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Math is hard! Gender, mathematics, and implicit social cognition Brian Nosek Yale University Collaborators: Mahzarin Banaji and Tony Greenwald

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Participation in mathematics

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Performance in mathematics Gender differences in performance emerge over time (Hyde et al., 1988) Age Cohens d elementary -.06 high school.29 College.32 SAT-math.40

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Cross-sectional explicit attitude comparisons - webData N = 29,514

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Implicit Attitudes toward Math RAI = (Math+Unpleasant) – (Math+Pleasant) Math Unpleasant Arts Pleasant Math Pleasant Arts Unpleasant

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Implicit Attitudes toward Math d = 1.03

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Are gender differences in implicit attitudes toward mathematics stable over the lifespan?

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Adaptation of Heiders Balance Theory (1958) Math Me Female Me MathMale Females Males

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Math Me Female Me MathMale + Me Male Are males masculine and females feminine? Feminine Masculine Me Female +

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Me MathMale + MathMale + Math Me Female + Is mathematics masculine? FemaleMath -

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Me MathMale + + Math + Me Math Me Female + - Math - Me Do males identify with math more than females do?

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Implicit measures can predict performance Relative SAT Performance MalesFemales Explicit Attitudes.40***.41*** Implicit Attitudes.42***.24**

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Correlations between implicit and explicit attitudes toward mathematics

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Implicit/explicit attitude dissociations

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Summary Attitude differences are strong and stable Balance present in implicit orientations toward mathematics Implicit and explicit math attitudes are related

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Additional Questions Commitment to math related to implicit attitudes? Impact of group membership Emergence of implicit gender differences Implicit/explicit correspondence – everpresent or consolidated?

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Females:Males: Mean = -125Mean = -82

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Negativity toward mathematics Participation Performance –U.S. students are among the worst of developed nations in mathematics (TIMSS) Attitudes

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An implicit approach to investigating orientations toward mathematics Difficult to know ones mind Conscious attitudes and beliefs reflect only part of our mental representation of mathematics Origins of our behavior are not necessarily a direct consequence of our conscious attitudes, beliefs, or intentions.

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Negative attitudes toward mathematics - webIAT N = 29,514 Mean = -109 std = 123

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Cross-sectional implicit attitudes toward mathematics

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Children can show implicit effects

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Emerging Implicit/Explicit Correlations College (N = 57) 3 rd, 4 th, 5 th (N = 86) 1 st, 2 nd (N = 58).38**

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Assistance and advice David McNellis Cindy Wang Andrea Gaynor Members of the Banaji Lab group

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