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APA Format Discussion Psychology 291 November 13, 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "APA Format Discussion Psychology 291 November 13, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 APA Format Discussion Psychology 291 November 13, 2012

2 APA Rules to Keep in Mind Past Tense First-level headings are centered and bold “Method”; “Results”, “Discussion” Remember to follow other APA rules (page layout, font, etc.), as well as consult the manual on-line

3 General Discussion Info In this section, the goal is to discuss and evaluate your results, and whether or not the results support your hypotheses. Relate your findings to literature from Intro. – You may not introduce new sources; use only sources from your Intro Start Specific and end General

4 Discussion must include: A clear statement of support or non-support for your original hypotheses – Note: You do not prove your hypotheses; you support or fail to support them Similarities and differences between your results and those of previous research – Relate to research from Introduction

5 Implications Implication (noun): the conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated Evaluate and interpret the implications of the results with respect to your hypotheses Include a discussion of the theoretical, clinical or practical implications of your results Implication. (2005). In Oxford Reference Online. Retrieved from

6 Limitations Limitation (noun): a limiting rule or circumstance; a restriction; a condition of limited ability; a defect or failing Highlight the shortcomings of your study Suggest explanations to account for hypotheses that were not supported – Methodological (examine methodology critically) – Conceptual Sources of error or bias that may have affected the results Limitation. (2005). In Oxford Reference Online. Retrieved from

7 Future Research Suggestions for future research should always be made Indicate future directions this research could take Indicate improvements to methodology that may benefit future attempts to replicate What problems remain unresolved or were raised as a result of your research?

8 If you have not had your article for Assignment 4 approved please bring up a PDF on your computer now. You may use the remaining time in this period to work on Assignment 4.Assignment 4

9 How to critically appraise an Article 1.Is the study question relevant? 2.Does the study add anything new? 3.What type of research question is being asked? 4.Was the study design appropriate for the research question? 5.Did the study methods address the most important potential source of bias? 6.Was the study performed according to the original protocol? 7.Does the study test a stated hypothesis? 8.Were the statistical analyses performed correctly? 9.Do the data justify the conclusions? 10.Are there any conflicts of interest? (Young & Solomon, 2009, pp.83)

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