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Muscles Part II. MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS Static Dynamic Isometric Isotonic Isokinetic Constant External Resistance Variable Resistance Plyometrics.

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Presentation on theme: "Muscles Part II. MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS Static Dynamic Isometric Isotonic Isokinetic Constant External Resistance Variable Resistance Plyometrics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Muscles Part II

2 MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS Static Dynamic Isometric Isotonic Isokinetic Constant External Resistance Variable Resistance Plyometrics

3 Muscle Contraction  Static contractions  The muscle tension or force exerted against an external load is equal to or weaker than the external force  No visible movement occurs  Dynamic Contractions  Internal & external forces are unbalanced  External force (gravity, weight of object) is not equal to the internal force (produced by athlete’s muscle)  Generates movement

4 Isometric  Static  Means “Same Length”  Work = force x distance  Since no movement occurs, no work occurs  Instead measured by the rate of tension & duration that tension lasts  + Causes hypertrophy  - Strength gains are specific to joint angle  This is called Specificity

5 Isokinetic  Means “same speed”  Resistance is changed so speed of movement can be maintained  - Requires specialized equipment  +/- Trains single joint movements  +/- Strength gains are specific to the training velocity  Specificity  Used primarily in rehabilitative settings  + Safe way to train muscles  + Muscles can be isolated

6 Isotonic  Means “same tension”  + Mimics real life movements  - Difficult to achieve “same tension” through entire ROM  Beginning & end of ROM achieve less tension than middle  Two Phases:  Concentric:  Muscle shortens as it moves through range of motion  Moves against gravitational force (overcomes it)  Eccentric:  Muscle lengthens as it moves through range of motion  Moves with gravitational force (resists it)

7 Types of Isotonic Exercise  Constant External Resistance  Free weights, body weight exercises, medicine ball, etc  Enough resistance provided in parts of movement and not enough in other parts  Selection of weight is critical  - Often training doesn’t occur at ends of ROM  Result: appearance of joints that can’t be straightened  + May mimic “real world” movements more  + Increase activation of stabilizing muscles

8 Types of Isotonic Exercise  Variable Resistance Exercise  Machines that utilize cams and/or pulleys, elastic bands/tubing, etc  Automatically changes the resistive force throughout the ROM  + Good for novice, older and/or recreational athletes  + Help control motion  - Do not promote muscle coordination or balance

9 Types of Isotonic Exercise  Plyometric ( AKA: Jump Training or Stretch-Shortening Cycling)  Trains muscle to reach maximal force in shortest possible time (power)  Amortization Phase: amount of time it takes muscle to change direction from “stretch” to “shorten”  Ideally this should be as short as possible  Places high stress on muscles, connective tissue & joints  Requires foundation of physical fitness  Intensity, repetitions & sets should be carefully prescribed

10 Training Muscle Trainable Factors  Fiber diameter  Hypertrophy  Atrophy  Coordination of muscle fibers  Nerve impulse frequency  Elasticity of muscle & tendons  Energy stores of muscle & liver  # of capillaries Non-Trainable Factors  Number of fibers  Hyperplasia  Fiber Type

11 Creating Movement  Muscle attaches to bone via tendons  Origin of muscle on non-moving bone  Insertion of muscle on the moving bone  Motor neuron signals contraction  Muscle shortens and pulls on bone  Movement occurs about a joint  Insertion moves towards origin

12 Muscle Teamwork  When one muscle contracts, another must relax  Agonist (prime mover) creates desired movement  Antagonist opposes the desired movement  When agonist contracts, antagonist must relax  Agonists & antagonists are typically on opposite sides of joints  Example:  Biceps brachii & Triceps brachii

13 Muscle Teamwork  Synergist:  A muscle that surrounds the joint being moved  Aids the prime mover in creating desired movement  On same side of joint as the prime mover  Ex: Gluteus maximus & Gluteus medius extend thigh  Fixator or Stabilizer:  A muscle that contracts with no significant movement to maintain a posture or fixate a joint  Ex: Erector spinae during a push-up

14 Muscle Groups  Gluteal Group  Gluteus Maximus  Gluteus Medius  Gluteus Minimus

15 Muscle Groups  Quadriceps Group  Rectus femoris  Vastus lateralis  Vastus intermedius  Vastus medialis

16 Muscle Groups  Hamstring Group  Biceps femoris  Semitendinosus  Semimembranosus

17 Muscle Groups  Abdominals  Rectus abdominis  External oblique  Internal oblique  Transverse abdominis

18 Muscle Groups  Erector Spinae  Iliocoastalis  Longissimus  Spinalis


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