Presentation on theme: ""Waste to Energy " Production of Value addition products from crude glycerol obtained from Process industry waste By Sheetal N Singh Coordinator, City."— Presentation transcript:
"Waste to Energy " Production of Value addition products from crude glycerol obtained from Process industry waste By Sheetal N Singh Coordinator, City Managers Association Karnataka (CMAK) 21 st Floor, Public Utility Bldg., MG Road, Bangalore -01 www.cmakarnataka.com firstname.lastname@example.org
About CMAK “City Managers Association Karnataka” CMAK is a Membership based professional body working to strengthen issues related to Urban sectors in conjunction with Directorate of Municipal Administration (DMA) and Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) of Karnataka. CMAK domain areas – Research 1.Documenting Best practice initiatives and transfer program in urban sector. 2. Service Level Benchmarking (SLB) 3. Solid Waste Management (SWM) 4. Water and wastewater conservation 5. Energy efficiency 6. Public Disclosure Law and other projects related to urban issues Information Dissemination Training and capacity Building Study Tours
Value Addition from Process waste Production of Bio-diesel from Chicken waste Crude Glycerol as byproduct Focus to use Glycerol Energy source obtained from Glycerol Production of Gly coal, Gly-ethanol, Gly gas All the 3 new sources –waste to energy derivatives
Production of biodiesel and obtaining its byproduct -glycerin Characterization of crude Glycerin. Optimization of biomass and glycerin ratio for pellet formation Production of coal substitute from various biomass using glycerin as a binder. Comparison of the various pellets – made from biomass residues and glycerin. Testing the properties (Burning Efficiency, Calorific Value, etc). Ethanol production using Yeast with Glycerine as the carbon source Biogas production using Glycerin as feedstock and as additive to kitchen waste. Objectives
Biodiesel Production of biodiesel from chicken feather meal. Trans-esterification procedure was done from the chicken fat sample to obtain two layers- biodiesel and glycerin. This glycerin obtained is used as a source of energy to generate green power.
FAME/ Dry Bio-ethanol TRANS-ESTERIFICATION Two Stage Method Chicken fat oil Acid Esterification (Methanol + H 2 SO 4 ) Base Transesterification (Methanol+ NaOH) Washing (4-5 times) Glycerin settling and separation Methanol recovery At 65 °C for 50 min At 68 °C for 50 min Temp above 70 °C At 110 °C FFA removal
Chicken fat bio-diesel Glycerin used to produce three forms of energy: -- Gly-coal -- Gly-ethanol -- Gly-gas
Properties of Glycerin IUPAC Name: Propane-1,2,3,-triol Molecular formula: C 3 H 8 O 3 Yield: 100 ml of glycerin from 1000ml of the chicken fat through trans-esterification process. Colour: Dark Brown Texture: Semi-solid, thick syrup-like consistency Odour: Chicken-like Molecular Weight: 92.09 Density: 1.22 – 1.24 g/ml at 25°C Viscosity at 40° C: 8.68 centistokes Flash Point: 120°C Melting Point: 18°C Boiling point: 130°C Freezing Point: 2°C
Ash Content % Ash = (Weight of ash * 100) / weight of sample = 1.88 % Fumes on addition of Sulphuric acid Muffle furnace Dessicator Ash formed
Distillation of Crude Glycerin Vaccum distillation unit Pure glycerin % yield = (Yield/ Wt of sample)*100 = (3.75/200)*100 = 1.875%
Gly-Coal A combination of waste glycerin with biomass agriculture residue such as coconut husk, Pongamia seed shell, saw dust, leaf litter etc to produce combustible pellets which can be easily and inexpensively manufactured, as a superior alternative to coal energy plants, a new type of refuse derived fuel (RDF). Powdered bio-massPongamia pod husk
The raw materials are mixed manually in the optimized ratio and filled in PVC pipes and compressed which helps in attaining the shape and stability. It is allowed to dry for 2 days and then removed and kept for drying again for 3 days. The finished pellet was further analyzed.
Calorific value Type of CoalCalorific Value (kJ/kg) Coal 21000 (Avg.) Saw Dust Gly-coal26700 Pongamia Husk Gly-coal25590 Leaf Litter Gly-coal24460 Coconut Husk Gly-coal27170 The CV is measured by burning it in a controlled environment. The resulting heat released by this combustion i.e. the net temperature rise, is proportional to the calorific value and was tested by firing the coal in Bomb calorimeter at Bangalore Test House.
Burning Efficiency Test The gly-coal burning capacity was tested by boiling water using 50 grams of gly-coal and parameters such as time and temperature were recorded.
Result Table –Burning efficiency Type of Coal Used Time taken by 500 ml water to reach 100°C Time taken for complete combustion Coal 8 mins18 mins Coconut Husk Gly-coal 6 mins20 mins Pongamia Seed Gly-coal 8 mins21 mins Leaf Litter Gly-coal 9 mins20 mins Saw Dust Gly-coal 9 mins19 mins
Gly-Ethanol Glycerin Glycerol Kinase Fermentation using Yeast Ethanol Ethanol fermentation from glycerin is an anaerobic fermentation. The process uses yeast to convert glycerin into ethanol. Reagents used- 20% glycerin 5g baker’s yeast Distilled water 20g Broken wheat
Flame Test Blue color flame observed when burnt in a spirit lamp.
Dichromate assay On adding starch Ethanol after titration Concentration of ethanol obtained= 21 %
The effects of glycerin on the performance of anaerobic digester were examined by adding glycerin in order to enhance methane production. The supplementation of the feed with crude glycerol had a significant positive effect in methane production rate. Gly-Gas RESULTS Biomass added to digester to burn for 2.5 hrs Weight of the biomass added With glycerin 1 Liter Kitchen waste 2. 5 kgs Cow Dung 40 kgs
Biogas plantFeeding with glycerin Rising of the Gas holder tank Biogas stove
ComponentsHousehold wastes Glycerin CH 4 % vol50-6071.54% CO 2 % vol38-3422.33% N 2 % vol5-04.5% O 2 % vol 1-01.64% H 2 O % vol6 (at 40° C)2 (at 40° C) Total % vol100 H 2 S mg/m3100 - 900- NH 3 mg/m3-- Aromatic mg/m30 - 200- Organochlorinated or organofluorated mg/m3 100-800- Characterization of Gly-gas
Conclusion All by-products of biodiesel production provide valuable feedstocks for power generation. The results can be summarized in few points: Crude glycerol from biodiesel production was proven to be a suitable substrate for anaerobic degradation. Gly-coal of good quality with efficient burning and low emissions and can be used as a substitute for coal. Renewable and sustainable energy to the industry Ethanol of 21% concentration was produced with glycerin as source of carbon. Bio-gas production was found to be enhanced with the addition of glycerin
Bio-gas is one such source which is renewable and can reduce the dependence on fossil oil to a considerable extent. Bio-gas production technology is simple and has proven successful for Indian weather conditions. Overall, crude glycerin has various applications and we have experimented with a few of them. The results were mainly 3 important sources from a process industry waste.
References Biomass briquettes and pellets, Dr.David Fulford and Dr.Anne Wheldon, Ashden Technology,2010. Anaerobic Fermentation of Glycerol to Ethanol, Chloe LeGendre, Jordan Mendel, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Chemical and biomolecular engineering, 2009. Zero Waste Biodiesel Using Glycerin and biomass to create renewable energy, Sean Brady, Gregory Leung, Christopher Salam, Department of chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, 2007. ”Glycerol production by microbial fermentation- A Review”, Zheng-Xiang Wang, Jian Zhuge, et al, Biotechnology Advances,2001. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production from multiple feedstocks J. C. Thompson, B. B. He Ethanol Production during Batch Fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Changes in Glycolytic Enzymes and Internal pH K. M. Dombek and L. 0. Ingram, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, June 1987, p. 1286-1291 Vol. 53, No. 6