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© 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Addison Wesley is an imprint of Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction Fifth Edition Ben Shneiderman & Catherine Plaisant in collaboration with Maxine S. Cohen and Steven M. Jacobs CHAPTER 5: Direct Manipulation and Virtual Environments
1-2 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Introduction Good interfaces => Satisfied user –Competence in performing tasks –Ease in learning the system –Confidence in retaining mastery over time –Enjoyment in using the system Direct-manipulation interfaces => Good interfaces –Visible objects –Rapid, reversible, incremental actions –Pointing actions 6-2
1-3 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Introduction Newer concepts extend direct manipulation Include –Collaborative interfaces –Touchable interfaces –Virtual reality –Augmented reality –Teleoperation 6-3
1-4 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Overview Reviews important historical examples Explores principles of direct manipulation Provides psychological jsutifications Raises concerns Newer concerns –3D –Teleoperation –Virtual and augmented reality 6-4
1-5 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Examples of Direct-Manipulation Systems Applications Office Automation Spatial Data Management System Video Games Computer Aided Design 6-5
1-6 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Direct-Manipulation Systems Command line vs. display editors Line editors (vi) are generally more flexible and powerful Training times with display editors are much less WYSIWYG display editors (WORD PROCESSORS): –Display a full page of text –Display document in the form it will appear when printed –Show and control cursor motion through physically obvious and intuitively natural means –Use of labeled icon for actions –Display results of an action immediately –Provide rapid response and display –Offer easily reversible actions 6-6
1-7 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Direct-Manipulation Systems: WYSIWYG word processing 6-7
1-8 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Direct-Manipulation Systems Technologies influenced by concepts learned about the UI in the word processor: Integrated graphics, animations, etc. Spreadsheets Desktop publication software Presentation software Hypermedia environments (eg WWW) Improved macro facilities Spell checker and thesaurus Grammar checkers 6-8
1-9 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Direct-Manipulation Systems VisiCalc spreadsheet (1979) and its descendants VisiCalc - propagates changes across the worksheet Successful spatial data-management systems depend on choosing appropriate: –Icons –Graphical representations –Natural and comprehensible data layouts Competitors –Lotus (1980s) –Quattro Pro –Excel (current leader) 6-9
1-10 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Direct-Manipulation Systems : spreadsheet 6-10
1-11 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Direct-Manipulation Systems : Office Automation Xerox Star (1982) –Text formatting, graphics, fonts, cursor-based UI Apple Lisa –Not commercial success; laid groundwork for.. Apple MacIntosh –Simplified decisions –Pull-down menus, window manipulation, editing graphics and text, dragging of icons Microsoft Window now dominates –Improved window management, adaptable UI 6-11
1-12 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Direct-Manipulation Systems : spatial data management 6-12 Xeroc PARC’s Information Visualizer ArcGIS Google Maps Google Earth
1-13 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Direct-Manipulation Systems : Video Games Most exciting, well-engineered, and commercially successful example of direct-manipulation systems Video Games Pong first video game Nintendo Wii, Sony PlayStation, and Microsoft Xbox continue to evolve –3D, stereo sound, multiplayer, wireless controllers –Commands are physical actions whose results are immediately shown on screen –No syntax to remember no syntax error messages –Games continuously display a score feedback encourages mastery Game Examples: –SimCity – good example of direct manipulation / urban planning –Second Life – social virtual world –Spore – evolving creatures –Myst – puzzle; well received –DOOM and Quake controversial –World of Warcraft – massive multiplayer game 6-13
1-14 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Direct-Manipulation Systems Guitar Hero video game 6-14
1-15 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Direct-Manipulation Systems : Computer-aided design Computer-aided design (CAD) use direct manipulation –Engineering, Architecture, Automobile Parts Designers –Examples: AutoCAD, Autodesk Inventor Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) –Honeywells’ Experion Process Knowledge System –plant operations/process control Manipulate the object of interest Generate alternatives easily Explain the impact Problem solving by analogy to the real-world 6-15
1-16 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Continuing evolution of Direct- Manipulation Systems Personal finance / checkbook maintenance Travel Home automation Dashboards – manage information Ubiquitous computing Immersive Environments Augment Reality Ambient Devices Touchable Devices 6-16
1-17 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Continuing evolution of Direct- Manipulation Systems Direct-Manipulation interfaces are being used in a wide range of applications, e.g. management dashboard for a retail store 6-17
1-18 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Continuing evolution of Direct- Manipulation Systems 6-18
1-19 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Direct Manipulation Problems Spatial or visual representations can be too spread out High-level flowcharts and database-schema can become confusing Designs may force valuable information off of the screen Users must learn the graphical representations The visual representation may be misleading Typing commands with the keyboard may be faster 6-19
1-20 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Principles of Direct Manipulation 1.Continuous representations of objects and actions of interest with meaningful visual metaphors. –Novices learn, masters quick, intermittent users retain, can see actions further goals 2.Physical actions or presses of labeled buttons, instead of complex syntax. –Easy to learn, fewer errors, users feel in control 3.Rapid, incremental, reversible actions whose effects on the objects are visible immediately. 6-20
1-21 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Visual Thinking and Icons Attracts right-brained thinkers and challenges left- brained thinkers I in WIMP is icon - an image, picture, or symbol representing a concept Icon-specific guidelines –Represent the object or action in a familiar manner –Limit the number of different icons –Make icons stand out from the background –Consider three-dimensional icons –Ensure a selected icon is more visible –Design the movement animation, e.g. dragging –Add detailed information (color for age of file) –Explore combinations of icons to create new objects or actions 6-21
1-22 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 3D Interfaces “Pure” 3D interfaces have strong utility in some context, –e.g., medical, product design, scientific visualization Other situations, more constrained 2D interfaces may be preferable to simplify interactions –e.g. 3D bar charts, air-traffic control, digital libraries “Enhanced” interfaces, better than reality, can help reduce the limitations of the real-world, –e.g., providing simultaneous views, flying, x-ray vision Games are good example –Avatars in multiplayer 3-D worlds –First person games 6-22
1-23 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 3D Interfaces 6-23
1-24 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 3D Interfaces Features for effective 3D: –Use occlusion, shadows, perspective, etc. carefully. –Minimize number of navigation steps for users to accomplish their tasks. –Keep text readable. –Avoid unnecessary visual clutter, distraction, contrast shifts, and reflections. –Simplify user movement. –Prevent errors. –Simplify object movement –Organize groups of items in aligned structures to allow rapid visual search. –Enable users to construct visual groups to support spatial recall. 6-24
1-25 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 3D Interfaces Guidelines for inclusion of enhanced 3D features: –Provide overviews so users can see the big picture –Allow teleoperation (more later) –Offer X-ray vision so users can see into or beyond objects. –Provide history keeping (for undo, redo) –Permit rich user actions on objects –Enable remote collaboration –Give users control over explanatory text and let users select for details on demand. –Offer tools to select, mark, and measure. 6-25
1-26 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 3D Interfaces Guidelines for inclusion of enhanced 3D features : –Implement dynamic queries to rapidly filter out unneeded items. –Support semantic zooming and movement –Enable landmarks to show themselves even at a distance –Allow multiple coordinated views –Develop novel 3D icons to represent concepts that are more recognizable and memorable. 6-26
1-27 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Teleoperation Derives from two concepts: –direct manipulation in personal computers –process control in complex environments Physical operation is remote controlled –Surgery, power plants, chemical plants, military ops, computer- supported collaborative work Complicating factors in the architecture of remote environments: –Time delays transmission delays operation delays –Incomplete feedback –Feedback from multiple sources –Unanticipated interferences 6-27
1-28 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Virtual and Augmented Reality Virtual reality can break physical laws and allow users to act as though they were somewhere else Situational awareness shows information about the real world that surrounds you by tracking your movements in a computer model Augmented reality is an important variant –Enables users to see the real world with an overlay of additional interaction. 6-28
1-29 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Virtual and Augmented Reality Successful virtual environments depend on the smooth integration of: –Visual Display –Head position sensing –Hand-position sensing –Force feedback –Sound input and output –Other sensations –Cooperative and competitive virtual reality 6-29
1-30 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Impact of this technology in our everyday lives 6-30
1-31 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Summary Most appealing systems –Enjoyable UI –Customizable –Natural representations of objects and actions –Easy to learn, use, and retain –Actions are rapid, reversible and incremental –Performed with movements and not syntax 6-31
1-32 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Summary Having direct-manipulation interface does not ensure success –Bad design –Slow implementation –Inadequate functionality –May not be appropriate Use iterative design process (ch 3) and test advanced direct-manipulation systems 6-32
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