Presentation on theme: "Presentation Skills Jim Tysinger, PhD Department of Family and Community Medicine The UT Health Science Center at San Antonio."— Presentation transcript:
Presentation Skills Jim Tysinger, PhD Department of Family and Community Medicine The UT Health Science Center at San Antonio
Objective Plan and present educational sessions using the principles discussed in the workshop.
Key Elements of a Presentation l Communication - information exchanged between two people l Communication for Teachers and Learners: Goal: Achieve desired learning outcomes, not impress Shared Feedback: Is everyone “with it”?
Thoughts about Presentations l Many methods facilitate learning l You should expertly use many methods l Involve learners l Approach teaching as scholarly work l Obtain feedback to improve and document your teaching expertise
Lectures--Uses l Present info to groups l Inspire, motivate, and stimulate thinking l Explain difficult concepts l Review/integrate knowledge
Lectures--Misuses l Transmit too many facts l Teach skills or change attitudes l Present pet interests to impress the audience
Prepare for Your Presentation Plan your session to address the audience’s needs (Bransford, et al, 2000) l Expert –vs– novice levels l Learning styles and preferences l Background l Degree of fatigue (Chap 3,
Prepare for Your Presentation l Know and limit the topic Research the topic Focus on what learners need to know
Organize Your Presentation l Define goals/objectives Specify what learners must know Stress 3-4 major points/hour Hint: Reduce content!!!
Organize Your Presentation l Limit “teacher-talk” to 15-20 minute blocks with meaningful learning activities between blocks l Assess learning as you go l Summarize your talk
Organize Your Presentation 3 parts of a talk l Opening/ Introduction l Body Spend most time here l Conclusion
Opening/Introduction l Get audience’s attention Emphasize importance of the topic Other techniques? l State the talk’s intent/goal l Set ground rules Audience participation Questions
Body l Specify 3-4 main points Focus on what you want them to know l Organize those main points to give the learners a mental framework Known to the unknown General to specific Other ways?
Conclusion l Briefly summarize main points l Describe what will happen next What audience will do End the talk
Prepare Materials l Handouts Semi-filled outline works well (include contact info) Use paper of different colors to save time Visuals: Match visuals with handout l Flip-charts l Cases, simulations, videos
Prepare Materials l Audiovisuals Schedule the equipment you need Practice with equipment Have a back-up plan for emergencies Prepare/review audiovisuals in advance
Prepare Audiovisuals Use PowerPoint (PP) when lecturing (1) Lectures with PP increased student performance on exams as compared to lectures with OH transparencies (Lowry, 1999) Limits distraction of changing transparencies Allows for animations Improves the quality of the presentation
Prepare Audiovisuals Use PowerPoint (PP) when lecturing (2) Using PowerPoint in lectures makes the presenter appear more organized and makes it easier for learners to take notes (Frey & Birnbaum, 2002)
Prepare Audiovisuals l Use PowerPoint, but… Avoid too many slides Don’t distract with too many features
Prepare Audiovisuals Integrate learning strategy instruction within a lecture Showing learners how to organize and think about content aids learning (Svinicki, 1991) Learning strategies: Ways people use to learn concepts Here’s one such strategy...
Prepare Audiovisuals Organizational Strategy: Arranging content to enhance retention, critical thinking, and application Consider a lecture on “Acute Abdominal Pain” Prepare a matrix that helps learners compare the causes
Prepare Audiovisuals Use graphics (diagrams, graphs, charts) to aid learning Graphics contribute to learning (Vekiri, 2002) Explain graphics verbally Make target information salient
Prepare Audiovisuals Percentage of Adults Who Reported Eating Fewer Than 5 Servings of Fruits and Vegetables a Day, by Sex, 2002 Source: CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
Prepare Audiovisuals Use pictures to enhance learning But remember pictures or drawings are open to interpretation (Vekiri, 2002) Seborrheic Dermatitis involving the chest and armpits
Prepare Audiovisuals l Visuals: Make text readable Use large type (24 pt or higher) Employ sans serif typefaces Use capitals and lower case Insure text/background contrast Limit words to 9 per line; lines to 8 or 9 l Avoid poor visuals What’s wrong with these?
BIOCHEM REVIEW FOR FPs l THE KREB’S CYCLE – Required for life – Memorize the entire cycle – Wjat I really want you to know!
Preparation and Organization Know and limit your topic Read and research Identify what learners need to know Research topics you don’t know and understand Include all the information you know Dazzle the learners with your expertise Put in lots of statistics Throw in a few citations for credibility State some irrelevant research findings Run a bew “zebras” by the learners just for fun! You can’t read this, but….
Rehearse! l Use an audience, if possible l Pace yourself to fit content into time l Practice with equipment l Get accustomed to the room
Presentation Skills Seminar Presenting your Lecture
Key Points l Considerations for the lecturer l Verbal and non-verbal skills l Preparing/using audiovisuals l Presentation pitfalls and how to deal with them
Considerations l Be yourself l Dress appropriately l Get audience support l Respect the audience l Obtain feedback for educator’s portfolio Learners, peers, supervisors, outcomes
Non-Verbal Techniques l Smile to relax you & the audience l Show enthusiasm l Look at audience when speaking l Move with a purpose l Gesture naturally l Treat audience with respect
Verbal Techniques l Monitor volume: Avoid loudness l Vary pace (watch audience) l Repeat questions l Avoid verbalized pauses
Verbal Techniques Use spoken cues to identify important points Spoken cues aid note-taking and increase test scores (Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004) State a brief overview at the beginning of a lecture (e.g., “Today’s lecture is about…”) Use spoken cues (e.g., “First, we will discuss the diagnosis of hypertension.”)
Verbal Techniques Pause 5 seconds after asking a question Waiting 5 seconds to call on a learner after asking a question increases the quantity and quality of words in the response (Rowe, 1987) “Wait time” lets learners process the question, retrieve relevant information from memory, and frame a response Repeat questions
Verbal Techniques Speak at a slower rate when lecturing Speaking slowly (i.e., 100 wpm) produces better comprehension than a moderate (150 wpm) or fast (200 wpm) rate (Robinson, et. al., 1997) Slow down when presenting complex material Speed up when learners stop writing notes
Presentation Pitfalls l Lack of practice l Anxiety l Unanticipated challenges l Blocking visuals l Questions you can’t answer Manage “sharpshooters”
Closure l Be yourself l Share experience l Practice l Get feedback l Strengthen 1-2 areas/presentation