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**Math is hard! Gender, mathematics, and implicit social cognition**

Brian Nosek Yale University Collaborators: Mahzarin Banaji and Tony Greenwald

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**Participation in mathematics**

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**Performance in mathematics**

Gender differences in performance emerge over time (Hyde et al., 1988) Age Cohen’s d elementary high school .29 College SAT-math .40

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**Cross-sectional explicit attitude comparisons - webData**

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**Implicit Attitudes toward Math**

Unpleasant Arts Pleasant Math Pleasant Arts Unpleasant RAI = (Math+Unpleasant) – (Math+Pleasant)

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**Implicit Attitudes toward Math**

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**Are gender differences in implicit attitudes toward mathematics stable over the lifespan?**

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**Adaptation of Heider’s Balance Theory (1958)**

Math Me Female + - Females Me Math Male + Males

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**Are males masculine and females feminine?**

Math Me Female Me Female + Feminine Masculine Me Math Male + Me Male

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**Is mathematics masculine?**

Me Female + Female Math - Me Math Male + Math Male +

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**Do males identify with math more than females do?**

- Me Math Me Female + - Math + Me Me Math Male +

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**Implicit measures can predict performance**

Relative SAT Performance Males Females Explicit Attitudes .40*** .41*** Implicit Attitudes .42*** .24**

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**Correlations between implicit and explicit attitudes toward mathematics**

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**Implicit/explicit attitude dissociations**

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**Summary Attitude differences are strong and stable**

‘Balance’ present in implicit orientations toward mathematics Implicit and explicit math attitudes are related

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**Additional Questions Commitment to math related to implicit attitudes?**

Impact of group membership Emergence of implicit gender differences Implicit/explicit correspondence – everpresent or consolidated?

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Females: Males: Mean = Mean = -82

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**Negativity toward mathematics**

Participation Performance U.S. students are among the worst of developed nations in mathematics (TIMSS) Attitudes

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**An implicit approach to investigating orientations toward mathematics**

Difficult to ‘know’ one’s mind Conscious attitudes and beliefs reflect only part of our mental representation of mathematics Origins of our behavior are not necessarily a direct consequence of our conscious attitudes, beliefs, or intentions.

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**Negative attitudes toward mathematics - webIAT**

Mean = -109 std = 123

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**Cross-sectional implicit attitudes toward mathematics**

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**Children can show implicit effects**

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**Emerging Implicit/Explicit Correlations**

College (N = 57) 3rd, 4th, 5th (N = 86) 1st, 2nd (N = 58) .38** .15 -.03

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**Assistance and advice David McNellis Cindy Wang Andrea Gaynor**

Members of the Banaji Lab group

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