Presentation on theme: "WERE THE METHODS THE WILSON ADMINISTRATIO N USED TO OBTAIN SUPPORT FOR THE WAR JUSTIFIABLE?"— Presentation transcript:
WERE THE METHODS THE WILSON ADMINISTRATIO N USED TO OBTAIN SUPPORT FOR THE WAR JUSTIFIABLE?
“WAR IS THE HEALTH OF THE STATE.” -Randolf Bourne, progressive
“WAR IS THE HEALTH OF THE STATE” ●Mindless power (the State) thrives on war ●Patriotism becomes the dominant expectation and confuses the relationship b/w the individual and the society s/he is part of ●Every person expected to be an amateur agent of the govt, propagating its message, reporting disloyalists, raising funds; to oppose that govt is an act of disloyalty ●Individual consciousness is subordinated (to “the herd”) and patriotism is distorted in fostering conformity; people feel strengthened by identifying with the whole; we become less individuals and more citizens of the State ●During war the State successfully fosters “obedient, respectful, trustful children, full of that naive faith in the all-wisdom and all- power of the adult who takes care of them.” ●In converting WWI into a “holy war” about “making the world safe for democracy” it led to a moral collapse of society and a situation that benefitted the wealthy
ARGUMENTS IN FAVOR IN OPPOSITION/ CRITICISMS ✕ US shipping and commerce endangered - Economic need to maintain access to overseas markets ✕ Stronger economic and ideological ties to Britain ✕ Self-defense (Zimmerman note threatening to US) ✕ German U-Boat warfare, ie. sinking of Lusitania ✕ Idea that Germans were militaristic and undemocratic ✕ Russian Revolution led to legitimate notion that war was about democracy ✕ Britain also violated neutrality of seas ✕ Germany warned us ✕ Not really about democracy - Germany is not the only violator of democracy (ie. British in Ireland) ✕ Will distract focus on domestic reform ✕ Will suppress freedoms at home
✕ “Once lead this people into war and they’ll forget there ever was such a thing as tolerance. To fight you must be brutal and ruthless, and the spirit of the ruthless brutality will enter into the very fiber of our national life, infecting Congress, the courts, the policemen on the beat, the man in the street. Conformity would be the only virtue, and every man who refused to conform would have to pay the penalty.”
WARTIME CHANGES ON THE HOMEFRONT ✕ Total War : All resources re-geared toward war effort ie. $33 billion raised in 2 years through loans, taxes, bonds ✕ Major expansion of the military - National Defense Act significantly increased size of military - Selective Service Act – draft in 1917 – 2.8 million men drafted ✕ War Industries Board – centralized control over production and raw materials ✕ Many agencies incl. Food Administration and Fuel Administration, Committee on Public Information (George Creel)
WHAT WAS THE INTENTION OF THESE WORLD WAR I POSTERS?
SUPRESSION OF CIVIL LIBERTIES DURING WWI Espionage and Sedition Acts: Espionage Act, 1917: Prohibited attemps to interfere w/ military ops, support US enemies during wartime, promote insubordination in the military, interfere with recruitment Sedition Act, 1918: Forbade "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the United States government, its flag, or its armed forces or that caused others to view the American government or its institutions with contempt - Used to imprison those who spoke out against war - Targeted labor leaders/activists, socialists, other leftists - Used to imprison over 1,000 individuals who spoke out against the war
OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES: ✕ “The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic…The question in every case is whether the words used…create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent.”
SHENCK V. U.S. (1919) ✕ Upheld Espionage Act, citing “clear and present danger” clause, which determined when 1st amendment rights may be limited ✕ Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote the decision Charles Schenck’s pamphlets: “Don’t submit to intimidation” “Assert your rights” “Conscription is a monstrous deed against humanity in the interests of the financiers of Wall Street.”
WOODROW WILSON IN A SPEECH TO CONGRESS, ENCOURAGING THE PASSAGE OF THE ESPIONAGE AND SEDITION ACTS:...I am sorry to say that the gravest threats against our national peace and safety have been uttered within our own borders. There are citizens of the United States...born under other flags but welcomed under our generous naturalization laws to the full freedom and opportunity of America, who have poured the poison of disloyalty into the very arteries of our national life... (America) never dreamed it possible that men sworn into its own citizenship... would ever turn in malign reaction against the Government and people who had welcomed and nurtured them and seek to make this proud country once more a hotbed of European passion. But the ugly and incredible thing has actually come about and we are without adequate federal laws to deal with it... I urge you to enact such laws at the earliest possible moment and feel that in doing so I am urging you to do nothing less than save the honor and self- respect of the nation. Such creatures of passion, disloyalty, and anarchy must be crushed out...
THE RED SCARE Immigrants, Leftists and Labor leaders would continue to be targetted after WWI Causes of the Red Scare: ●Intense patriotism during WWI ●Xenophobic response to new immigrants who came during industrialization ●Isolationist post-war tendencies (many wished to retreat into our own nation) ●left wing social agitation that aggravated political tensions and challenged the power structure
PALMER RAIDS 1919 ●carried out by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer in response to the social unrest of the post-war period (strikes that got national attention, race riots resulting from the Great Migration) ●captured and arrested 10,000 leftists, many who were held illegally and without proper charges, in overcrowded and unsanitary facilities, where they were treated brutally a. More than 500 people were deported
Agree with one of the following statements: A) Free speech should be limited in times of crisis to protect the safety of the nation and encourage unity. A) Free speech should never be limited to ensure the protection of US citizens and encourage open discussion of relevant issues.