- to 3-minute rest period after each set is recommended.  A shorter rest interval is adequate after low-intensity exercise; longer rest intervals (4 to 5 minutes) are appropriate with high-intensity resistance training, particularly when exercising large, multijoint muscles, such as the hamstrings, which tend to fatigue rapidly.

33  Patients with pathological conditions that make them more susceptible to fatigue, as well as children and the elderly, should rest at least 3 minutes between sets by performing an unresisted exercise, such as low intensity cycling, or performing the same exercise with the opposite extremity.  Rest between exercise sessions must also be considered. When strength training is initiated at moderate intensities (typically in the intermediate phase of a rehabilitation program after soft tissue injury) a 48-hour rest interval between exercise sessions (that is, training every other day) allows the patient adequate time for recovery.

34  the type of muscle contraction that occurs, and the manner in which the exercise is carried out. For example, a patient may perform an exercise dynamically or statically or in a weight- bearing or non-weight-bearing position.  Mode of exercise also encompasses the form of resistance, that is, how the exercise load is applied. Resistance can be applied manually or mechanically.

35  Type of Muscle Contraction: dynamic concentric, isometric, dynamic eccentric  Position for Exercise: Weight-Bearing or Non- Weight-Bearing  Forms of Resistance: Manual resistance and mechanical resistance, A constant or variable load, Accommodating resistance, Body weight or partial body weight

36  Energy Systems: Anaerobic exercise, Aerobic exercise  Range of Movement: Short-Arc or Full-Arc Exercise  Application to Function

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38  Concentric Muscle Contraction  Eccentric Muscle Contraction  Application to Resistance Training: Isokinetic training  using velocity spectrum rehabilita-  tion regimens, and plyometric training  emphasize high-speed training.

39  systematic varia tion in exercise intensity and repetitions, sets, or frequency at regular intervals over a specified period of time.  This approach to training was developed for highly trained athletes preparing for competitive weight- lifting or power-lifting events.  The concept was designed to prevent overtraining and psychological staleness prior to competition and to optimize performance during competition.

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41  Balance of Stability and Active Mobility  Balance of Strength, Power, and Endurance  Task-Specific Movement Patterns  During Resistance Exercise

42 a) Manual and Mechanical Resistance Exercise b) Isometric Exercise (Static Exercise) c) Dynamic Exercise—Concentric and Eccentric d) Dynamic Exercise—Constant and Variable Resistance e) Isokinetic Exercise f) Open-Chain and Closed-Chain Exercise

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45  tdd: Muscle-setting exercises, Stabilization exercises, Multiple-angle isometrics.  Characteristics and Effects of Isometric Training  Intensity of muscle contraction.  Duration of muscle activation.  Repetitive contractions.  Joint angle and mode specificity.  CONTRAINDICATION:

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48  Rationale for Use of Concentric and Eccentric Exercise  Characteristics and Effects of Concentric and Eccentric Exercise: Exercise load, Velocity of exercise, Energy expenditure, Mode specificity, Exercise-induced muscle soreness.

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50  Isokinetic exercise is a form of dynamic exercise in which the velocity of muscle shortening or lengthening and the angular limb velocity is predetermined and held constant by a rate-limiting device known as an isokinetic dynamometer (Fig. 6.9).  The term isokinetic refers to movement that occurs at an equal (constant) velocity.  Isokinetic exercise is also called accommodating resistance exercise.

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53  Constant velocity.  Range and selection of training velocities: from very slow to fast velocities  Reciprocal versus isolated muscle training.  Specificity of training.  Compressive forces on joints  Accommodation to fatigue  Accommodation to a painful arc.  Training Effects and Carryover to Function

54  Availability of Equipment  Appropriate Setup  Initiation and Progression of Isokinetic Training During Rehabilitation

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61  Examination and Evaluation  Preparation for Resistance Exercises  Application of Resistance Exercises: Warm Up, Placement of Resistance, Direction of Resistance, Stabilization, Intensity of Exercise/ Amount of Resistance, Volume/ Number of Repetitions and Sets and Rest Intervals, Verbal or Written Instructions, Monitoring the Patient, Cool Down

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64  Valsalva Maneuver: terjadinya penutupan glottis saat melakukan ekspirasi, harus dihindari selama melakukan resistance exercise.  Substitute Motions  Overtraining and Overwork  Exercise-Induced Muscle Soreness: Acute Muscle Soreness, Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness  Pathological Fracture

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69  Inflammation: inflammatory neuromuscular disease  absolute. For example, in patients with acute anterior horn cell disease (Guillain-Barré) or inflammatory muscle disease (polymyositis, dermatomyositis), acute inflammation of a joint.

70  Severe cardiac or respiratory diseases or disorders associated with acute symptoms (severe coronary artery disease, carditis, or cardiac myopathy).  Resistance training should be postponed for up to 12 weeks after myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass graft surgery or until the patient has clearance from a physician.

71  APA YANG DIMAKSUD DENGAN: a) POWER TRAINING b) AEROBIC POWER c) ANAEROBIC POWER d) CARDIOPULMONARY ENDURANCE e) MUSCLE ENDURANCE f) ENDURANCE TRAINING g) SPECIFITY OF TRAING h) TRANSFER OF TRAINING

72 a) SEBUTKAN APA YANG DIMAKSUD DENGAN, CONTOH LATIHAN, INDIKASI DAN KONTRA INDIKASI, KEUNTUNGAN DAN KERUGIAN DARI ISOMERIC, DYNAMIC DAN ISOKINETIC EXERCISE b) BUAT DESIGN LATIHAN RESITANCE UNTUK KELOMPOK ANAK-ANAK (LAKILAKI DAN PEREMPUAN) US IA 7-9 TAHUN (SOCCER PLAYER) YANG MENCAKUP: JENIS LATIHAN. ALAT YANG DIGUNAKAN. INTENSITAS, VOLUME, FREKUENSI DAN REST

73  JELASKAN DAN BERIKAN CONTOH YANG DIMAKSUD DENGAN Muscle-setting exercises, Stabilization exercises, Multiple-angle isometrics.  BUAT ANALISA 5 AKTIVITAS SEHARI-HARI/ AKTIVITAS REKREASI DAN IDETIFIKASI MUSCLE PERFORMANCE (STRENGTH, POWER, ENDURANCE) DAN FUNCTION PERFORMANCE (MOBILITY/ FLXIBILITY, STABILITY, BALANCE, KOORDINASI) YANG TERLIBAT  SEBUTKAN PERUBAHAN INTI YANG TERJADI SEPANJANG DAUR KEHIDUPAN PADA PERFORMA OTOT (STRENGH, POWER, ENDURANCE)  SEBUTKAN KONDISI YANG DAPAT DIBERIKAN LATIHAN RESISTANCE DAN MENGAPA?

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