15 Summary Attitude differences are strong and stable ‘Balance’ present in implicit orientations toward mathematicsImplicit and explicit math attitudes are related
16 Additional Questions Commitment to math related to implicit attitudes? Impact of group membershipEmergence of implicit gender differencesImplicit/explicit correspondence – everpresent or consolidated?
18 Negativity toward mathematics ParticipationPerformanceU.S. students are among the worst of developed nations in mathematics (TIMSS)Attitudes
19 An implicit approach to investigating orientations toward mathematics Difficult to ‘know’ one’s mindConscious attitudes and beliefs reflect only part of our mental representation of mathematicsOrigins of our behavior are not necessarily a direct consequence of our conscious attitudes, beliefs, or intentions.