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Presentation Skills Jim Tysinger, PhD Department of Family and Community Medicine The UT Health Science Center at San Antonio.

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Presentation on theme: "Presentation Skills Jim Tysinger, PhD Department of Family and Community Medicine The UT Health Science Center at San Antonio."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presentation Skills Jim Tysinger, PhD Department of Family and Community Medicine The UT Health Science Center at San Antonio

2 Objective Plan and present educational sessions using the principles discussed in the workshop.

3 Key Elements of a Presentation l Communication - information exchanged between two people l Communication for Teachers and Learners:  Goal: Achieve desired learning outcomes, not impress  Shared Feedback: Is everyone “with it”?

4 Thoughts about Presentations l Many methods facilitate learning l You should expertly use many methods l Involve learners l Approach teaching as scholarly work l Obtain feedback to improve and document your teaching expertise

5 Lectures--Uses l Present info to groups l Inspire, motivate, and stimulate thinking l Explain difficult concepts l Review/integrate knowledge

6 Lectures--Misuses l Transmit too many facts l Teach skills or change attitudes l Present pet interests to impress the audience

7 Prepare for Your Presentation Plan your session to address the audience’s needs (Bransford, et al, 2000) l Expert –vs– novice levels l Learning styles and preferences l Background l Degree of fatigue (Chap 3,

8 Prepare for Your Presentation l Know and limit the topic  Research the topic  Focus on what learners need to know

9 Organize Your Presentation l Define goals/objectives  Specify what learners must know  Stress 3-4 major points/hour Hint: Reduce content!!!

10 Organize Your Presentation l Limit “teacher-talk” to 15-20 minute blocks with meaningful learning activities between blocks l Assess learning as you go l Summarize your talk

11 Organize Your Presentation 3 parts of a talk l Opening/ Introduction l Body  Spend most time here l Conclusion

12 Opening/Introduction l Get audience’s attention  Emphasize importance of the topic  Other techniques? l State the talk’s intent/goal l Set ground rules  Audience participation  Questions

13 Body l Specify 3-4 main points  Focus on what you want them to know l Organize those main points to give the learners a mental framework  Known to the unknown  General to specific  Other ways?

14 Conclusion l Briefly summarize main points l Describe what will happen next  What audience will do  End the talk

15 Prepare Materials l Handouts  Semi-filled outline works well (include contact info)  Use paper of different colors to save time  Visuals: Match visuals with handout l Flip-charts l Cases, simulations, videos

16 Prepare Materials l Audiovisuals  Schedule the equipment you need  Practice with equipment  Have a back-up plan for emergencies  Prepare/review audiovisuals in advance

17 Prepare Audiovisuals Use PowerPoint (PP) when lecturing (1)  Lectures with PP increased student performance on exams as compared to lectures with OH transparencies (Lowry, 1999)  Limits distraction of changing transparencies  Allows for animations  Improves the quality of the presentation

18 Prepare Audiovisuals Use PowerPoint (PP) when lecturing (2)  Using PowerPoint in lectures makes the presenter appear more organized and makes it easier for learners to take notes (Frey & Birnbaum, 2002)

19 Prepare Audiovisuals l Use PowerPoint, but…  Avoid too many slides  Don’t distract with too many features

20 Prepare Audiovisuals Integrate learning strategy instruction within a lecture  Showing learners how to organize and think about content aids learning (Svinicki, 1991)  Learning strategies: Ways people use to learn concepts  Here’s one such strategy...

21 Prepare Audiovisuals Organizational Strategy: Arranging content to enhance retention, critical thinking, and application  Consider a lecture on “Acute Abdominal Pain”  Prepare a matrix that helps learners compare the causes

22 Prepare Audiovisuals Use graphics (diagrams, graphs, charts) to aid learning  Graphics contribute to learning (Vekiri, 2002)  Explain graphics verbally  Make target information salient

23 Prepare Audiovisuals Percentage of Adults Who Reported Eating Fewer Than 5 Servings of Fruits and Vegetables a Day, by Sex, 2002 Source: CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

24 Prepare Audiovisuals Use pictures to enhance learning  But remember pictures or drawings are open to interpretation (Vekiri, 2002) Seborrheic Dermatitis involving the chest and armpits

25 Prepare Audiovisuals l Visuals: Make text readable  Use large type (24 pt or higher)  Employ sans serif typefaces  Use capitals and lower case  Insure text/background contrast  Limit words to 9 per line; lines to 8 or 9 l Avoid poor visuals  What’s wrong with these?

26 BIOCHEM REVIEW FOR FPs l THE KREB’S CYCLE – Required for life – Memorize the entire cycle – Wjat I really want you to know!

27 Preparation and Organization Know and limit your topic  Read and research  Identify what learners need to know  Research topics you don’t know and understand  Include all the information you know  Dazzle the learners with your expertise  Put in lots of statistics  Throw in a few citations for credibility  State some irrelevant research findings  Run a bew “zebras” by the learners just for fun!  You can’t read this, but….

28 Rehearse! l Use an audience, if possible l Pace yourself to fit content into time l Practice with equipment l Get accustomed to the room

29 Presentation Skills Seminar Presenting your Lecture

30 Key Points l Considerations for the lecturer l Verbal and non-verbal skills l Preparing/using audiovisuals l Presentation pitfalls and how to deal with them

31 Considerations l Be yourself l Dress appropriately l Get audience support l Respect the audience l Obtain feedback for educator’s portfolio  Learners, peers, supervisors, outcomes

32 Non-Verbal Techniques l Smile to relax you & the audience l Show enthusiasm l Look at audience when speaking l Move with a purpose l Gesture naturally l Treat audience with respect

33 Verbal Techniques l Monitor volume: Avoid loudness l Vary pace (watch audience) l Repeat questions l Avoid verbalized pauses

34 Verbal Techniques Use spoken cues to identify important points  Spoken cues aid note-taking and increase test scores (Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004)  State a brief overview at the beginning of a lecture (e.g., “Today’s lecture is about…”)  Use spoken cues (e.g., “First, we will discuss the diagnosis of hypertension.”)

35 Verbal Techniques Pause 5 seconds after asking a question  Waiting 5 seconds to call on a learner after asking a question increases the quantity and quality of words in the response (Rowe, 1987)  “Wait time” lets learners process the question, retrieve relevant information from memory, and frame a response Repeat questions

36 Verbal Techniques Speak at a slower rate when lecturing  Speaking slowly (i.e., 100 wpm) produces better comprehension than a moderate (150 wpm) or fast (200 wpm) rate (Robinson, et. al., 1997)  Slow down when presenting complex material  Speed up when learners stop writing notes

37 Presentation Pitfalls l Lack of practice l Anxiety l Unanticipated challenges l Blocking visuals l Questions you can’t answer  Manage “sharpshooters”

38 Closure l Be yourself l Share experience l Practice l Get feedback l Strengthen 1-2 areas/presentation

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