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Me = Female, Math = Male, therefore Math Me Brian A. Nosek Mahzarin R. Banaji Yale University Anthony G. Greenwald University of Washington

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Gender differences in participation in mathematics As level of education increases female participation in math and science declines

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Differential gender participation in the sciences

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Gender differences in performance Hyde et al., 1990 Cohens d elementary school -.06 high school.29 college.32 gifted children.41 SAT math.40 Feingold, 1988 Males account for as much as 96% of perfect or near perfect SAT math scores

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Explicit vs. Implicit intentional controlled direct measurement self-report subject to presentational biases unintentional automatic indirect measurement no self-report needed not subject to presentational biases Explicit AttitudesImplicit Attitudes

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Do females hold more negative attitudes toward mathematics than males at an implicit level? Attitudes Toward Mathematics d = 1.03

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Do females hold more negative attitudes toward science than males at an implicit level? Attitudes Toward Science d =.94

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Heiders Balance Theory (1958) Linking Math to the Self Me FemaleMath Me MaleMath + + + - - + Females: Males:

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Are males masculine and females feminine? Feminine Masculine Me MathFemale + Me MathMale +

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Me MathFemale + Me MathMale + - + Is mathematics stereotyped as masculine implicitly?

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Do males identify with math more strongly than females? d =.59 Me MathFemale + Me MathMale + - + - +

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Correlations with gender identity Gender Identity Math Self-ConceptStereotyping Math -.40 ** -.29*.35 * Females: Males: Gender Identity Math Self-ConceptStereotyping Math.32 *.23 -.05

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Correlations with performance.01 -.29*.16 Females: Males:.35 *.23.52 *** SAT Performance Math Self-ConceptStereotyping Math SAT Performance Math Self-ConceptStereotyping Math

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Primary findings Gender differences in orientations toward math measurable outside of conscious control Implicit findings were consistent with Heiders balance theory For females, gender identity related more strongly to implicit beliefs about mathematics For males, performance related more strongly with implicit beliefs about mathematics

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