Presentation on theme: "Today’s Issues: South Asia South Asia faces the challenges of rapid population growth, destructive weather, and territorial disputes caused by religious."— Presentation transcript:
Today’s Issues: South Asia South Asia faces the challenges of rapid population growth, destructive weather, and territorial disputes caused by religious and ethnic differences. Rickshaw drivers in Calcutta, India, wait for customers during a monsoon. NEXT
SECTION 1 Population Explosion SECTION 2 Living with Extreme Weather Today’s Issues: South Asia Case Study Territorial Dispute Unit Atlas: PoliticalUnit Atlas: Physical NEXT
Section 1 Population Explosion Explosive population growth in South Asia has contributed to social and economic ills in the region. Education is key to controlling population growth and improving the quality of life in South Asia. NEXT
Growing Pains Rapid growth In 2000, India’s population reached 1 billion Rapid growth means many citizens lack life’s basic necessities -food, clothing, shelter South Asia must manage population growth so economies can develop SECTION 1 Continued... Population Explosion NEXT
SECTION 1 Population Grows India’s population was 300 million in 1947; has since tripled So large that even 2% growth rate produces population explosion Unless rate slows, India will have 1.5 billion by 2045 -would be the world’s most populous country (passing China) India, Pakistan, Bangladesh among top 10 most populous countries -region has 22% of world’s population, lives on 3% of world’s land continued Growing Pains Continued... NEXT Map
SECTION 1 Inadequate Resources Region has widespread poverty, illiteracy—inability to read or write -poor sanitation, health education lead to disease outbreaks Every year, to keep pace, India would have to: -build 127,000 new schools and 2.5 million new homes -create 4 million new jobs -produce 6 million more tons of food continued Growing Pains NEXT Chart
Managing Population Growth Smaller Families India spends nearly $1 billion a year encouraging smaller families Programs have only limited success -Indian women marry before age 18, start having babies early -to poor, children are source of money (begging, working fields) -children can later take care of elderly parents -have more kids to beat high infant mortality SECTION 1 Continued... NEXT
SECTION 1 Education is a Key Growth factors can be changed with education, but funds are limited -India spends under $6 per pupil a year on education -U.S. spends $6,320 per pupil a year Education could break cycle of poverty, raise living standards -improves females’ status with job opportunities -better health care education could lower infant mortality rates continued Managing Population Growth NEXT
Section 2 Living with Extreme Weather South Asia experiences a yearly cycle of floods, often followed by drought. The extreme weather in South Asia leads to serious physical, economic, and political consequences. NEXT
The Monsoon Seasons Summer and Winter Wind Systems Annual cycle of extreme weather makes life difficult Monsoon is wind system, not a rainstorm; two monsoon seasons Summer monsoon—blows moist from southwest, across Indian Ocean -blows June through September, causes rainstorms, flooding Winter monsoon—blows cool from northeast, across Himalayas, to sea -blows October through February, can cause drought Living with Extreme Weather SECTION 2 NEXT Interactive
Impact of the Monsoons Physical Impact Summer monsoons nourish rain forests, irrigate crops -floodwaters bring rich sediment to soil, but can also damage crops Cyclones are common with summer monsoons -called hurricanes in North America -cause flooding, widespread destruction -1970 Bangladesh cyclone killed 300,000 Winter monsoon droughts turn lush lands into arid wastelands SECTION 2 Continued... NEXT
SECTION 2 Economic Impact Floods, droughts make agriculture difficult -countries buy what they can’t grow; famine looms Weather catastrophes also destroy homes, families -people often too poor to rebuild, governments lack funds to help People build: houses on stilts, concrete cyclone shelters, dams Region gets international aid and billions of dollars in loans -aid can’t keep up with disasters, debts result continued Impact of the Monsoons NEXT Continued... Image
SECTION 2 Political Tensions Weather conditions also cause political disputes India builds Farakka dam across Ganges before it enters Bangladesh -India wants to bring water to city of Kolkata -dam leaves little water for Bangladesh -many of Bangladesh’s farmers lose land, illegally flee to India -dispute is settled in 1997 with a treaty specifying water rights continued Impact of the Monsoons NEXT
Case Study Territorial Dispute BACKGROUND Kashmir territory is strategically located at foot of Himalayas Territory of 12 million people surrounded by Pakistan, China, India India and Pakistan have fought three wars over Kashmir since 1947 Dispute threatens region’s stability, countries’ economic well-being Danger increases now that both countries have nuclear weapons How Can India and Pakistan Resolve Their Dispute Over Kashmir? NEXT Interactive
Case Study Partitioning British left India in 1947 and partitioned—divided— the subcontinent -created two independent countries -India is predominantly Hindu, Pakistan is mostly Muslim Britain lets each Indian state choose which country to join -Muslim states join Pakistan, Hindu states remain in India NEXT A Controversy Over Territory Continued...
Case Study Politics and Religion Kashmir’s problem: population is Muslim, but its leader was Hindu Maharajah of Kashmir wants an independent nation -but is forced to cede territory to India in 1947 Pakistan invades; a year later India still controls much of Kashmir India, Pakistan fight two more wars over Kashmir in 1965, 1971 -dispute remains unresolved; each country still controls part -China has had a small portion since 1962 NEXT continued A Controversy Over Territory Continued...
Case Study A Question of Economics Indus River flows through Kashmir -many of its tributaries originate in the territory Indus is critical source of drinking, irrigation water in Pakistan -Pakistan doesn’t want India to control that resource Kashmir is a strategic prize neither side will give up continued A Controversy Over Territory NEXT
Case Study Dangerous Testing India and Pakistan each test nuclear weapons in 1998 -raise fears that the 50-year-old dispute could go nuclear -after tests, both countries vow to seek political solution Border clashes continue -Pakistan supports Kashmir Muslims fighting Indian rule NEXT A Nuclear Nightmare Continued...
Case Study A Question of Priorities Both India and Pakistan have large populations, widespread poverty -both overspend on troops, arms, nuclear programs -that money could be used for education and social programs Resolving Kashmir problem would bring peace -the quality of people’s lives could start improving -resolution could reduce the region’s political tensions continued A Nuclear Nightmare NEXT
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