Presentation on theme: "Despite significant continuities in social structures and in methods of production, there were also some important changes in labor management and in the."— Presentation transcript:
Despite significant continuities in social structures and in methods of production, there were also some important changes in labor management and in the effect of religious conversion on gender relations and family life.
Labor Organizations Free Peasant Agriculture- One characteristic of undeveloped peasant agriculture is its self-sufficiency. Farm families in those circumstances consume a substantial part of what they produce. While some of their output may be sold in the market, their total production is generally not much larger than what is needed for the maintenance of the family and the empire- Byzantine Empire, Feudal Japan, China Nomadic Pastoralism- Nomadic pastoralism is a form of pastoralism where livestock are herded in order to find fresh pastures on which to graze- Mongols
More Labor Organizations Craft and Guild Organizations- By the 13th century a practice had emerged in western Europe in the form of craft guilds. Guild members supervised the product quality, methods of production, and work conditions for each occupational group in a town. The guilds were controlled by the master craftsmen, and the recruit entered the guild after completing his training as an apprentice—a period that commonly lasted seven years. Coerced and unfree labor- Slave labor, Aztec conquered societies
Labor Organizations Cont. Military Obligations- Mita System, Inca Government imposed labor tax- Rome, pay taxes through labor for the government. Corvee’ system
Social Structure Shaped by class and caste hierarchies Patriarchy still persisted Some areas gave more power and rights to women Mongols- Women could rule in place of the Khan, until a Khan was put in place Japan- It was a woman's duty to serve three masters: her father, her husband and her son, and home life was the focus of her career. Southeast Asia-Women - Marriages were arranged within their social classes. Upper class women could own property, move about in public and remarry. Women could inherit property in the absence of male heirs.
Peasant Revolts China Byzantine Empire Rebellion by northern tribes dissatisfied with Mongol rule, followed by famine and floods in the south, prompted the messianic Red Turban Society to launch a rebellion, which helped pave the way for the fall of the Yuan in 1368 Peasants revolt after higher taxes and more grain production was demanded by the nobles.
Diffusion of Religion Led to significant changes in gender relations and family structure. Buddhism-Buddhism is not a family-centered religion. Within Asian Buddhist cultures, this typically translates into a traditional, patriarchal family structure with clearly defined familial roles
Christianity Gender Roles Women were seen as subservient to men, however, men (according to the Bible) were not to force women into submission. The submission was seen as a way to get closer to God and men should treat women with respect in order to be closer to God themselves.
Islam Gender Roles The Quran explicitly states that men and women are equal in the eyes of God. Furthermore, the Quran: instructs Muslims to educate daughters as well as sons insists that women have the right to refuse a prospective husband gives women rights if they are divorced by their husband gives women the right to divorce in certain cases gives women the right to own and inherit property
Neo-Confucianism Gender Roles Within the society of classic Confucian values women were treated as lesser beings, completely inferior to their male counterparts Just as in classic Confucianism filial piety was at the forefront of the moral codes of Neo-Confucianism. Within the codes for filial piety a woman's role was clearly subservient to men. Foot-binding, prepare ancestor worship for men, did allow for women to learn knowledge on how to please men and to some extent themselves.