Presentation on theme: "Goals for this PowerPoint presentation: 1. Extract and amplify key concepts from chapters 7-10 in the textbook ; 2. Integrate with current news media;"— Presentation transcript:
Goals for this PowerPoint presentation: 1. Extract and amplify key concepts from chapters 7-10 in the textbook ; 2. Integrate with current news media; 3. Serve as a study guide for Quiz #3. Geography 1400 – Human Geography Section 001 – April 9, 2013 All anecdotes and graphic images are courtesy of Wikimedia, unless otherwise noted.
Preface: The following terms are referenced in the textbook, but not fully defined. They can help create a framework for understanding why conflict occurs with globalization. (Students can suggest alternate definitions, or alternate key words.) Intolerance –> abnormal sensitivity, resistance to contrary position, lack of breadth in acceptance of deviation Orthodoxy –> conformance to approved doctrine or mode, meeting expectations, following the rules Secular –> societal separation of government from religion Sectarian –> narrowly defined, limited interest, bigoted or narrow-minded. (Allred suggests that ‘sectarian’ does not have to be bigoted, nor does it have to mean conflict-oriented, just different) Humanist –> focus on human interests and values outside a religious context So, the United States can be considered: - humanist (as per separation of church & state); and - sectarian (as “In God We Trust”). This apparent duality may seem ‘normal’ to Americans, but suggests that other nations could wonder if there is a difference between “pluralist” and “oxymoronic”? (Brittanica, Colliers, Wikimedia, Websters, etc.)
Economic Sectors Primary – extractive (“basic” industry – mining, fishing, gathering) Secondary – industrial, assembly (value-added) Tertiary – trade and services Quaternary - information Quinary – decision-makers – “execs” Are these sectors evolutionary? Is one sector ‘better’ than another? Are any of them relevant criteria for “Index of Human Development”? Is TRADE possibly the most valuable criterion – quality of relationships the highest element of human development?
What are Economic Growth & Economic Development? Growth is about change in production, output, quantity and total volume. Development is about quality or nature of economic activity – more normative, such as greater choice, freedom from oppression, literacy, life expectancy, health, conservation, more balance, fairness. Tends to refer to “higher paying” jobs, or more diversified economy, or higher value-added. Development includes rising complexity and sophistication – technology in every sense. These point to globalization and urbanization.
China has partially integrated its 2 nd World society to the global economy 10% economic growth per year for > 10 years (p249) The result is that a former cluster of poor, somewhat self-sufficient societies becomes: diversified (specialization – productivity) interdependent (specialization – vulnerability) uneven (business cycles and widening gap between haves & have-nots) more wealthy (net community prosperity - GNI, GDP, and PPP all need normalization, p251 ) more urban more globally oriented Allegedly, the root cause of world prosperity is in international trade and finance – globalization, based on ‘technology in relationships’.
Popular news media stories in April 2014 : 1. A new avian flu outbreak is being addressed by a Chinese/US CDC cooperative – technology transfer across all previous borders. 2. Time (TM ) magazine said that international finance is at low ebb due to lack of trust. Too many debts are in default or renegotiation. 3. California’s Governor seeks Chinese (communist) funding for high-speed rail. California has been a bastion of diversity, innovation and free enterprise. China already has widely developed high-speed rail.
Are supranationals and transnationals ‘warfare by other means?’ Is it just more refined domination through ‘softer’ weapons? Have IMF and World Bank produced stability and reduced poverty? April 2013 – Egypt negotiating with IMF for a loan – “strings” include reducing market- distorting food and energy subsidies, at the risk of riots by the poor who depend on subsidized food & fuel. Considering how well we sometimes co-operate, consider controversy over the alleged intentions of the IMF and World Bank (1945), the “twin pillars” for world financial order. Nearly all world countries are members, operating like a credit union, with the best loan terms going to poorest members. (Wikipedia) Most IMF workers are in Washington DC (with some in Paris, New York, Geneva).
Are ‘supranational’ and ‘transnational’ just other names for neo-colonialism or evangelism? Does perception trump reality?
No matter what we conclude about motives, globalization IS about uneven results (Chapter 10) For example: with urbanization, humans are either concentrating weakness or concentrating strength. Even within a world class city, there are often splinters of great weakness amidst great strength. Mexico City conurbation million people? Adjacent neighborhoods in Venezuela
So, a major theme of the textbook, and a thoroughly endemic theme in popular news media is the issue of how globalization creates opportunities as well as divisions. At the very least, globalization amplifies some differences along the way toward overall human progress.
Consider how a long-past example of perception, influence and hegemonism might illuminate parallel issues in current world news: In about 1850 the United States made rather aggressive moves to pry open Japan to western trade. How might the U.S. approach to Japan in that era compare to “Islamist” perceptions about globalization and supranational influences from the “West” in 2013?
Pre-Cursors to World War II Japanese 19 th century art depicting U.S. Admiral Perry’s foray to open trade relations.
Shall We Trade, or Expel the Barbarian?
As he arrived, Perry ordered his ships to steam past Japanese lines towards the capital of Edo, and position their guns towards the town of Uraga.  Perry refused to abide to demands to leave.  He then demanded permission to present a letter from President Millard Fillmore, and threatened to use force if the Japanese boats around the American squadron did not disperse. EdoUraga  Millard Fillmore  (Wikipedia)
“Perry attempted to intimidate the Japanese by presenting them a white flag and a character which told them that in case they chose to combat, the Americans would necessarily vanquish them.  Perry's ships were equipped with new Paixhans shell guns, capable of wreaking great destruction with every shell.  The term "Black Ships", in Japan, would later come to symbolize a threat imposed by Western technology.” white flag Paixhans shell guns Black Ships Sources: Wikipedia, including om/od/naval/p/mcperry.htm om/od/naval/p/mcperry.htm Note the rich symbolism in the quotation
The Japanese response to western intrusion on their “backyard” was rapid industrialization and adoption of western technology, and eventual military collisions with the West, including World War II. By 1942, Japan had proffered the “Greater East Asia Co-prosperity sphere” to its Asian neighbors, ostensibly promoting: -Economic parity between the West and East -Protection of Asian cultures from encroachment -Opportunity for east Asia to share Japanese ideals In our era, compare: “Make the world safe for democracy” to “Install universal Islam.” Proposed boundary between Japanese and Axis interests in World War II boundary of Japanese claims
Japanese promotion of the East-Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Source: https://www.google.com/search?q=images+for+greate r+east+asia+co.+prosperity+sphere&hl=en&rlz=1C1AR AB_enUS497US497&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&s a=X&ei=43hkUaCIOeWsiQLE3oCYCw&ved=0CC0QsAQ &biw=1280&bih=899
Ultimately, technology and resource control determined how western or “core” country culture standards have promoted globalization
According to the textbook (p ) “Perhaps one of the most widespread cultural counterforces to globalization has been the rise of Islamism, known incorrectly as Islamic fundamentalism.” “Whereas fundamentalism is a general term that describes the desire to return to strict adherence to the fundamentals of a religious system, Islamism is an anticolonial, anti-imperial and anti-core political movement. Islamists tend to resist western forces of globalization, modernization and secularization.” “Islamists may be the most militant among Muslims, but not all Muslims are Islamists. Islamism tries to create a model of society that protects the purity and centrality of Islamic precepts through the return to a universal Islamic state, unified in religion and politics. Islamists resist modernization as a corrupting influence of the core that elevates the rights of individuals over the common good. Jihad is a struggle against the enemies of Islam, sometimes rising to ‘holy war’, but often peaceful effort to convert non- believers.”
“Islamism should not be regarded as synonymous with the practices of Islam, any more generally than Christian fundamentalism is with Christianity. Islam is not monolithic, and specific practices vary widely, with some allowing integration with Western culture, while others strongly do not.” (p202) Note: Wikipedia and other sources also view Christian fundamentalism as having a militant tendency, and resistance to “modernity” or the erosion of traditional, or long-standing practices. In reference to “orthodoxy” – meaning conformance to belief, norm, attitude, practice. Who decides what is orthodox for the purpose of global relations?
“The economic success of the U.S. entertainment industry has also helped reinforce the idea of an emerging global culture based on Americanization.” (p 209) (However) - - “Neither the widespread consumption of U.S. (or Western) products nor the world-wide familiarity with brand names adds up to the emergence of a single global culture. Instead, the world is becoming familiar with a common set of products, symbols, myths, memories, events and cult figures.” (p 209)
Daily news: Japan has been in economic recession for more than a decade. Car sales are dipping to a new low for many reasons: 1. Aging population – less need for driving (commentator opined that Japanese population may actually be in decline). 2. End of subsidies for ‘green’ technology, so cost of commuting from countryside is high enough to encourage return to urban life. 3. Continuing dispersion (globalization) of auto production to lower-cost locations - migration of low-cost production from U.S. to Japan, to Taiwan, Korea, Indonesia-Malaysia Unresolved animosity between Japan and China over old hegemonism (!) and hence Chinese resistance to buying Japanese products. 5. Declining value of the Japanese Yen, making Japanese-made products less expensive, but not enough to turn the tide of dispersed manufacturing.
Commodity Concentration – key to export instability (p265 ) A key indicator of country economic stability is the degree to which exports are balanced or spread across product sectors. For instance, the United States exports: machines, electronics, vehicles, aircraft, medical, gems, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals (almost all high valued-added) U.S. food stuff exports add more than $50B additional export revenue. Software and intellectual property and information are not shown here, and to that must be included entertainment products. In contrast, African countries and other low-latitude regions tend to be the most “commodity-concentrated” or least stable or balanced, with exports being concentrated in a few sectors. Core countries tend to be the most balanced (the least concentrated in one area, and ostensibly the least likely to experience oscillation in demand & price)
Map of Commodity Concentration ? I could not find a good world map that illustrates commodity concentration. Can you?
Oddly, for the measure “debt as a percentage of exports” for most core countries and many LDCs showed “no data” (p265) Would debt as percent of exports be a valid criterion for “Index of Human Development”? IMF – International Monetary Fund. Is IMF activity genuine economic support of “phantom investment”? Cynically, the IMF has been alleged to mean “imposing misery and famine”. In any case, is philanthropy or aid an indicator of ‘human development’? If so, then northern Europe leads the way in percentage of GNI (normalized) while U.S. and Germany lead in absolute terms: U.S. at almost twice as much as 2 nd place Germany. (p267) Does economic aid come with unfair strings attached? Up to 90% of aid is “phantom” wherein it goes into the pockets of contractors from the lender countries. (p 267) April, 2013 news item*: Egypt – running out of money for food and fuel – needs cash – IMF wants energy reform – reduce subsidies for energy – affects poor the most – subsidies disturb the market. *(Sources: April, 2013 broadcasts by National Public Radio and BBC through KUER, KCPW and others)
Consider the reverse side of “commodity concentration.” Market and trade pressures can produce asymmetric policy distortions when any strategic raw material is concentrated in one country. -Superconductors -Microwave filters -Energy-efficient lamps -Camera lenses -Cat cracker catalyst -High-power magnets -Lasers & masers -Oxidizers -Ceramic capacitors -MRI contrast agent -Tracer elements -X-ray tubes -Welding goggles -Nuclear batteries -Reducing agents -PET scanners -Refractive glass -Military uses (!) -Lighter flints -High-strength steel Uses of “rare earth metals” Source:
NIMBY (p287) Should we close Kennecott, MagCorp and oil refineries? No new refineries in U.S. since 1970s? Magcorp Utah was the worst U.S. air polluter until bankruptcy and reinvestment in cleaner processes Titanium sponge process added in 2008
Social media I viewed suggested strongly polarized views on MagCorp: - close it down as an inefficient, subsidized, polluting industry in favor of Chinese lower cost (off-shore pollution) or - preserve and support the vitality of American self-sufficiency and employment in strategically vital extractive industries, especially those, like MagCorp, that are powered (in part) by renewable (solar) energy.
World food prices are set in stock markets (p297) Could WTC attacks relate to extremist resistance to external control? 2008 crisis caused by oil-based cost of fertilizers, drought, core-country bio-fuels, trend toward resource-intensive food by more prosperous people (beef, etc.), financial speculation (don’t use my food to build your retirement plan – investment returns are part of food cost) Rice prices rose more than 200% in , then eased during 2009 recession. Longer term, if the true cost of food production were added to prices, then acute stress from food prices would become chronic in many countries. What is “Fair Trade?” More or less, consumers voluntarily paying a more full or fair cost for products, based on fair wages and more environmental sensitivity in production processes.
Green Revolution Meteoric rise in agricultural production Human development leaped when agricultural surplus allowed people to: - specialize (by urbanizing) -invest in technology - rapidly advance in prosperity and opportunity The post-war “Green Revolution” is the most salient of many “leaps” in agricultural technology. In fact, has agriculture moved from a “primary” activity to a “secondary” or industrial activity?
A contrarian view is that agri-business puts small farms out of business, displaces women workers, introduces GMOs, reduces genetic variety, leads to massive population growth, presses hard on soil and water resources, requires massive fossil fuel inputs, distorts markets and promotes involuntary migration, displaces bio-mass fuels (no net CO 2 ), reduces self-sufficiency in favor of global markets and invites financial market manipulation (speculation).
Both points of view appear to be true.
Local Examples of “Industrial Agriculture” aka “factory farming” (Undeniably, ag operations on a vast scale are cost-competitive) In Oakley, Idaho, a family farming community has been largely “plowed under” in favor of large scale migrant-based factory farms. Meanwhile, in nearby Burley, Idaho, voters rejected a proposed hog farm operation that would have been similar to the Delta (Utah) area where from odors are detectable for 20 miles (Most U.S. food travels at least 1,500 miles, so why not the smell?) (page 284)
Blue Revolution On land, humans have become relatively stable experts. On water, humans are still ‘hunter-gatherers’. Fish farming is often maligned, but is still developing, with a goal to produce results in productivity similar to “green revolution” How do we manage world’s oceans, divided between so many nations? Who owns the ocean? Can side effects be managed? GMO technology is now moving into aquaculture Source: Summation from chapters 8 and 10.
Ag summation (lecture points) - human populations reap (no pun) tremendous economic benefits from industrial agriculture, yet we complain about the severe and unevenly distributed environmental and community (fracture) effects of global agribusiness. Meanwhile, it is not clear if “locovore” (local production and consumption) just means another form of urban sprawl, such as is seen in China, where thousands of square miles are occupied by endless series of fish ponds, apartment buildings, factories and truck gardens. Either way, it is impossible to deny the hugely uneven economic development effects of technology in agriculture and the heavy consumption of natural resources, most of which are not renewable in any near-term scale.
Fast Food (nation) McDonalds feeds 50 million people in U.S. (p325) Alleged to be energy-dense and nutrition-poor, the addictive French fry is the most commonly eaten vegetable in U.S.A. (starch and fat) Allred observation is that excessive packaging (foam, paper, plastic) is the real crime of fast food. Textbook says that U.S. fast food results in rain forest destruction Side note: same allegation about U.S. pet food – vast quantities of protein imported at expense of rain forest clearing – exposed soils degrade rapidly – similar to slash and burn T extbook argues that globalization (interdependency) reduces food “sovereignty” – an externality, or side effect of globalization. (p331) Jose Bove - France French Fry
Urban Food Production World urban population growth is twice the rate of rural growth. Yet up to 30% of US food grown in urban areas (p334) Agribusiness involves vertical vs horizontal integration (P328) -Vertical – control all the inputs (Simplot) -Horizontal – control the suppliers (own all the farms and retailers) Are capitalists more oriented to globalization while LDCs and China are more for “locovore”?
Grasslands - Breadbaskets Source: php.radford.edu Tropics and sub-tropics have poor farm soils. Severe climates have soil for humans. Mid-latitude, “severe” climates where grasslands (grain production) is high
U.S. “Breadbasket” -shifts westward with BuRec investment (1902) and may shift northward (?) with global warming For wheat, but applies to most U.S. most farm products Geog.nau.edu For water depletion, dry farming is an option for grains For fertilizer and energy, current trends suggest long- term decline in natural capability of farm soils US “breadbasket” strongly depletes groundwater and soil resources U.S. finance and engineering tech vastly expanded the natural ‘breadbasket’
Dry Farming Another example of western technology adapting to opportunities and constraints. Should Ogalalla water be preserved, instead of exporting grain? World trade is growing faster than world production of goods, the U.S. needs trade balance. Meanwhile, China now exports grain even though millions are calorie-deficit. Catalan - Spain Eastern Washington
General Reference – compare to “Bread Baskets”
General Reference – Most of land area is above the equator
G20 nations Source: Wikipedia (Google maps for world population) Islam BRIC – mid-latitude ? How does BRIC differ from Islam?
Source: wikipedia-desertification Muslim world is most vulnerable, but also Australia and western US
World Poverty – The Trouble with Thematic Maps (compare the U.S. portion of this map to the next slide) Colors are not very intuitive, shape distortions occur due to map projection, data is not normalized for cost of living. Poverty is clearly associated with lower latitudes. Missing data for some of the poorest. In-country distinctions are completely lost.
Poverty in the United States Remnants of tribal reservations? Is this map ‘normalized’? Source: Wikimedia Recreation-related up-scale enclaves? Migrant communities and unassimilated native or immigrant populations?
Mason-Dixon Line Symbolizes a cultural boundary – not the Missouri compromise line that marked the boundaries of “slave states”. Was it really about labor costs for cotton or a perception about northern political control?
World Religions Source: Chinese religions have been “pluralistic” for thousands of years: Buddhism & Taoism (30%, but perhaps are not religions, but philosophies); % of Chinese are avowedly atheist or agnostic. Not a really bad map, except perhaps for generalizing about China
Source: google.com/wp.patheos.com Religion in the United States Native American Tribal remnants Spanish influence French influence Scandinavia and/or Germany Colors keyed to counties wherein one religion reported adherents totaling at least half of county population Are colors intended to represent liberal/conservative? LDS
Northern Ireland There is no generally accepted term to describe what Northern Ireland is: province, region, country or something else. The choice of term can be controversial and can reveal the writer's political preferences. This has been noted as a problem by several writers on Northern Ireland, with no generally recommended solution. Owing in part to the way in which the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland came into being, there is no legally defined term to describe what Northern Ireland ' is '. There is also no uniform or guiding way to refer to Northern Ireland amongst the agencies of the UK government. Northern Ireland - a province, region, country or nation? The choice of terms is controversial. Nationalists see themselves as Irish and mostly Catholic; Unionists see themselves as British and mostly Protestant. Wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_Ireland
Index of Human DevelopmentEcological Commod DependCore LatitudeRaceReligionClimateLanguageFootprint Concent RatioCountry? SwitzerlandIceland60CaucasianChristianVigorousGermanicHighest United StatesNorway60CaucasianChristianVigorousGermanicHigh IcelandAustralia30CaucasianChristianVigorousGermanicHighest NorwayCanada60CaucasianChristianVigorousGermanicHigh Yes CanadaIreland50CaucasianChristianVigorousGermanicHigh JapanSweden60CaucasianChristianVigorousGermanicHigh NetherlandsSwitzerland50CaucasianChristianVigorousGermanicHigh DenmarkNetherlands50CaucasianChristianVigorousGermanicHigh SwedenJapan40AsianShintoVigorousJapaneseHigh Yes FranceFinland60CaucasianChristianVigorousUralicHigh BelgiumFrance40CaucasianChristianVigorousRomanceHigh AustraliaUnited States40CaucasianChristianVigorousGerm/RomHighest Yes life expectancy, education, personal income. ELSE? Assignments 3 & 4 Expand the definition of Index of Human development Populate a spreadsheet with relevant criteria and rankings Provide map images in a PowerPoint Options: Use a spreadsheet (or not), a PowerPoint (or not), omit any/all previous criteria, redefine the meaning of human development, present findings to class (or not), include maps or graphic images.
Possible topics to add to “Index of Human Development” -ecological footprint -human rights -rights of women relative to men -leisure time -tenure (ownership and stability) -military strength -social service expenditures -poverty ( moving target or absolutes?) -family stability (stable, nuclear) -internet usage -household dependency ratio -expenditures on health care? -commodity export dependency -religious freedom -freedom from religion (agency) -sustainability -economic independence vs interdependence (trade) - Economic sectors (primary, etc.) The textbook and/or any Web search will show hundreds of potentially useful categories that can help sort and rank countries in terms of how you choose to define an “Index of Human Development”