Policy instruments Regulation e.g. prohibited activities, permits, planning zones Use of financial instruments e.g. grants, subsidies, tax breaks, user fees, taxes Building capacity and providing people with information e.g. training; websites; research & advisory services More flexibility in leases and uses of interim and neglected spaces e.g. urban brownfield; upgrading of low biodiversity value land; diversification of bland parkland)
Payments for Ecosystem Services A voluntary transaction where A well-defined ecosystem service (or land use likely to secure that service) Is being “bought” by a (minimum one) ecosystem service buyer From a (minimum one) ecosystem service provider If and only if the ecosystem service provider secures provision (conditionality)
Conclusions Sole focus on protected areas may distract from good land use/planning more generally Environmental governance needs to be facilitated across integrated protected and “ordinary” landscapes Fundamental thinking about interactions between society, protected areas and the greenspace between people and parks
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