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Weed Management in Pastures - 2007 Dr. Tim Murphy, Extension Weed Specialist The University of Georgia used with permission Georgia Agricultural Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Weed Management in Pastures - 2007 Dr. Tim Murphy, Extension Weed Specialist The University of Georgia used with permission Georgia Agricultural Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Weed Management in Pastures Dr. Tim Murphy, Extension Weed Specialist The University of Georgia used with permission Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office June 2007

2 Pasture Weed Issues  Lack of management - fertility, lime, mowing, overgrazing  Only 15% of Georgia pastures are sprayed on annual basis  Grazing restrictions  Legume tolerance

3 Do I spray or fertilize first?  Spray first  Control existing weeds  Begin soil-test based lime and fertilizer program  Establish legumes after good weed control has been practiced for 1 to 2 years

4 Forage Response to Weed Control and Fertilizer (TAMU; Wet Year) Bade, TAES

5 Fertility Examples for the Southeast  Broomsedge General indicator of low pH (<5.4), low P and low K Affected by grazing  Sericea lespedeza Extremely tolerant of low pH, P and K  Bahiagrass and Common Bermudagrass More tolerant of low K than hybrid bermudagrass Also more tolerant of close grazing

6 Effect of Grazing on Weed Control  Grazing is SELECTIVE defoliation  Unlike mowing this may allow greater pressure to be placed on a single forage species Shift competitive advantage toward favorable species  Can alter selectivity with animal species, stocking rate and timing

7 Vegetation Preferences S. Forages 3 rd Ed.

8 Overgrazing  Overgrazing decreases root CHO of forage species, compacts soil, injures crowns, and decreases rooting depth.  “Releases” unpalatable species like horsenettle  Ideally want to maintain a minimum forage height Leaf area maintained - photosynthesis Improves vigor and competitive advantage for desired species Shades weed seedlings  2-3” for bermudagrass in summer months  3-4” for tall fescue  Heavily grazed hybrid bermudagrass can encourage common and bahiagrass encroachment

9 Under grazing can also be a factor  Weeds can outgrow and shade forage species

10 Do we really want to eliminate all weeds from pastures?

11

12 Positive Attributes of “Weeds” in Pastures  Can dilute toxins in tall fescue during critical times Chickweed, crabgrass, dallisgrass, lespedeza  Can extend grazing season and improve productivity Crabgrass in tall fescue  Can improve quality Crabgrass Chickweed, curly dock, shepherds purse and tall fescue mixture. Eatonton GA

13 DOES MOWING HELP?

14 Mowing  Less effective than grazing Largely cosmetic Keeps forage in vegetative/competitive stage  Possible to decrease some annual weeds IF mowed before viable seed formation  Some perennials are not affected by mowing Horsenettle  Timing is important Dogfennel, thistle?

15 When do you spray?  Winter annuals - henbit, chickweed, buttercups, thistles November through March  Summer annuals - spiny amaranth, bitter sneezeweed April through mid-July  Perennials growth stage dependent

16 Herbicide Options  2,4-D  dicamba (Vanquish, Banvel)  2,4-D + dicamba (WeedMaster, others)  dicamba+ diflufenzopyr (Overdrive)  triclopyr (Remedy)  2,4-D + triclopyr (CrossBow)  triclopyr + clopyralid (Redeem)  2,4-D + picloram (Grazon P+D, GunSlinger)  fluroxypyr + picloram (Surmount)  fluroxypyr + triclopyr (PastureGard)

17 Herbicide Options (cont.)  aminopyralid (Milestone)  aminopyralid + 2,4-D (ForeFront)  diuron (Direx, Diuron)  metsulfuron (Cimarron)  metsulfuron + chlorsulfuron (Cimarron Plus)  metsulfuron + 2,4-D + dicamba (Cimarron MAX)  hexazinone (Velpar)  sulfosulfuron (Maverick) – Section  tebuthiuron (Spike)  paraquat (Gramoxone Extra)  glyphosate (Roundup UltraMax)  imazapic (Plateau) (no longer an option)

18 Remedy  4.0 lbs./gal. triclopyr ester  low volatility  Excellent on upright blackberry, numerous broadleaf weeds  Good on tropical soda apple  Fair on horsenettle  Poor on pokeweed, honeysuckle, trumpetcreeper

19 Remedy  Mixes with diesel, basal oils  Remedy 20% + 80% diesel, excellent as basal application for trees < 4 inch DBH, and spot control of pricklypear cactus and palmetto  Injurious to clovers  Apply to seedling grasses 5 to 6 inches tall or after tiller development

20 Remedy  Grazing and haying restrictions  Beef grazing - 0 dDairy grazing - 14 d Hay - 7 d (all livestock types, except lactating dairy cattle, next growing season) Slaughter - 3 d

21 Basal Stem Spray 1.Stems should be less than 4 inches in diameter. 2.More effective on trees with smooth bark. 3.Can be done anytime. Easiest to do during the dormant season. Mix: 80% diesel fuel or vegetable oil + 20% Remedy by volume.

22 Basal Sprays

23 Stump Treatment Treat as soon as possible after cutting. Treat as soon as possible after cutting. 80% diesel fuel + 20% Remedy 80% diesel fuel + 20% Remedy Remedy RTU is convenient, no mixing, low odor Remedy RTU is convenient, no mixing, low odor

24 Stump Treatment Big stump, treat perimeter Little stump, treat all

25 Cimarron  60DF metsulfuron  DuPont is phasing out Ally brand name for pastures  Effective for ‘Pensacola’ bahiagrass, spiny amaranth, curly dock, buttercup, wild garlic control, blackberry  Poor horsenettle control  Injurious to legumes & ryegrass (4 mo plant back)

26 Cimarron  0.1 to 0.3 oz. product per acre  Use low rates on tall fescue and timothy  Do not mix with liquid fert. for bahiagrass control  0 d grazing or haying restriction - all livestock

27 Cimarron Plus  Two-way product  48% metsulfuron + 15% chlorsulfuron (63DF)  Effective for ‘Pensacola’ bahiagrass, spiny amaranth, curly dock, buttercup, wild garlic control, blackberry, dewberry, honeysuckle  Poor horsenettle control  Injurious to legumes & ryegrass (4 mo plant back)

28 Cimarron Plus  to 1.25 oz. product per acre  Use < 0.5 oz. product/acre on fescue  Do not mix with liquid fert. for bahiagrass control  0 d grazing or haying restriction - all livestock

29 Cimarron MAX  Co-Pack product  Metsulfuron 60DF + 2,4-D amine (2.87 lbs./gal.) + dicamba (1.0 lb./gal.)  Increases number of broadleaf weeds controlled  Use rates 0.25 oz./acre of Cimarron plus 1.0 to 2.0 pts./acre of 2,4-D + dicamba  Add nonionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v

30 Cimarron MAX  Grazing Restrictions Lactating dairy animals – 7 days Other livestock species – 0 days  Haying Restrictions All livestock – 37 days

31 Grazon P+D, GunSlinger  2.0 lbs./gal. 2,4-D amine lbs./gal. picloram amine  Excellent control of broadleaf weeds  Excellent on horsenettle and tropical soda apple  For horsenettle, use 3 pts./acre at early bloom.  About 30 d residual control  Fair control of blackberry

32 Grazon P+D, GunSlinger  Injurious to clovers  Apply to seedling grasses or overseeded small grains at tiller growth stage, 1.5 pts./acre or less  Newly-sprigged bermuda – 1.5 pts./acre, delay until stolons are 6 inches long  Beef grazing - 0 dDairy grazing - 7 d Hay - 30 d (all livestock types) Slaughter - 3 d

33 Reseeding Restrictions – Grazon P+D  Cool-season grasses - 21 days  Clover - 2 pts./acre or less Fall-seeding permitted if Grazon P+D applied no later than June (4 month plant back)  Clover – 2 to 3 pts./acre Spring (Feb. – Mar.) seeding permitted the following spring for applications made no later than Sept. 15 the previous year.

34 Grazon P+D & GunSlinger - Good - BUT!!!!!  Do not use hay from treated areas for compost or mulch transfer livestock to untreated areas without 7 d cleanout use manure for fertilizing broadleaf crops use in any temporary forage system involving broadleaf crops  USE ONLY ON PERMANENT GRASS FORAGE SYSTEMS

35 Plateau  BASF will no longer market to private landowners  grass roadsides, wildflowers, noncropland sites  WHY??? Economics Low sales,objections to injury Can make more money in other markets

36 Newly-sprigged Bermuda  Direx 4L, Diuron 4L  Karmex is not labeled for this use  Plant sprigs 2 inches deep  Apply immediately after sprigging  Use 3.0 to 4.0 pts./acre  Not labeled in established bermudagrass  Annual grasses and broadleaf weeds  70 day grazing restriction

37 Overdrive - BASF  Dicamba + diflufenzopyr  Controls broadleaf weeds  0 day grazing or haying restriction  Limited data base  Primarily will be marketed for rights-of-way use

38 Newest Herbicides  PastureGard - fluroxypyr + triclopyr (Remedy) controls annual, perennial, & woody species; enhanced control of blackberry  Surmount – fluroxypyr + picloram controls annual, perennial, & woody species  Milestone – aminopyralid  ForeFront – aminopyralid + 2,4-D  Maverick - sulfosulfuron

39 PastureGard  1.5 lbs./gal. triclopyr ester lbs./gal. fluroxypyr ester  Controls numerous brush species and broadleaf weeds. Upright blackberry, sweet gums, Sericea lespedeza, dogfennel, gallberry, rose species, lantana Palmetto and yucca – use 2.0% v/v solution in water Fair control of horsenettle and tropical soda apple Also has activity on maypop passionflower

40 PastureGard  Mixes with diesel and other oil carriers  PastureGard 50% + 50% diesel, excellent as basal application for trees < 4 inch DBH  Injurious to clovers  Apply to seedling grasses after tiller development

41 PastureGard  Beef and other livestock grazing - 0 d  Dairy grazing – not permitted during the growing season of application  Hay – 14 d (all livestock types)

42 Reseeding Restrictions – PastureGard  Cool-season grasses and small grains - 21 days  Clover and other legumes – 30 days  Other crops – 120 days  Labeled for use on permanent grass forage systems This includes permanent pastures that are overseeded with winter forages.

43 Surmount  1.19 lbs./gal. picloram amine lbs. gal. fluroxypyr amine  Controls broadleaf weeds, horsenettle, tropical soda apple, and pricklypear cactus.  Apply 3 to 4.0 pts./acre for prickly pear cactus in fall months, control is very slow, about 2 yrs.  About 30 d residual control  Excellent control of upright-growing blackberry (3 to 4 pts./acre)

44 Surmount  Injurious to clovers  Apply to seedling grasses or overseeded small grains at tiller growth stage  Newly-sprigged bermuda –delay until stolons are 6 inches long  Beef grazing - 0 d; slaughter 3 d  Lactating Dairy Animals – grazing 14 d; silage 14 d.  Hay – 7 d (all livestock types)

45 Reseeding Restrictions – Surmount  Cool-season grasses - 21 days  Clovers – 12 months  Other legumes – 12 months

46 Surmount- It’s Good - BUT!!!!!  Do not use hay from treated areas for compost or mulch transfer livestock to untreated areas without 7 d cleanout use manure for fertilizing broadleaf crops use in any temporary forage system involving broadleaf crops  USE ONLY ON PERMANENT GRASS FORAGE SYSTEMS

47 Milestone  2.0 lbs./gal. aminopyralid  Use rate: 4.0 to 7.0 fl. ozs./acre  Numerous broadleaf weeds – thistles, horsenettle, buttercup  Do not seed legumes year of application (additional research being conducted)  Delay application until grasses have 4 to 5 leaves.

48 Milestone  Non-volatile  Injurious to legumes  No grazing or hay restriction for any type of livestock  Weak on sida species, dogfennel, plantains, blackberry, wild radish, other mustards.  Add 2,4-D or Remedy for weeds above.

49 ForeFront  0.33 lbs./gal. aminopyralid lbs./gal 2,4-D  Use rate: 1.5 to 2.6 pts./acre  Numerous broadleaf weeds – thistles, horsenettle, buttercup, henbit, plantains, verbena  Do not seed legumes year of application (additional research being conducted)  Delay application until grasses have 4 to 5 leaves.

50 ForeFront  Injurious to legumes  No grazing restriction for any type of livestock.  7 day hay harvest restriction  Better control of plantains and common pokeweed than Milestone

51 Comparison of Grazon P+D, Surmount, PastureGard, Milestone and Forefront HerbicideActive Ingredient Grazon P+D, GunSlinger2,4-Dpicloram Surmountfluroxypyrpicloram PastureGardfluroxypyrtriclopyr Milestoneaminopyralid Forefrontaminopyralid2,4-D

52 Comparison of Grazon P+D, Surmount and PastureGard, Milestone and ForeFront Weed Grazon P+D SurmountPastureGardMilestone Fore- Front ButtercupEGFG-EE BlackberryP-FEEPP DogfennelG-EEEFF-G HorsenettleGG-EFEE HorseweedEEGEE PricklypearF-GEFPP

53 Maverick - Monsanto  Sulfosulfuron, 75WDG  Section 18 in GA, AL, MS, AR, OK, LA APPROVED FOR 2007  Controls johnsongrass and sedges in bermudagrass and bahiagrass  Use rate – 1.33 ozs./acre  Add a nonionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v.

54 Maverick - Monsanto  Johnsongrass 18 to 24 inches tall, up to seedhead stage of growth  Nutsedges – 4 to 8 inches tall  Does not control annual grasses, vaseygrass, dallisgrass, smutgrass, etc.  Tank-mix with other herbicides for broadleaf weed control

55 Maverick - Monsanto  Grazing and haying restriction 14 days – all livestock types  Treated fields may be rotated only to wheat.  Injurious to clovers.

56 Winter Forages  Annual ryegrass  Wheat  Oats  Rye

57 When do you spray?  Winter annuals - henbit, chickweed, buttercups, thistles, wild radish (turnips) November through March  Grass and Small Grain Forages Delay application until the 4 to 5 leaf growth stage

58 Tolerance of 2- to 4-Leaf Wheat to Herbicides  2,4-D (1 and 2 pt. rates)  Weedmaster (1, 2 and 4 pt. rates)  Grazon P+D (1, 2 and 4 pt. rates)  Sprayed in mid-December  2- to 4-leaf wheat

59 Effect of herbicides on seedling wheat injury

60 Herbicide Options for Winter Grass Forages  2,4-D  dicamba (Vanquish, Banvel)  2,4-D + dicamba (WeedMaster)  triclopyr (Remedy)  2,4-D + picloram (Grazon P+D, GunSlinger)  fluroxypyr + picloram (Surmount)  fluroxypyr + triclopyr (Pasturegard)  aminopyralid (Milestone)

61 2,4-D  Amines and esters  Delay application until grasses have 4 to 5 leaves For grain production delay appl. until fully tillered  Use up to 2.0 pts./acre, except on oats use 1.0 pt./acre  Weak on chickweed and henbit  Good on buttercup, wild radish and other mustards

62 2,4-D  Grazing and haying restrictions varies by product  Weedar 64 Beef cattle – 0 days Lactating dairy animals – 7 days Hay – all types – 30 days

63 WeedMaster  2.87 lbs. 2,4-D lb. dicamba per gallon  Delay application until grasses have 4 to 5 leaves  Use up to 2.0 pts./acre, except on oats use 1.0 pt./acre  Better than 2,4-D on chickweed and henbit  Grazing restrictions: only lactating dairy cows – 7 days  Hay/silage: 37 days, all livestock types

64 Summary - Forage Weed Control  Know cropping system  Use approved cultural practices  Identify weeds  Select product  Follow grazing and haying restrictions  Proper application timing

65 Summary  Poor fertility and overgrazing are huge contributors to weed problems Long term solutions will have to address these issues  Improving fertility and grazing management of mediocre stands may revive them Process likely slow vs herbicides  Mowing can help


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