I Preparation II Reading Activities III Further Development IV Translation & Writing
Part I Preparation 1. Group Discussion ---- Decision Making 2. What Would You Do ?
Activity 1 Group Discussion —Decision Making Directions: Life is full of decisions, ranging from minor decisions like “Shall I go to the movies tonight?” to more important ones like “What kind of job shall I take ?” Work in groups and list as many decisions as possible. Number them in order of importance. Then discuss with your partner the questions below. 1) What do you think is the most important decision in one’s life? Why? 2) What is the biggest decision you have ever made? Why did you make that decision?
Sample Answer 1)What do you think is the most important decision in one’s life? Why? Here is a list of decisions we may have to make in our lives. They are listed in order of importance. ---Choose a good wife/husband. ---Find a well-paid and suitable job. ---Choose a good university and an appropriate major. ---Choose what kind of people to make friends with. ---Choose what to eat on a day-to-day basis.
Sample Answer 2) What is the biggest decision you have ever made? Why did you make that decision? The biggest decision I have ever made is to have chosen to study at XXX University. The reason for the decision is that: I know XXX University is not very famous in China, but it is located in my hometown. My parents are farmers and are in poor health. So I can’t leave home for a distant place. Although my mother told me to choose the university I liked most, I chose this one because I wanted to save money and at the same time I could take care of my parents. Now I’m sure I made the right choice. The teachers here are nice and rich in knowledge and the classmates friendly and warm-hearted. I really enjoy my life at XXX University.
Part II Reading Activities 1. Pre-reading Questions 2. Text Organization 3. Sentence Study 4. Words & Phrases
Pre-reading Questions Discuss the following questions in pairs. How will you feel if your friend says “Take risks” instead of “Take care” to you when you’re leaving? Will you take it as a joke and smile it away? Or will the expression set you thinking there might be something in what he says?
At the beginning I would probably laugh it away. I might think my friend said this just for fun or he just wanted to sound humorous. But on a second thought, I could sense something meaningful in it. Normally, people say “Take care” when they leave one another. This is because people think it is very important to be safe and sound. But to “Take risks” is a new way of looking at things, which encourages people to be more risky and adventurous. It might be good in changing people’s long-held concept of playing safe and therefore bring them into a totally different world.
Text Organization “Take risks” may make people extremely successful. Most people confuse “risks” with “danger”. Risk is different from danger. Taking risks may bring people success, while danger should be avoided. Para. 1~2 Para. 3~9 Para. 10~13 Para. 14~16 People should separate risk from danger and take risks when there is no danger.
1. Or does the thought cross your mind that you might become physically injured or harmed? (Line 6) Sentence Study 【语法】 that you might become physically injured or harmed 是 thought 的同位语从句。 同位语从句是名词从句的一种。它往往放在名 词后面，对名词作进一步补充说明。 Scientists have reached the conclusion that the temperature on the earth is getting higher and higher. 【例句】
Sentence Study 2. I know a manager who used to be frightened by the thought of speaking in front of an audience. (Line 32) 【句型】 e.g. One of the things I used to dislike most about Mike was the way he eats food. 相关的词组还有： at the thought of … 一想到 ······ the very (mere) thought of … 只要一想起 ······ 就 ······
Sentence Study 3. Instead of thinking that it was only a risk, he created excessive anxiety as if it was dangerous. (Line 34) 【句型】 Teaching by discussion instead of by telling is welcomed by most students instead of… + 句子 【例句】 没有 ······/ 不是 ······ ，而是 ······
Sentence Study 4. Each time you do something new or different, you are faced with a risk. (Line 42) 【语法】 Each time I open the photo album, her beautiful figure appears in my eyes. each time 作连词，表示 “ 每当 ······ 的时候 ” 。 类似的词组还有： every time, when, the way, the manner, etc. 【例句】
Sentence Study 5. If you know that danger is likely, I suggest that you avoid the dangerous situation unless you know that you can manage the danger. (Line 46) 【语法】 一些表示命令、建议、要求等的词后如果带从句 时，从句往往需用虚拟语气。如： advise, order, demand, desire, insist, request, require, decide, recommend, etc. The examination instructions ask that the students (should) not use a red pen 【例句】
1. Words & Phrases inhibit (Line 3, Para. 1) vt. hold someone or something back 妨碍；抑制 【例句】 名词形式： inhibition Those corrupt officials in government should know how to inhibit their greedy desires.
Words & Phrases 2. deal with (Line 9, Para. 3) 【例句】 1.It seems that so far the Indian government does not want to take any action to deal with the problem of India’s fast-growing population. 1)take action about 处理；对付 2)be about; be concerned with 论述；涉及 2.The next chapter of the novel deals with the obstacles he encountered during his youth.
3. bother (Line 23, Para. 9) Words & Phrases 【例句】 1. Tell the children to stop bothering their father. vt. & vi. be or cause trouble to; worry 打扰，搅扰，烦扰 2. Don’t bother me with such foolish questions.
4. initiative (Line 24, Para. 9) Words & Phrases 【例句】 n. the ability to start things, especially without being told to do so 主动性，进取心 1.Unless using your initiative, I you will easily be defeated by any opponent in the match though you were once the world champion. vt. begin; set (a scheme, etc. ) working 开始；着手（计划等） 2. The National Basketball Association of America decided to initiate a new plan in Asia to further promote the popularity of basketball.
5. positive (Line 40, Para.13) Words & Phrases 【例句】 In order to realize a healthy development of Chinese football, we should bring all positive factors into play. adj. feeling hopeful or confident 自信的，积极的 反义词： negative 反面的，消极的
6. determine (Line 50, Para. 15) Words & Phrases 【例句】 vt. & vi. 1) learn, find out, exactly （本课指）确定 2) be the fact that decides （指事实）决定 1.You may determine the meaning of that word through the context. 3) (with on or upon) decide (sb.’s future); make up one’s mind to do sth.; settle （与 on 或 upon 连用） 决定（某人的）未来；下决心（做某事）；解决 2. His future has not yet been determined, but it is said that he may continue his study in West Point.
Group Work Part III Further Development ------To Go or Not to Go
To Go or Not to Go Directions: You have read the story “ The Two Brothers”. If you were in the same situation, what choice would you make? Would you choose to go into the forest as the younger brother did, or just prefer to lead a quiet life like the elder brother? Give your reasons. The following words and phrases will help you. Group Work
If I were in the same situation, I would make the same choice as the elder brother did. I think there might be too many uncertainties. Nobody can be sure whether it is worthwhile to take the risk. Just take the younger brother as an example. He went into the forest and ruled as a king for five years. But in the end, he was still as poor as before, not to mention the dangers he had encountered. Even though he had more memories, they were of no practical importance. What’s more, if the inscription on the stone had been written in jest, just as the elder brother had suspected, what could have happened? And I disagree with the younger brother’s argument that no harm would come to them if they tried. So I would rather choose not to go into the forest. If I were in the same situation, I would make the same choice as the elder brother did. I think there might be too many uncertainties. Nobody can be sure whether it is worthwhile to take the risk. Just take the younger brother as an example. He went into the forest and ruled as a king for five years. But in the end, he was still as poor as before, not to mention the dangers he had encountered. Even though he had more memories, they were of no practical importance. What’s more, if the inscription on the stone had been written in jest, just as the elder brother had suspected, what could have happened? And I disagree with the younger brother’s argument that no harm would come to them if they tried. So I would rather choose not to go into the forest. Sample Answer1
If I were one of the two brothers, I would go into the forest. I have good reasons for my decision. First, what’s written on the stone must be true, because it’s meaningless for the writer to be trying to cheat others. Second, we have to take risks to find happiness. Nothing can be realized without hard work. As the proverb goes, no pains no gains.There aren’t many chances awaiting us. If we don’t try, we may get nothing. We have heard: Time and tide wait for no man. In fact, the younger brother was rewarded for what he had done. It’s true that the younger brother was still poor in the end, but he could still have a chance ot find happiness. Since he’s more experienced now, he can do better later on. These are my reasons for the decision. Sample Answer 2
1. Translation Skills 2. Writing Practice Part IV Translation & Writing
1. 英译汉的增词 1.1 增加动词 比较英、汉两种语言可以发现：在英语中，名词使用频率高；而汉语 中则是动词用得多。因此，在英语没有动词出现的情况下，根据 意义需要，可以在名词前后增加原文中虽无其词而有其义的动词， 使译文更加忠实原文，语言也更为通顺，更符合中文表达习惯。 例如： 1) You will often remember the reason why you were asked to learn this poem or song. It may have been for a show to which families were invited. 你往往会记得当时要你学会这首诗或这首歌的理由。这也许是为了表 演节目，还邀请了家人观看。 2) Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. 读书足以怡情、足以博采、足以才长。 Translation Skills
1.2 增加名词 英语中的不及物动词后面不跟宾语。在翻译中遇到这种情况时，汉语 译文常常需要填补宾语。例如： 1) I haven't enough time to read. 我没有足够的时间读书。 2) Every day you can see her doing housework--cooking, sweeping, and cleaning. 每天你都可以看见她做家务 —— 做饭、扫地、收拾房间。 Translation Skills
2. 汉译英的增词 2.1 增加代词或名词 汉语里无主语或没有宾语的句子很多，英语则不同。在汉译英时，常 须将隐含的主语与宾语补上，以符合英语语法习惯。例如： 1) 非常盼望收到你的回信。 I'm looking forward to your reply. 2) 这位医生致力于寻求癌症的治疗方法。 The doctor devoted herself to finding a cure for cancer. Translation Skills
汉语中物主代词使用不如英语多，翻译时需增添相关代词，例如： 1) 当然，在第一次演讲前他并不知道会有怎样的结果。 Of course, he did not know what the outcome would be before his first speech. 2) 他致富后就忘了老朋友了。 He forgot his old friends when he became rich. 3) 她冒着生命危险去抢救那个溺水儿童。 She risked her life trying to save the drowning child. 4) 她不小心让裙子夹在门缝里给撕破了。 She accidentally shut her skirt in the door and tore it. Translation Skills
Directions: Directions: Read the above words from Wu You again. Then write a composition entitled "Who Should Pay the Bill" to express your point of view. You should write at least 120 words to make your idea clear. Writing Practice
In my opinion, Wu You was right not to pay the bill. In the first place, he didn't invite Zhang Fang to dinner. If he had paid the bill for Zhang Fang, should he pay the bill for any other classmate showing up without being invited? In the second place, Zhang Fang is not on good terms with Wu You. If he had been one of Wu You's good friends and Wu You had just forgotten to invite him, then his arrival would be welcome. And Wu You should pay for his meal. In the third place, if Ding Yi had invited Zhang Fang to dinner, Ding Yi should pay for his friend. In a word, it's a matter of principle and I think Wu You's practice is quite acceptable. If I were Wu You, I would not have paid the bill, either. Sample writing